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2 9 J'j. 

BULLETIN OF \fc 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY) 



ENTOMOLOGY 

VOL. XVII 

1965 — 1966 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
LONDON: 1966 



DATES OF PUBLICATION OF THE PARTS 



No. i 
No. 2 
No. 3 
No. 4 
No. 5 
No. 6 
No. 7 
No. 8 
No. 9 
No. io 



. 26 July 1965 
23 September 1965 
23 September 1965 
21 September 1965 
29 October 1965 
30 November 1965 

3 January 1966 

3 January 1966 

4 January 1966 
15 March 1966 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 
BY ADLARD AND SON LIMITED 
BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



CONTENTS 

ENTOMOLOGY VOLUME XVII 

PAGE 

No. i. Delphacidae from Australia and New Zealand (Homoptera : Fulgo- 

roidea). By R. G. Fennah i 

No. 2. Diptera from Nepal. Empididae. By Kenneth G. V. Smith 6i 

No. 3. An introduction to the Aleyrodidae of Western Africa (Homoptera). 

By L. A. Mound 113 

No. 4. Cicadelline types in the British Museum (Natural History) (Homop- 
tera : Cicadellidae) . By D. A. Young 161 

No. 5. Diptera from Nepal. 

Asiatic species of the genus Stenomicra (Anthomyzidae) . By C. W. 
Sabrosky 203 

Psychodidae. By F. Vaillant 219 

Celyphidae. By P. Vanschuytbroeck 227 

No. 6. Fulgoroidea from Southern Chile (Hemiptera). By R. G. Fennah 231 

No. 7. The Embioptera of Europe and the Mediterranean Region. By E. S. 

Ross 273 

No. 8. Contributions towards a revision of Myrsidea Waterston. 1 (Meno- 

ponidae : Mallophaga). By T. Clay 327 

No. 9. A revision of the British Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera : Homoptera). 

By L. A. Mound 397 

No. 10. Diptera from Nepal. 

Conopidae from Nepal and the Oriental region. By S. Camras 431 

Heleomyzidae. By J. C. Deeming 435 

Pipunculidae (Dorilaidae) . By D. Elmo Hardy 439 

A new species of Platypeza and Callomyia (Platypezidae). By E. L. 
Kessel 453 

Sarcophagidae. By B. B. Rohdendorf 457 

Index to Volume XVII 465 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA 

AND NEW ZEALAND 

(HOMOPTERA : FULGOROIDEA) 




R. G. FENNAH 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 1 

LONDON: 1965 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA 

AND NEW ZEALAND 

(HOMOPTERA : FULGOROIDEA) 



BY 

R. G. FENNA 



Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London 




Pp. 1-59 ; 199 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 1 

LONDON: 1965 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL history), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of larger 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 17, No. 1 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of the periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1965 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 26 July, 1965 Price £1 2s. 6d. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA 

AND NEW ZEALAND 

HOMOPTERA : FULGOROIDEA 

By R. G. FENNAH 

SYNOPSIS 

Descriptions are given of ten new species of Delphacidae from New Zealand, of six from 
Australia and of five from New Guinea. The generic assignments of all known species from 
New Zealand, and of ten species from Australia, are revised, and fourteen new genera are erected. 

INTRODUCTION 

This report is based on a comprehensive collection of Delphacidae from New 
Zealand and a less representative collection from Australia and New Guinea received 
for study from Dr. T. E. Woodward, of the University of Queensland. Additional 
material from Australia was obtained from the collections in the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist) made by C. Darwin, R. E. Turner, R. W. Mungomery, J. G. Myers and 
others. 

The writer's warmest thanks are tendered to Dr. Woodward, and to Mr. J. P. 
Doncaster, Keeper of the Department of Entomology in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) 
for the privilege of examining these interesting collections. Thanks are also due to 
Dr. J. W. Beardsley of the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' 
Association for the loan of specimens from the type series of Delphax dilpa Kirkaldy 
and Haplodelphax iuncicola Kirkaldy. 

In the General Catalogue of the Hemiptera, fasc. IV, part 3, four species of Del- 
phacidae are listed from New Zealand, and a further two from the Kermadec Islands. 
The present collections have revealed the presence of a further twelve species in New 
Zealand and the outlying Three Kings group. Ten of them are new to science and 
are apparently endemic. 

The Australian collections, which came almost entirely from the eastern side of 
the continent, were found to contain few series ; a substantial number of the known 
species were not represented, and six new species were found. Such a lack of repeti- 
tiveness in the material indicates that the Delphacid fauna is still very incompletely 
surveyed, both as regards composition and distribution. It is evident, from a 
consideration of the genera present, that a strong Papuan element is present in 
eastern Australia, and that there is a small group, represented by such genera as 
Haplodelphax and Pseudembolophora, that is comparatively isolated, and may well 
represent an old native element. 

A key is given for the separation of genera discussed below. Measurements of 
the head and thorax are taken as shown in Fennah, 1963 : 75 (fig. 20) ; where the 



4 R. G. FENNAH 

anterior margin of the frons is appreciably convex, the length is measured along 
the middle line ; where it is transverse, it is measured close to, but to the side of, the 
narrow median projection caused by the thickness of the carinae, at their point of 
transition into the frons. The position of the post-trochanters is taken as the most 
anterior position that they can attain. The length of the basal post-tarsal segment is 
measured dorsally from its base to the point of insertion of the second segment. 

The bibliographic references are cited in accordance with the usage in "A 
Bibliography of the Homoptera (Auchenorhyncha) " (Metcalf, Z. P., 1942, N.C. State 
College of Agriculture and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Raleigh, 
N.C). 

Key to Genera of Delphactdae of Australia and New Zealand 

1 Post-tibial spur awl-shaped . . . UGYOPS Guerin-Merieville (p. 6) 2 

- Post-tibial spur wedge-shaped, or thin and tectiform ..... 3 

2 (1) Antennae cylindrical . ...... subgenus UGYOPS (p. 6) 

- Antennae with at least basal segment slightly compressed 

subgenus PARACONA nov. (p. 11) 

3 (1) Post-tibial spur wedge-shaped, with only a single tooth at apex ... 4 

- Post-tibial spur tectiform, with teeth on margin ...... 6 

4 (3) Vertex extremely elongate, about as long as remainder of body 

PSE UDEMBOLOPHORA Muir (p. 12) 

- Vertex at most less than three times as long as broad ..... 5 

5 (4) Vertex longer than broad, basal segment of antennae cylindrical . 

TROPIDOCEPHALA Stal (p. 12) 

- Vertex broader than long, basal segment of antennae compressed 

HAERINELLA gen. n. (p. 13) 

6 (3) Frons with median carina forked near middle ...... 7 

- Frons with median carina simple, or forked at base, or with two carinae separate 

to apex ............ 14 

7 (6) Antennae with basal segment triangular and compressed .... 8 

- Antennae with basal segment cylindrical . . . . . . . 10 

8 (7) Vertex much broader than long ......... 9 

Vertex about as broad as long . . . PHACALASTOR Kirkaldy (p. 17) 

9 (8) Post-clypeus short, about as long as basal antennal segment ; post-tibial spur 

not long, with about 18 teeth ; pygofer devoid of processes ventrally on hind 
margin TEMENITES gen. n. (p. 15) 

- Post-clypeus not short, longer than basal segment of antenna ; post-tibial spur 

rather long, with more than 30 teeth ; pygofer with a pair of processes 
ventrally on hind margin . . . PERKINSIELL A Kirkaldy (p. 16) 

10 (7) Profemora and protibiae folia tely expanded, antennae relatively long 

PELIADES Bierman (p. 17) 

— Profemora and protibiae not foliately expanded . . . . . . 11 

11 (10) Lateral carinae of pronotum straight, attaining hind margin . . . . 12 

— Lateral carinae of pronotum curved laterad, not attaining hind margin . . 13 

12 (11) Form slender; frons more than 2-5 times as long as broad ; pygofer with a 

medio ventral process .... THRASYMEMNON gen. n. (p. 43) 

— Form robust ; frons not more than twice as long as broad ; pygofer without a 

medioventral process PEREGRINUS Kirkaldy (p. 18) 

13 (11) Vertex broader at base than long in middle line ; basal antennal segment fully 

twice as long as broad ...... CEMUS Fennah (p. 19) 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 5 

Vertex longer in middle line than broad at base ; basal antennal segment not 

twice as long as broad ..... THYMALOPS gen. n. (p. 20) 

Frons with two submedian carinae . . . . . . . . 15 

Frons with a single median carina . . . . . . . . 16 

Vertex obtusely rounding into frons, which is about twice as long as broad ; 

ocelli distinct APLANODES gen. n. (p. 21) 

Vertex acutely rounding into frons, which is not nearly twice as long as broad ; 

ocelli absent NOTOHYUS gen. n. (p. 22) 

Basal segment of post-tarsi with one or more spines laterally 

NILAPARVATA Distant (p. 24) 
Basal segment of post-tarsi without teeth laterally . . . . . 17 

Post-tibial spur with less than 13 teeth . . . . . . . 18 

Post-tibial spur with 13 teeth or more ....... 23 

Head with eyes wider than pronotum . SMICROTATODELPHAX Kirkaldy 

Head with eyes not wider than pronotum . . . . . . . 19 

Vertex distinctly broader than long, insensibly passing into frons 

NOTOGRYPS gen. n. (p. 26) 
Vertex at least as long as broad, more or less distinctly separable from frons . 20 

Basal segment of antennae fully twice as long as broad 

PROTEROSYDNE Kirkaldy 
Basal segment of antennae not nearly twice as long as broad . . . . 21 

Vertex in profile meeting frons obtusely ; frons broadly rounded at basal 

margin EORISSA gen. n. (p. 28) 

Vertex in profile meeting frons subrectangularly or acutely ; frons with basal 

margin only weakly convex . . . . . . . . .22 

Vertex in profile meeting frons acutely ; sublateral carinae of vertex each 

straight from base to apex . . . HAPLODELPHAX Kirkaldy (p. 31) 

Vertex in profile rounding subrectangularly into frons ; sublateral carinae 

of vertex each strongly concave or angulately bent between base and apex 

ANCHODELPHAX gen. n. (p. 34) 
Head with eyes broader than pronotum 

SMICROTATODELPHAX Kirkaldy 
Head with eyes not broader than pronotum ...... 24 

Vertex longer than broad at base . . . . ... .25 

Vertex not longer than broad at base . . . . . . . .36 

Second antennal segment three times as long as first . STENOCRANUS Fieber 

Second antennal segment distinctly less than three times as long as first . . 26 

Basal segment of antennae fully three times as long as broad, second segment 

subequal TAROPHAGUS Zimmerman (p. 37) 

Basal segment of antennae relatively shorter, second segment distinctly longer 

than first ............ 27 

Rostrum long, attaining post-trochanters or very nearly so . . .28 

Rostrum not attaining post-trochanters ... .... 29 

Mesonotum polished, with intercarinal areas shallowly concave 

ACRODELPHAX gen. n. (p. 38) 
Mesonotum finely granulate, shallowly convex with carinae fine, not prominent 

JZELLA gen. n. (p. 41) 
Frons about three times as long as broad . . . SARDIA Melichar p. 44) 

Frons relatively shorter . . . . . . . . . .30 

Lateral carinae of pronotum straight or convex, reaching hind margin or very 

nearly so ............ 31 

Lateral carinae of pronotum straight or curved laterad, evidently not reaching 

hind margin .,,,,,,,,,,, 33 



6 R. G. FENNAH 

31 (30) Submedian carinae of vertex meeting before apex of vertex .... 32 

— Submedian carinae of vertex meeting at apex, or on frons 

SOGATODES Fennah (p. 45) 

32 (31) Basal segment of antenna little longer than broad ; second segment less than 

three times as long as broad . . . CORONACELLA Metcalf (p. 47) 

— Basal segment of antenna fully twice as long as broad ; second segment at least 

three times as long as broad ...... SO G ATA Distant 

33 (30) Rostrum reaching to mesotrochanters, short in relation to length of frons and 

clypeus ; slender, delicately formed species usually with a pale median stripe 

on head and thorax ..... SOGATELLA Fennah (p. 47) 

— Rostrum surpassing mesotrochanters, not short in relation to length of frons and 

clypeus, robust species without a pale median stripe dorsally 

(except Tarophagus) 34 

34 (33) Vertex not narrower than an eye, basal segment of post-tarsus short, less than 

three quarters as long as frons . ... . . . -35 

— Vertex narrower than an eye, basal segment of post-tarsus long, three quarters 

as long as frons S YNDELPHAX Fennah (p. 48) 

35(34) Frons twice as long as postclypeus .... CORBULO gen. n. (p. 48) 

— Frons 2-5 times as long as postclypeus . . . SULIX gen. n. (p. 49) 

36 (24) Basal segment of antennae fully three times as long as broad 

TAROPHAGUS Zimmerman (p. 37) 

— Basal segment of antennae relatively shorter . . . . . . 37 

37 (36) Antennae slender, second segment reaching well beyond base of clypeus 

EUMETOPINA Breddin (p. 54) 

— Antennae not slender, scarcely or not surpassing frontoclypeal suture . . 38 

38 (37) Sublateral carinae of vertex meeting before apex of vertex, lateral pronotal 

carinae very strongly divergent and extending almost straight towards 
tegulae. Post-tibial spur with about forty teeth . ANECTOPIA Kirkaldy 

— Sublateral carinae of vertex meeting at apex of vertex or on base of frons, 

lateral pronotal carinae not very strongly divergent, or, if so, then not 
straight. Post-tibial spur with fewer than forty teeth . . . . 39 

39 (38) Lateral carinae of pronotal disc straight, directed latero-caudad mesad of 

tegulae. A white median dorsal stripe on head and thorax. Abdomen of 
female in ventral view rather narrowly triangular in outline 

TERTHRON gen. n. (p. 55) 

— Lateral carinae of pronotal disc curved laterad, or if straight, extending directly 

towards tegulae. No white median stripe present dorsally. Abdomen of 
female in ventral view not narrowly triangular in outline, but more bluntly 
rounded distally TOY A Distant (p. 56) 

UGYOPS Guerin-Meneville 

Guerin-Meneville, 1834a, 477. 

Haplotype, Ugyops percheronii Guerin-Meneville, op. cit. 

The Australian representatives of the genus comprise three continental species, 
U. longiceps Muir, U. brevifrons (Jac), and U. longifrons Jac, and an insular species, 
U. musgravei Muir (from Lord Howe Id.). In New Zealand only one nominal 
species has been recognized [Micromasoria caelata (White)) and a further species, 
Micromasoria raouli Muir, is known from Raoul Id. 

The material in the present collection from New Zealand proper includes three 
species. Members of two of them have terete antennae, like all the Australian 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 7 

species, whereas those of the third species have compressed antennae, as in raouli. 
The type specimen of [Cona] caelata White is not to be found in the White collection 
at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), and as it was based on a series in White's personal 
possession (White, 1878 : 275), would appear now to be lost. Both the original 
generic description and that of the species leave no doubt that the type series included 
the three forms here recognized as distinct species. Hutton (1898a : 187) interpreted 
the species as including the forms with hyaline tegmina, more or less clouded with 
brown. Tillyard (ic;26d : 167) figured one coelopterous form as a representative of 
caelata White. The writer, in the absence of any information about the existence of a 
type specimen, and in conformity with Tillyard, here proposes to restrict the specific 
concept to include only a form with terete antennae, a pronotum with discal carinae 
gently sinuately bent a little before meeting the posterior margin, laterally trispinose 
post-tibiae, and tegmina as long as the abdomen. 

The forms with slightly compressed antennae and brachypterous tegmina are set 
apart from the general assemblage of Ugyops only by weak characters. The 
differences are here regarded as being of subgeneric value, and a name for the concept 
is proposed below. 

Ugyops caelatus (White) 

(Text-figs. 1-7) 

[Cona] caelata B. White, 1879b : 218. 
Micromasoria caelata Kirkaldy, 190911 : 29. 

Vertex longer submedially than broad at base (nearly 1-3 : 1), broadly and evenly rounding 
into frons, rather wider at apex than at base, lateral margins shallowly concave, apical margin 
shallowly convex, with submedian carinae only slightly prominent, Y-shaped carina with median 
stem obsolete, submedian carinae not uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex 
wider at hind margin than greatest length (1-5:1); frons in middle line longer than wide at 
widest part (nearly 2-3 : 1), widest at about two-sevenths from base, lateral margins shallowly 
convex, submedian carinae separate to apex ; antennae reaching to level of apex of clypeus, 
basal segment cylindrical, longer than broad (4-0 : 1), second segment cylindrical, longer than 
first (about i-i : 1). Ocelli minute or obsolete. Pronotum with disc longer in middle line than 
broad at anterior margin (3-0 : i), lateral carinae concave, broadly recurved posterolaterally and 
attaining hind margin. 

Pale tawny yellow ; submedian carinae and lateral marginal carinae of frons and vertex, 
anteclypeus, a small mark just below eyes, a spot at apex of first antennal segment, two bands 
on second segment, a suffusion on each side of pronotum behind eyes, mesonotum laterad of 
lateral carinae, longitudinal stripes on all femora, and two bands on each protibia and meso- 
tibia, all tarsi, posterior margins of abdominal sterna, and markings sublaterally on terga, 
posterior half of pygofer, except at margin, and anal segment of male, fuscous ; frons medially, 
a spot on genae before antennae, pronotum in middle line and on each side behind antennae, and 
mesonotum in middle line, red. Tegmina brownish hyaline, pale distad of transverse line ; 
veins ochraceous extensively interrupted with castaneous, sometimes castaneous at node and 
basally in costal cell. 

Anal segment of $ with lower margins as seen in ventral view meeting at 90 degrees apically. 
Pygofer with medioventral process distally broadly rounded and with a small median notch. 
Genital styles moderately long, strongly tapering distad, weakly diverging and rather abruptly 
incurved near apex. 

<J (coelopterous) : length, 4-8 mm., tegmen, 4-1 mm. °. : length, 6-i mm., tegmen, 4-5 mm, 



8 R. G. FENNAH 

New Zealand : Poor Knights Group, Tawhiti Rahi Id., i $, 21.1.43 (Majors 
Buddie and Wilson) ; Kauri G., 1 <$, 25-i-2i ; Three Kings Group, Great Id., 1 $, 
4 $, 2-10. v. 46, beating kanuka, 27.iv.46, in tea tree [E. G. Turboti) ; S. W. Id., 
1 nymph, 13.1.51, on bushes (T. E. Woodward) ; North Auckland, Mangonui, 1 $, 
8 . iii . 5 1 (T. E. Woodward); Te Paki, 2 nymphs, 21.1.50, on Leptospermum ; 
Auckland, Tikirangi, 1^,1 nymph, 7.XH.48, 28.xii.44; Foxton, 16 $, 14 9, 

1 mutilated specimen, 8.i.5o, on Muehlenbeckia australis (T. E. Woodward), 7.1.50, 
(R. A. Cumber) ; Coromandel, Te Hope stream valley, 6 <$, 1 mutilated specimen and 

9 nymphs, on flowering prostrate rata, 12.L52 (T. E. Woodward) ; behind W. 
Spirits Bay, 25 . i . 50, 3 ^, 2 nymphs, on small-leaved Muehlenbeckia (T. E. Woodward) ; 
N. Auckland Pen., 5 9, 2 mutilated specimens and 8 nymphs, 1924 (T. R. Harris) ; 
York Bay, 3 nymphs, 3.ix.22, on Coprosma rhamnoides (J. G. Myers) ; Catchpole, 

2 nymphs, on Knightia excelsa ; Wilton's Bay, 3 nymphs, 16.iv.21 ; Auckland, 
Watershed reserve, 1 9, 26.ii.48 (G. Chamberlain), Waipapakauri, 1 9, 30.1.53 
(R. A. Cumber) ; Houhola, 1 $, 16.ii.51 (R. A. Cumber). 

This species is distinguished from other New Zealand species by the combined 
characters of trispinose post-tibiae, cylindrical antennae, and gently recurved lateral 
pronotal carinae. It is also readily recognizable by the narrowly infuscate lateral 
carinae of the frons. 




Figs. 1-7. Ugyops caelatus (White). 1, Frons and clypeus ; 2, head and thorax, dorsal 
view ; 3, head in profile ; 4, basal segment of antenna ; 5, second segment of 
antennae ; 6, tegmen ; 7, $ genitalia, right side. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 9 

Ugyops rhadamanthus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 8-14) 

Vertex longer submedially than broad at base (1-2 : i), rather strongly rounding into frons, as 
wide at apex as at base, lateral margins shallowly concave, apical margin rather strongly convex, 
with submedian carinae not prominent, Y-shaped carina with median stem weak, submedian 
carinae almost uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin 
than greatest length (2:1); frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (nearly 2-3 : 1), 
widest at one quarter from base, lateral margins shallowly convex. Median carinae uniting just 
before apex ; antennae reaching almost to level of apex of clypeus, basal segment cylindrical, 
longer than broad (nearly 4-0 : 1), second segment longer than first (1-2 : 1). Ocelli obsolete. 
Pronotum with disc longer in middle line than broad at anterior margin (i-6 : 1), lateral carinae 
concave, abruptly and rectangulately recurved postero-laterally and attaining hind margin. 
Post-tibiae laterally with three teeth. 

Stramineous ; second antennal segment in apical third, a very dilute suffusion on all coxae, 
and in two bands on protibiae, abdominal sternites at posterolateral margins, fuscous ; post- 
clypeal disc and frons submarginally, a suffusion on genae before eyes, vertex in middle line 
apically and at lateral angles basally, pronotum in middle line, and on two areas of lateral lobes, 
mesonotum in middle line and over lateral carinae, and abdominal terga at posterior margin, 
red. Tegmina stramineous hyaline, veins concolorous except on posterior claval vein near union 
of claval veins and at entry into hind margin, where it is overlain fuscous. 

Anal segment of £ with lower margins as seen in ventral view meeting apically in a very acute 




Figs. 8-14. Ugyops rhadamanthus sp. n. 8, Frons and clypeus ; 9, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 10, head in profile ; 11, basal segment of antenna ; 12, second segment 
of antenna ; 13, tegmen ; 14, 6* genitalia, postero-ventral view. 



IO 



R. G. FENNAH 



angle. Pygofer with medio ventral process distally narrowly rounded and without a distinct 
notch. Genital styles moderately long, weakly tapering distad, weakly converging distally. 
cJ (coelopterous) : length, 5-3 mm., tegmen, 4-0 mm. $ : length, 6-5 mm., tegmen, 5-0 mm. 

Holotype <$, New Zealand: Auckland, Nihotupu, 2.i.5o (A. Harrison), in 
collection of Plant Diseases Division, D.S.I.R., P.B., Auckland. 

Paratypes, Huia, 1 mutilated specimen, 13 . iv . 50 (T. E. Woodward) ; Mocrewa, 1 <J, 
7.L53 (R. A. Cumber) ; Paihia, 2 $, 12.L49, 28.ii.50 (R. A. Cumber) ; Kaeo, 1 <£, 
4 $, 2, 31. i. 53 (R.A. Cumber) ; Oturere Sta., Desert Rd., 1 $, 3.L57 {R. A. Cumber), 
Levin, 1 <j>, 26.xi.41 ; Spirits Bay, 1 J, 1 nymph, 13.ii.51 (R. A. Cumber) ; Little 
Barrier Id., summit track, 1 <$, 22.xi.54, Waipawa stream, 1 <J, 28.xi.54 (K. A. J. 
Wise) ; Titirangi, 1 $, 1 $, 1 mutilated specimen, 15. ii., 22.iii., 4AV.42, on kohe 
kohe tree (M. Carter). 

This species is distinguished by the shape of the vertex, by the antennal proportions 
and by the abruptly angulate bend in the lateral pronotal carinae and, in the $, by the 
shape of the anal segment. Among the New Zealand species its coloration is dis- 
tinctive : there are practically no obvious fuscous markings, and the frons is red- 
margined. 

Ugyops musgravei Muir 

(Text-figs. 15-20) 
Muir, 1931b : 70. 

This species is not represented in the present collection. It is apparently endemic 
in Lord Howe Island, and the opportunity is here taken of figuring a paratype 
specimen in the collection of the British Museum (N.H.). 






.8 



19 




Figs. 15-20. Ugyops musgravei Muir. 15, Frons and clypeus ; 16, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 17, head in profile ; 18, basal segment of antenna ; 19, second segment 
of antenna ; 20, tegmen. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND n 

PARACONA subgen. n. 

Frons scarcely twice as long as broad, submedially bicarinate ; antennae reaching to level of 
apex of clypeus, with apical segment, and sometimes basal also, slightly laterally compressed. 
Post-tibiae with four spines laterally. Tegmina brachypterous, apical margin truncate. 

Type-species of subgenus, Ugyops (Paracona) pelorus sp. n. 

This subgenus is recognizable by the compressed antennae and quadrispinose 
post-tibiae. 

Ugyops (Paracona) pelorus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 21-26) 

Vertex longer medially than broad at base (about 1-4 : 1), subangularly rounding into frons, 
wider at apex than at base, lateral margins shallowly concave, apical margin sinuately convex 
with submedian carinae prominent, Y-shaped carina present, with median stem weak, submedian 
carinae not quite uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin 
than greatest length (about i-6 : 1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (1-9 : 1), 
widest at three-fifths from base, lateral margins shallowly convex, submedian carinae separate 
to apex. Antennae reaching to level of apex of clypeus, basal segment laterally compressed, 
longer than broad (2-2 : 1), second segment laterally compressed, longer than first (1-5 : 1). 
Ocelli obsolete. Pronotum with disc longer in middle line than broad at anterior margin (3 : 1), 




Figs. 21-26. Ugyops (Paracona) pelorus sp. n. 21, Frons and clypeus ; 22, head and 
thorax, dorsal view ; 23, head in profile ; 24, antenna ; 25, tegmen ; 26, $ genitalia, 
right side. 



12 R. G. FENNAH 

lateral carinae concave, obsolete laterobasally, not attaining hind margin, weak paired lateral 
carinae between eye and tegula on each side. 

Light yellowish brown, with pustules and carinae pale stramineous ; antennae dilute fuscous ; 
a few small spots bordering submedian carinae in basal half of frons, a band across base of clypeus 
and extending across procoxae and mesopleura, stripes on all femora, two bands on each protibia 
and mesotibia, and a suffusion on post-tibiae, castaneous. Intercarinal areas of frons and genae 
marbled with orange-red ; disc and sides of postclypeus, except at base, tawny. Tegmina 
stramineous, veins irregularly marked pale yellowish brown, three apical cells near anal angle, 
dark castaneous. 

Anal segment of <$, as seen in ventral view, with ventral margins meeting distally at about 90 
degrees, in lateral view as figured. Pygofer with apical margin of medioventral process broadly 
convex, with a small median notch. Aedeagus as figured. Genital styles moderately long, 
tapering distad and weakly curved mesad. 

cJ (brachypterous) : length, 4-0 mm., tegmen, 1-9 mm. 9- (brachypterous) : length, 60 
mm., tegmen, 2-8 mm. 

Holotype $, New Zealand : Ohope beach, 22.1.47, Hem. 149 (C. R. Pattison), 
in Auckland Museum. 

Paratypes, New Zealand : Auckland, 1 <$, 13 . iii . 49 ; Coopers Beach, 1 nymph, 
8.L51 ; Mt. Mangonui, 1 $, 4 nymphs, 23.x. 60, under Muehlenbeckia [B. M. May) ; 
Coromandel, Te Hope stream valley, 5 ^, i $, on flowering prostrate rata, Muehlen- 
beckia australis ; Spirits Bay, 2 $, 13.il. 51 (R. A. Cumber) ; W. Bank Pen., Price's 
Valley, 1 $, 18.ii.59 (T. E. Woodward) ; Eastbourne, 1 <$, 31.1.51 (R. A. Cumber) ; 
Whangarei Heads, Ocean Beach, 2 $, 7.xii.58, under Muehlenbeckia (B. M. May), 
1 (J, 1 ?, Three Kings, S.W. Id., 13.1.51 (T. E. Woodward). 

This species is closely allied to U. raouli (Muir), but is readily separable by its 
more strongly compressed second antennal segment and smaller size ; other, less 
obvious, differences are to be noted in coloration, tegminal venation, and in the form 
of each element of the <$ genitalia. 

Ugyops (Paracona) raouli (Muir) 
(Text-figs. 27-32) 
Micromasoria raouli Muir, 1923 : 257. 

Kermadec Is. : Raoul Id., 2 $, from nikau fronds (J. H. S.) 

PSEUDEMBOLOPHORA Muir 
Muir, 1920b : 182. 
Orthotype, Pseudembolophora macleayi Muir. 

Pseudembolophora macleayi Muir 
Muir, 1920b : 183. 

Australia : Maida Vale, near Perth, 1 <j>, 29.viii.59 (T. E. Woodward). 

TROPIDOCEPHALA Stal 
Stal, 1853b : 266. 
Haplotype, Tropidocephala flaviceps Stal, 1855a : 93. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



13 




Figs. 27-32. Ugyops (Paracona) raouli (Muir). 27, Frons and clypeus ; 28, head and 
thorax, dorsal view ; 29, head in profile ; 30, basal segment of antenna ; 31, second 
segment of antenna ; 32, tegmen. 

Tropidocephala exitnia (Kirkaldy) 
Ectopiopterygodelphax eximius Kirkaldy, 1906c : 412. 

Australia : Brisbane, 1 <£, 1 $, 30.vi.57 (Haseler). 

Tropidocephala dry as Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, igo7d : 143. 

Australia : Mt. Nebo, 1 <$, 2.VL54 (N. Jenkins). 



HAERINELLA gen. n. 

Head narrower than pronotum. Vertex shorter medially than broad at base, obtusely 
rounding into frons, narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins straight or very weakly 
concave, apical margin truncate, with submedian carinae not prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, 
submedian carinae uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin 
than greatest length (more than 2:1); frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part 
(nearly 2:1), widest near middle, lateral margins distinctly convex, median carina simple, 
clypeus at base distinctly wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc slightly longer than broad 
at base, in profile moderately convex, anteclypeus in profile shallowly convex ; entire clypeus in 
profile doubly convex ; rostrum slightly surpassing mesotrochanters, apical segment a little shorter 
than subapical ; antennae little, if at all, surpassing frontoclypeal suture, basal segment as long 
as broad, strongly expanded distally, not carinate on the flattened surface, and scarcely so at 
edges, second segment longer than first (about 1-7:1) distinctly compressed; ocelli well 
developed. Pronotum with disc shorter in middle line than broad at anterior margin, lateral 



i 4 R. G. FENNAH 

carinae straight or weakly convex, not quite attaining hind margin. Total length of mesonotum 
longer than that of scutellum (about 2-3 : 1). Post-tibial spur cultrate, concave on inner surface 
with an apical tooth and no lateral teeth. 

Tegmina narrowly rounded at apex, apical veins of Sc, R and M 1 recurved to margin, radial 
cross vein present, first median sector abruptly bent at nodal line to touch Cu ia . 

Type-species, Haerinella saeva sp. n. 

There are only two tropidocephaline genera with a compressed basal antennal 
segment, and these are Bambucibatus and Belocera. From Bambucibatus, which is 
known only from the type-species, B. albolineatus Muir (19156 : 319), the present 
genus differs in the lateral carinae of the vertex not being " large " (in consequence 
of the depression of the vertex) and the mediolongitudinal carina (the common stem 
of the Y-shaped carina) being quite distinct ; in the length of the frons not being more 
than twice the width, and the width at the base being greater, not less, than that at 
the apex ; in the basal segment of the antennae not having " a keel down middle " 
and in being much less expanded and the second segment being compressed, not 
terete, and with a carina on the ventral margin in its basal two-thirds ; and in the 
spur, though moderately thick, being concave on the inner surface. From Belocera 
it is distinguishable by the narrower form of the frons and of the basal antennal 
segment. 

Haerinella saeva sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 33-38) 

Vertex shorter medially than broad at base (1 : 1-9), slightly declivous, obtusely rounding into 
frons, narrower at apex than at base, apical margin truncate, Y-shaped carina distinct, sub- 
median carinae uniting at apex of vertex, meeting almost at a right angle, basal compartment of 
vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (2-6 : 1), and than median length (3-8 : 1) ; 
frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (i-8 : 1) ; widest at about two-fifths from 
base, lateral margins distinctly convex, median carina simple ; clypeus at base distinctly wider 
than frons at apex, post-clypeal disc rather longer than broad at base (1-2 : 1) in profile rather 
strongly convex, anteclypeus in profile moderately convex; entire clypeus in profile doubly 
convex ; antennae with basal segment as long as broad, laterally compressed, ecarinate, second 
segment longer than first (about 1-7 : 1) ; pronotum with disc shorter in middle line than broad 
at anterior margin (1 : i-i) lateral carinae weakly convex, almost attaining hind margin. Total 
length of mesonotum longer than that of scutellum (2-3 : 1) ; post-tibial spur with small apical 
tooth. 

Castaneous-piceous ; two small spots on frons near base, vertex, disc of pronotum and meso- 
notum except for a suffusion near tegulae, rostrum, legs except coxae, abdominal sternites, 
except in their anterior portion, posterior margin of pygofer, genital styles in basal half, and 
anal segment, stramineous. Tegmina hyaline, a broad band from tegula to apex of tegmen and 
a narrow line on one or both sides of apical veins of 5c, R and M 1( castaneous-fuscous, posterior 
half of tegmen with a faint yellowish tinge ; veins concolorous. Wings hyaline, sordid white or 
faintly infused, veins fuscous. 

Anal segment of q* very short, ring-like, lateroapical angles rounded, not produced. Pygofer 
moderately long, posterior opening longer dorsoventrally than broad, dorsolateral angles not at 
all produced, diaphragm with dorsal margin deeply concave, medioventral process present as a 
broad callus. Genital styles moderately long, rather broad and flattened in basal half, twisted 
and tapering mesodorsad in distal half. 

<$ : length, 3-3 mm., tegmen, 4-4 mm. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



15 



Holotype <$, New Guinea : Central Highlands, Daulo Pass, c. 8,000 ft., 20-22. 
viii.56 (T. E. Woodward), in Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 





37 




Figs. 33-38. Haerinella saeva sp. n. 33, Frons and clypeus ; 34, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 35, head in profile ; 36, antennae ; 37, tegmen ; 38, q* genitalia, 
posterior view. 



TEMENITES gen. n. 

Vertex shorter medially than broad at base (not quite 2:1), obtusely rounding into frons, 
rather narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins straight or weakly concave, apical margin 
transverse, with submedian carinae slightly prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian 
carinae not uniting on vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest 
length ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (nearly 2:1), widest near middle, 
lateral margins convex, median carina rather widely forked near middle ; clypeus at base wider 
than frons at apex, postclypeus short, about as long as basal antennal segment ; rostrum with 
apex lying between mesotrochanters ; antennae moderately surpassing frontoclypeal suture, 
basal segment little longer than broad, laterally compressed, expanding distad, second segment 
longer than first, with a shallow sulcus near lower margin ; ocelli reduced or obsolete. Pronotum 



16 R. G. FENNAH 

with disc shorter in middle line than broad at anterior margin, lateral carinae straight, not 
attaining hind margin. Post-tibial spur tectiform, with about 18 teeth. 

Anal segment of <$ short, lateroapical angles widely separated, each produced ventrally in a. 
spinose process. Pygofer moderately long ; no medio ventral process present on hind margin. 

Type-species, Temenites ancon sp. n. 

Temenites ancon sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 39-43) 

Vertex shorter submedially than broad at base (about i-8 : 1), obtusely rounding into frons, 
hollowed between carinae, submedian carinae not uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment 
of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (3-0 : 1) and than median length (4:1); 
frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (nearly 2 : 1), widest at level of lower margin 
of eyes, lateral margins convex, median carina rather widely forked at level of lower margin of 
eyes, clypeus at base distinctly wider than frons at apex, in profile strongly convex, postclypeal 
disc shorter than broad at base (1 : 1-2), anteclypeus in profile strongly curved caudad so that 
entire clypeus in profile is strongly bilobately convex ; antennae reaching approximately to 
level of middle of clypeus, basal segment scarcely longer than broad (i-i : 1), laterally com- 
pressed, expanding distad ; second segment longer than first (i-8 : 1) with a shallow sulcus near 
lower margin ; ocelli represented only by a scar. Pronotum with disc shorter in middle line than 
broad at anterior margin (about 1:2) lateral carinae straight, not attaining hind margin. Post- 
tibial spur not elongate, with 18 teeth. 

Castaneous-piceous ; frons, vertex, pronotum, mesonotum, femora apically, tibiae except 
post-tibiae near base, and tarsi, stramineous ; clypeus, genae, most of first antennal segment and 
basal half of second, brownish-yellow ; abdominal tergites laterally orange or pale brown ; 
genital styles and median portion of diaphragm yellowish brown. Tegmina (brachypterous) 
castaneous-piceous, except at apical margin, which is whitish hyaline, veins concolorous except 
for a few irregular veinlets near apical margin, which are pale. 

Anal segment of <$ short, broader than long, latero-apical angles very widely separated, each 
produced ventrally in a stout process incurved mesad and acuminate distally. Pygofer with 
posterior opening as broad as long, dorso-lateral angles little produced, lateral margins in profile 
convex, diaphragm with dorsal margin very deeply excavate, middle portion very short, in form 
of a polished horizontal plate, medioventral process absent. Aedeagus long, stout, porrect, 
strongly compressed laterally, ornamented near dorsal and ventral margins on both sides with 
irregular coarse teeth ; orifice on right near apex ; a long stout rodlike process arising at base of 
aedeagus, directed ventro-caudad and slightly surpassing diaphragm, narrowly bifurcate 
apically. Genital styles rather long, each slightly curved and twisted, shallowly expanding to 
middle, where the inner margin bears a small stout spine, thence tapering to a slender process at 
apex, weakly curved laterad at tip. 

o* (brachypterous) : length, 2-8 mm. 

Holotype $, Australia : Brisbane, 30.iii.56 (Kirkpatrick), in Queensland Museum. 

Temenites appears to be allied to Perkinsiella and Phacalastor, but is separable by 
the characters given in the key. In addition it differs from both quite markedly in 
the structure of the $ genitalia. 

PERKINSIELLA Kirkaldy 

Kirkaldy, 1903b : 179. 

Orthotype, Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



17 




Figs. 39-43. Yemenites ancon sp. n. 39, Frons and clypeus ; 40, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 41, head in profile ; 42, tegmen ; 43, <J genitalia, posterior view. 

Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, 1903b : 179. 

Australia : N. Queensland, Ayr Distr., Claredale, 1 <$, 3 $, 36. v. 53, on maize 
(T. E. Woodward) ; Ayr, 1^,1$, i.xii.54. 3-i y -55 (G- Saunders) ; Atherton, 2 $, 
17.V.54 (G. Saunders) ; Brisbane, 1 $, 24.iii.41 (V. B. D. Sherman) ; N. Queens- 
land, Don R. (near Bowen), 1 <^, 28. v. 53 (T. E. Woodward). 

PHACALASTOR Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, 1906c : 404. 
Orthotype, Phacalastor pseudomaidis Kirkaldy. 

Phacalastor pseudomaidis Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, 1906c : 404. 

Australia : Binna Burra, 1 £, 7.1V.54 [S. Sekhon). 



PELIADES Jacobi 
Jacobi, 1928a : 43. 
Orthotype, Peliades platypoda (Bierman), 1910a : 42. 



18 R. G. FENNAH 

Peliades phyllocnemis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 44-50) 

Vertex broader at base than long submedially (1-3 : 1), obtusely rounding into frons, rather 
narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins slightly concave, apical margin truncate, with 
submedian carinae not prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting near 
middle of frons, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (2-4 : 1) 
and than median length (2-8 : 1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (i-8 : 1), 
widest just below level of eyes, lateral margins concave between eyes, straight distally and 
converging slightly towards frontoclypeal suture, median carina forked near middle ; clypeus 
at base distinctly wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc as long as broad at base, in profile 
moderately convex, anteclypeus in profile rather strongly convex, curved caudad, so that entire 
clypeus in profile is rather strongly convex ; antennae reaching to level of apex of postclypeus, 
basal segment longer than broad (3 : 1), second segment longer than first (i-6 : 1). Pronotum 
with disc as broad at anterior margin as long in middle line ; lateral carinae weakly concave, 
strongly diverging, not attaining hind margin. Post-tibial spur with 29 teeth. 

Castaneous-piceous ; carinae of basal half of frons, vertex, pronotal disc and carinae, meso- 
notal disc and carinae, hind margins of anterior abdominal terga and median portion of the last 
three, posterior margin and laterodorsal angles of pygofer, lateral lobes of pronotum, rostrum, 
femora at apex, pro- and mesotibiae at apex, testaceous ; some spots on frons, an irregular 
suffusion on disc of clypeus, and hind tarsi, ferruginous. Tegmina (brachypterous) castaneous 
piceous, clavus creamy yellow to ochraceous, a fascia from node to apex of clavus, creamy white ; 
veins concolorous, in clavus beset with fuscous-piceous granules. Anal style black. 

Anal segment of (J short, ring-like, lateroapical angles not produced. Pygofer short, longer 
ventrally than dorsally, posterior opening longer than broad, dorsolateral angles strongly 
inflected, subrectangulate, diaphragm very broad, with dorsal margin deeply concave, strongly 
incised medially ; medioventral process present, in form of an acuminate median lobe flanked by 
two smaller lobes, each bluntly pointed. Aedeagus long, narrow, reflected cephalad distally. 
Genital styles moderately long, directed dorsad, diverging dorso-laterad in apical third, deeply 
rounded apically. 

o* (brachypterous) : length, 3-0 mm. 

Holotype $, New Guinea: West Highlands, Al Valley, c. 6,000 ft., 25.viii.56 
(T. E. Woodward), in Queensland Museum. 

This species differs from P. platypoda in having a relatively shorter frons in relation 
to its width, a relatively shorter clypeal disc in relation to its basal width, in both 
segments of the antennae being thicker in relation to their length, in the greatest 
width of the foliate protibiae occurring just basad of the middle (as opposed to just 
distad of the middle in platypoda) and in the profemora being deeply infuscate, not 
pale testaceous as in platypoda. The writer has not had an opportunity of comparing 
the <$ genitalia. 

PEREGRINUS Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, 1904a : 175. 
Orthotype, Delphax maidis Ashmead. 

Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) 
Delphax maidis Ashmead, 1890a : 323. 

Australia: Queensland, Ayr, Demesne area, 1 $, 26. v. 53 (T. E. Woodward), 
1 $, 3.1V.55 (G. Saunders) ; Belmont, 1 $, 9.VL57 ; Sunnybank, 1 $, 14.iii.57 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



19 




Figs. 44-50. Peliades phyllocnemis sp. n. 44, Frons and clypeus ; 45, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 46, head in profile ; 47, J genitalia, posterior view ; 48, anal segment 
and pygofer, right side ; 49, aedeagus, right side ; 50, genital style. 

(Haseler) ; Brisbane, 1 £, 2 $, 3 .iii. 51 (G. Saunders), y.ix.55 (L. Jackson), iii.57 
(S. Sekhon) ; Cleveland, 1 mutilated specimen, 24.iv.56 (W. Yarrow) ; Gay thorn, 
1 $, 15. iii. 47 (A. R. Bird) ; Taroom, 1 $, 30.iv.29, 6737. 



Fennah, 1964 : 147. 



CEMUS Fennah 



Cetnus kirkaldyi (Metcalf) comb. n. 



Phacalastor koebelei Kirkaldy, 1906c : 408. 
Phyllodinus kirkaldyi Metcalf, 1943 : 148. 

Vertex broader at base than long submedially (about 1-3 : 1), obtusely rounding into frons, 
rather narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins shallowly concave, apical margin truncate, 
with submedian carinae weakly prominent, Y-shaped carina feeble, submedian carinae uniting on 
frons near middle, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length 
(2-7 : 1) and than median length (3-5 : 1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part 
(nearly 2:1), widest at level of lower margin of eyes, lateral margins concave between eyes, 
straight, slightly converging to fronto-clypeal suture, median carina forked in basal half, simple 
in distal half, clypeus at base a little wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc as broad at base 



2 o R. G. FENNAH 

as long, in profile rather strongly convex, anteclypeus in profile distinctly convex, so that entire 
clypeus in profile is rather strongly convex, antennae distinctly surpassing frontoclypeal suture, 
basal segment longer than broad (2 : 1), second segment longer than first (17 : 1). Pronotum 
with disc broader at anterior margin than long in middle line (i-6 : 1) ; lateral carinae concave 
not nearly attaining hind margin. Post-tibial spur with about 22 teeth. 

Castaneous to piceous ; carinae of vertex, frons, clypeus, some spots on frons and genae, 
disc of pronotum except for two impressions, lateral fields of pronotum, carinae of mesonotal 
disc and lateral margins of mesonotum, abdominal terga laterally, anal segment and posterior 
margins of pygofer, rostrum, femora and tibiae at base and apex, post-tarsi at apex, stramineous ; 
antennae with an obscure stripe on basal segment, and clypeus, testaceous. Tegmina hyaline, 
dilutely suffused fuscous, darker near apex of costal margin, submarginally between veins at 
apex, and in two spots on commissural margin ; veins pale, greyish white, with fuscous-piceous 
granules. 

Anal segment of 6* short, ring-like, lateroapical angles each produced in a short, rather slender 
spinose process. Pygofer short, longer ventrally than dorsally, posterior opening rather small, 
longer than broad, diaphragm rather narrow ; medio ventral process present in form of a convex 
lobe. Aedeagus tubular, rather compressed, reflected at apex cephalad in a long flagellum 
acuminate at apex. Genital styles rather long, slender, sinuately tapering and acuminate at tip. 

o* (brachypterous) : length, 2-8 mm. 

Australia : Brisbane 1 $, 19 . viii . 56 (J. Martin) ; Ayr, 1 $, 20 . x . 55 (G. Saunders) ; 
N. Ward, T.V., 2 $, 16.iv.34 » S. Mackay, Lotus Ck., c. 100 m., 1 $, 2.VL56, on grass, 
(I. C. Yeo) ; Moggill, 1 $, 7. v. 55, sweeping grass (T. E. Woodward) ; Bundaberg, 
1 <j>, 10.vi.56, on grass (/. C. Yeo) ; Toowang, 1 $, 6.1V.41, 6875. 

THYMALOPS gen. n. 

Vertex longer medially than broad at base, subacutely rounding into frons, narrower at apex 
than at base, lateral margins straight or slightly concave, apical margin convex-truncate with 
submedian carinae weakly prominent, Y-shaped carinae moderately distinct, submedian carinae 
not uniting on vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length 
(about i-8 : 1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (about 2:1), widest at 
middle, lateral margins weakly convex, median carinae forked at level of lower margin of eyes ; 
clypeus at base not wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc slightly longer than broad at base, 
in profile shallowly convex, anteclypeus in profile shallowly convex ; entire clypeus in profile 
evenly moderately convex ; rostrum surpassing mesotrochanters but not attaining post-tro- 
chanters ; antennae attaining frontoclypeal suture, basal segment cylindrical, widening distad, 
slightly longer than broad at apex, second segment longer than first (about i-8 : 1) ; ocelli 
distinct. Pronotum with disc slightly longer in middle line than broad at anterior margin, 
lateral carinae straight or weakly concave, not quite attaining hind margin. Femora and 
tibiae of fore and middle legs not foliate ; post-tibial spur with about 21 teeth. 

Type-species, Dicranotropis anderida Kirkaldy. ■ 

This genus is distinguished by the combination of characters given in the key. 

Thymalops anderida (Kirkaldy) comb. n. 

(Text-figs. 51-53) 

Dicranotropis anderida Kirkaldy, 190yd : 133. 

Anal segment of o* collar-like, moderately long. Pygofer with posterior opening longer dorso- 
ventrally than broad, diaphragm deep at middle, without ornamentation ; a shallow rounded 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 21 

median process present on ventral margin of pygofer. Aedeagus moderately long, with a reflec- 
ted flagellum apically. Genital styles simple. 

Australia : Queensland, Gordonvale, I <$, 16.ii.36, at light (R. W. Mungomery). 
The writer has also seen specimens of this species from Taiwan. 

Muir (191yd : 336), on the basis of material from the Philippines, South China, 
Java and Ceram, placed this species in Delphacodes and later (1919a : 7) transferred 
it to Nilaparvata and suppressed it in synonymy under Liburnia sordescens (Motsch.). 
The type-specimen of Dicranotropis anderida, however, does not have lateral spines 
on the basal segment of the post-tarsus, and the frontal carina is bifurcate in its basal 
half, and so this species cannot be placed in Nilaparvata. In dorsal view the shape 
of the head and thorax is rather similar to that found in Nilaparvata lugens Stal 
(= L. sordescens (Motsch.)), and this similarity may account for Muir's action. 

APLANODES gen. n. 

Vertex slightly shorter medially than broad at base, weakly declivous, obtusely rounding into 
frons, a little narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins straight, or nearly so, apical margin 
convex-truncate with submedian carinae not prominent, Y-shaped carina present, submedian 
carinae approximated at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than 
greatest length (approximately 2-7 : 1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part 
(about 2:1), widest near middle, lateral margins very weakly convex, a pair of submedian 
carinae, obscure at base, parallel, extending to frontoclypeal suture ; clypeus at base as wide as 
frons at apex, postclypeal disc about as long as broad at base, in profile very weakly convex, 
anteclypeus in profile shallowly convex ; entire clypeus in profile shallowly convex ; rostrum 
not quite reaching to post-trochanters, apical and subapical segments about equal in length ; 
antennae terete, extending a little beyond frontoclypeal suture, basal segment longer than 
broad (about 2:1), second segment longer than first (about 2:1), ocelli well developed. Pro- 
notum with disc as long in middle line as broad at anterior margin, lateral carinae straight, not 
attaining hind margin, total length of mesonotum longer than that of scutellum (about 2-6 : 1). 
Post-tibial spur tectiform, not long, with 15-18 minute teeth. Tegmina with Sc -j- R fork and 
Cu x fork much distad of level of union of claval veins, and rather close to nodal line. 





Figs. 51-53. Thymalops anderida (Kirkaldy) 
aedeagus, left side ; 



51, <J genitalia, posterior view ; 
53, genital style. 



5 2 > 



22 R. G. FENNAH 

Type-species, Criomorphus australiae Kirkaldy. 

This species runs to Criomorphus in Muir's key (19150I : 296) but differs generically 
in having relatively longer antennae, a differently shaped head, the post-tibial calcar 
toothed along the margin, and a radically different conformation of the $ genitalia. 
From Notohyus, to which superficially it would seem to be nearest, it is well separated 
by the shape of the head, the proportions of the antennae, the presence of ocelli, the 
length of the rostrum, and, in the $, by the sclerotized pregenital sternite. 

Aplanodes australiae (Kirkaldy) comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 54-64) 

Criomorphus australiae Kirkaldy, 1907(1 : 131. 

Anal segment of <$ rather large, apical margin transverse, lateroapical angle of left side strongly 
produced ventrad in a stout subspinose process. Pygofer rather long, dorsolateral angles not 
produced, lateral margins in profile convex ; diaphragm with dorsal margin deeply concave, 
narrow in middle portion, and strongly produced caudad in a pair of spinose processes, which are 
closely apposed basally but diverge moderately towards apex ; no medioventral process present. 
Aedeagus long, porrect caudad, slightly deflexed at tip, a small tooth dorsally near middle, a row 
along middle of right side, and a few ventro-laterally on right ; orifice ventrally at apex, rather 
long. Genital styles moderately long, rather narrow and tapering, directed dorsad and upcurved 
apically, outer margin shallowly convex, inner margin concave with a small bluntly angulate 
eminence in distal third. 

Seventh (pregenital) sternite of $ relatively large, horse-shoe shaped, flattened dorsoventrally, 
each limb acute at apex. First valvifers, as exposed in ventral view, narrow, of approximately 
equal width throughout, not at all produced mesad at base. 

Australia : Brisbane, Gold Creek, 1$, 17.lv. 56 (T. E. Woodward) ; 1 <$, 6747. 
Topotype in Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 

NOTOHYUS gen. n. 

Vertex about as long medially as broad at base, horizontal, strongly rounding into frons, about 
as wide at apex as at base, lateral margins almost straight, apical margin shallowly convex, 
with submedian carinae not prominent, Y-shaped carina very feeble, submedian carinae approxi- 
mated at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest 
length (about 2:1); frons in middle line rather longer than wide at widest part (about 1-3 : 1), 
widest near middle, lateral margins convex, a pair of submedian carinae, obscure basally, 
extending to frontoclypeal suture, clypeus at base wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc 
very approximately as long as broad at base, entire clypeus" in profile convex ; rostrum attaining 
mesotrochanters ; antennae moderately surpassing frontoclypeal suture, basal segment not 
longer than broad, second segment longer than first (between 2 : 1 and 3:1); eyes reniform, 
ocelli absent. Pronotum with disc shorter in middle line than broad at anterior margin, lateral 
carinae straight or weakly concave, not quite attaining hind margin. Post-tibial spur very short 
and thick, with minute teeth on margin. 

Type-species, Notohyus erosus sp. n. 

This genus runs to Criomorphus in Muir's key (i9i5d : 296) but differs in having 
the antennae relatively longer, the head of a different shape, with the carinae 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 23 




Figs. 54-64. Aplanodes australiae (Kirkaldy). 54, Frons and clypeus ; 55, head and 
thorax, dorsal view ; 56, head in profile ; 57, antenna ; 58, tegmen ; 59, $ genitalia, 
posterior view ; 60, <$ genitalia, right side ; 61, process at middle of dorsal margin of 
diaphragm ; 62, apex of aedeagus ; 63, genital style ; 64, basal portion of ovipositor, 
ventral view, with horse-shoe shaped pregenital sternite at base demarcated in one half 
by vertical shading, and one of first valvifers demarcated by oblique shading. 

approximated at the base, the post-tibial calcar toothed along the margin, and the 
first valvifers with the inner margin devoid of any trace of a lobe at middle. 



Notohyus erosus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 65-69) 

Vertex as long medially as broad at base, strongly rounding into frons, as wide at apex as at 
base, lateral margins very shallowly concave, apical margin distinctly convex, with submedian 
carinae obscure, not prominent, Y-shaped carina very feeble or obsolete, submedian carinae 
approximated at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than 
greatest length (about 2:1); frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (nearly 1-3 : i), 
widest at middle, lateral margins strongly convex, a pair of parallel submedian carinae, obscure 
and apparently united at base, reaching frontoclypeal suture, clypeus at base distinctly wider 



24 



R. G. FENNAH 




Figs. 65-69. Notohyus erosus sp. n. 65, Frons and clypeus ; 66, head and thorax, dorsal 
view ; 67, head in profile ; 68, tegmen ; 69, first valvifer of ovipositor (caudad to 
right). 

than frons at apex, postclypeal disc shorter in middle than broad at base (1 : i-i), in profile 
recessed below level of frons, and moderately convex, median carina broadly obscure, anteclypeus 
in profile more weakly convex ; rostrum attaining mesotrochanters, subapical segment moder- 
ately compressed laterally, rather longer than apical segment ; antennae reaching to level of 
middle of post-clypeus, basal segment scarcely as long as broad, second segment longer than 
first (2-7 : 1) ; ocelli absent. Pronotum with disc shorter in middle line than broad at anterior 
margin (1 : 1-5), median carina obsolete, lateral carinae weakly concave, not quite attaining 
hind margin ; mesonotum (brachypterous form) with carinae very feeble or obsolete. Post- 
tibial spur very short and thick, with a broad pad, a distinct apical tooth and about twenty-two 
very minute teeth. 

Light testaceous ; frons, except for six round spots in each compartment of disc, genae near 
anterior margin, some incomplete longitudinal stripes on femora and tibiae, and abdominal 
sternites in part, rather dilute yellowish fuscous ; metapleura, six small spots on each abdominal 
tergum, and second valvifers of ovipositor apically, castaneous-piceous. Tegmina stramineous 
hyaline, veins concolorous and rather obscure. 

First valvifers of ovipositor each produced mesad at base in a rather shallow rounded lobe, 
inner margin distad of this lobe entire. 

£ (brachypterous) : length, 4-1 mm. 

Holotype $, New Zealand : Banks Peninsula, Tumbledown Bay, 18.ii.59 
(T. E. Woodward), in collection of Entomology Division, D.S.I.R., Nelson. 

NILAPARVATA Distant 
Distant, igo6i : 473. 
Orthotype, Nilaparvata greeni Distant. 



Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) 

Delphax lugens Stal, 1854b : 246. 
Nilaparvata greeni Distant, igo6i : 473. 

Australia: Sunnybank, 3 <$, 16, 19.iii.57, 21.iv.57 (Haseler) 1 £ # 15.ii.51 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



25 



(S. Barker) ; Lawes, 1 <j>, 8.xii.56 (W. F. Wildin) ; Brisbane, 4 $, 21, 31.iv.57 
(5. Sekhon) ; 20. xi. 1955 (G. E.), 9.^.57 (B. R. Grant). 

New Guinea : W. Highlands, Al Valley, c. 6000 ft., 1 <j>, 25.viii.56 (T. E. Wood- 
ward.) 

Nilaparvata tnyersi Muir 

(Text-figs. 70-74) 
Muir, 19231 : 258. 

Vertex longer submedially than broad at base (1-2 : 1) subacutely and abruptly rounding into 
frons, distinctly narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins almost straight, apical margin 
truncate with submedian carinae prominent, Y-shaped carina well developed, submedian 
carinae uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest 
length (1-5 : 1) and than median length (1-7 : 1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest 
part (2 : 1), widest at middle, lateral margins shallowly convex, median carina simple or at most 
forked only at extreme base ; clypeus at base wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc as broad 
at base as long, in profile moderately convex, anteclypeus in profile rather strongly convex so 
that entire clypeus in profile is rather strongly interruptedly convex or biconvex ; antennae 
moderately surpassing fronto-clypeal suture, basal segment longer than broad (about 1-7 : 1), 
second segment longer than first (1-5:1); ocelli small. Pronotum with disc longer in middle 
line than broad at anterior margin (nearly 1-3 : 1), lateral carinae concave, diverging laterad, not 
attaining hind margin. Post -tibial spur with 19 teeth. 

Stramineous ; vertex, pronotal disc, mesonotum, paler ; fifth to seventh abdominal terga, 
piceous except in middle line, eighth tergum piceous near margin, pygofer castaneous-piceous 
except at dorsolateral angles, genital styles and diaphragm piceous. 

Anal segment of <$ moderately long, distinctly broad, lateroapical angles widely separated, each 
produced ventrad in a curved spinose process. Pygofer moderately long, posterior opening 
about as broad as long, dorsolateral angles not produced caudad, inflected mesad ; diaphragm 
with dorsal margin weakly convex, medioventral process absent. Aedeagus moderately long, 
straight, with about seven teeth along dorsal margin ; a long narrow process arising ventrally 
near middle and extending caudad below main axis of aedeagus and parallel to it. Genital styles 





Figs. 70-74. Nilaparvata myersi Muir. 70, Anal segment of 6*. left side; 71, median 
portion of diaphragm ; 72, aedeagus, ventral view ; 73, aedeagus, left side ; 74, genital 
style. 



26 R. G. FENNAH 

moderately long, stout, in posterior view each asymmetrically Y-shaped, strongly produced 
caudad near base ; process of inner apical angle strongly curved cephalad. 
o* (brachypterous) : length, 3-5 mm. $ (brachypterous) : length, 3-5 mm. 

New Zealand : Paihia, 1 $, 7 <j>, 17.iii.47, 23-28. ii. 50, (R. A. Cumber) ; Paiaka 
(Man.), 4^,4 $, 1 nymph, 5-i.5o, 1, 11.ii.50, 28.ii.59 (R. A. Cumber) ; HE4 RS25 
Rd., 1 $ ; HE4 RS 23 P4, 1 $ ; HE4 53 Road, 1 ? ; Mangahao, 1 $, 6.i.5o [R. A. 
Cumber) ; Rotorua, 1 g, 1 $, i.ii.27 (A. Philpott). 

An interesting feature of this sample is that only a small minority of the specimens 
examined bore spines on the side of the basal post-tarsal segment. 

NOTOGRYPS gen. n. 

Vertex about as long submedially as broad at base, obtusely rounding into frons, about as 
wide at apex as at base ; frons longer than broad (about 1-5-1 -7 : 1), widest near middle, median 
carina simple, clypeus rather strongly convex, rostrum surpassing post-trochanters ; ocelli 
minute or obsolete ; antennae with basal segment about as long as broad, second segment a little 
more than twice as long as first. Pronotum with disc a little longer in middle line than broad at 
anterior margin, lateral carinae straight, not attaining hind margin. Post-tibial spur with seven 
or eight teeth. 

Anal segment of <$ narrowly ring-like, with apical margin produced medially in a blunt lobe. 
Pygofer with dorsolateral angles produced caudad, diaphragm moderately broad. Aedeagus 
moderately long, porrect, with a short slender process dorsally at apex. 

Type-species, Notogryps melanthus sp. n. 

In Zimmerman's key (1948 : 139) this species runs to Nesothoe, but differs from 
other species of the genus in the relatively stouter bodily form, the less thickened and 
elongate post-tibial spur, and the reduced ocelli. From Nesorthia it differs entirely 
in the form of the head and in the structure of the <$ genitalia. 

Notogryps melanthus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 75-85) 

Vertex as long submedially as broad at base, obtusely rounding into frons, slightly broader at 
apex than at base, lateral margins straight, apical margin truncate with submedian carinae 
prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting before apex of vertex, basal 
compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (2-3 : 1) and than median 
length (nearly 3:1); frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (about 17 : 1), widest 
near middle, lateral margins shallowly convex, median carina simple, clypeus at base distinctly 
wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc broader at base than long (1-3 : 1), in profile strongly 
convex, separated by a transverse impression from anteclypeus, which in profile is strongly con- 
vex and curved caudad, so that entire clypeus in profile is rather strongly biconvex ; rostrum with 
subapical segment attaining mesotrochanters, apical segment surpassing post-trochanters ; 
antennae short, scarcely attaining fronto-clypeal suture, basal segment as long as broad, second 
segment longer than first (2-2 : 1). Ocelli very minute or obsolete. Pronotum with disc longer 
in middle line than broad at anterior margin (i-i : 1), lateral carinae straight, strongly divergent, 
not attaining hind margin ; post-tibial spur with 8 teeth. 

Dark testaceous ; vertex, coxae and legs slightly paler ; abdominal terga slightly ferruginous. 
Tegmina brachypterous, brownish hyaline, entire margin pale testaceous, a creamy white spot at 
middle of apical margin. Male genitalia and pygofer distally, light testaceous. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



27 



Anal segment of <J very short, ring-like, lateroapical angles not produced, distal margin 
produced caudad in a broadly triangular lobe extending caudad above base of aedeagus. Pygofer 
rather large, posterior opening slightly longer than broad, dorsolateral angles very strongly 
produced, each with a slender subapical spine directed mesad, lateral margins in profile oblique, 
ventrolaterally produced dorsocaudad on each side in a small triangular lobe ; diaphragm broad 
with dorsal margin deeply excavate, at middle produced caudad in a weak fold like the lip of a jug ; 
medio ventral process absent. Aedeagus rather long, tubular, porrect caudad, orifice rather long, 
on left at apex, a narrow sclerotized ridge dorsally above orifice with two teeth, and a moderately 
long slender process, with two teeth on its margin, arising dorsally subapically, and directed 
dorsocephalad. Genital styles moderately long, twisted at middle, inner apical angle produced 
caudad in a short blunt spine, outer apical angle produced cephalad in a lobe apically truncate. 

<J (brachypterous) : length, 2-4 mm., tegmen, 1-4 mm. £ (brachypterous) : length, 2-7 mm., 
tegmen, 1-5 mm. 

Holotype <$, New Zealand : Puketoi (Waewaepa), 29.iii.57 (R. A. Cumber), in 
collection of the Entomology Division, D.S.I.R., Nelson. 

Paratypes, 3$, 4 9, same data. 




Figs. 75-85. Notogryps melanthus sp. n. 75, Frons and clypeus ; 76, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 77, head in profile ; 78, tegmen ; 79, 6* genitalia, postero-lateral view 
from left; 80, £ genitalia, left side; 81, anal segment of 6\ posterior view; 82, 
process on dorsolateral angle of pygofer, left side ; 83, median portion of diaphragm ; 
84, aedeagus ; 85, genital style. 



28 R. G. FENNAH 

The anal segment and, to some extent, the genital styles are generally similar to 
those of Sardia persephone (Kirk.) from Queensland. The aedeagus and the dorso- 
lateral margin of the pygofer, however, are very different, and the structure of the 
former is closely similar to that found in species of Nesothoe. 

Notogryps ithotna sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 86-94) 

Vertex as long submedially as broad at base, obtusely rounding into frons, as wide at apex as 
at base, lateral margins shallowly concave, apical margin truncate with submedian carinae 
distinctly prominent, Y-shaped carina moderately distinct, submedian carinae uniting at base 
of frons, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (2-1 : 1) and than 
median length (2-2 : 1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (nearly 1-5 : 1), 
widest near middle, lateral margins distinctly convex, median carina forked at extreme base, 
clypeus at base distinctly wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc shorter in middle line than 
broad at base (1 : 1-4) in profile strongly convex, anteclypeus in profile moderately convex, so 
that entire clypeus in profile is rather strongly convex ; rostrum with subapical segment sur- 
passing mesotrochanters, apical segment surpassing post-trochanters ; antennae little surpassing 
frontoclypeal suture, basal segment as long as broad, second segment longer than first (2-5 : 1) ; 
ocelli minute or obsolete, indicated only by a red pigment spot ; pronotum with disc longer in 
middle line than broad at anterior margin (1-2 : 1), lateral carinae straight or very weakly convex, 
moderately diverging, not quite attaining hind margin ; post-tibial spur with seven teeth. 

Testaceous ; frons apically, lateral carinae of clypeus, apex of vertex and base of frons, femora 
at apex, tibiae at apex, abdominal sternites at posterior margin, stramineous or ivory-white. 
Tegmina hyaline with testaceous suffusion, becoming darker in apical third, middle part of apical 
margin ivory-white. 

Anal segment of g short, ring-like, apical margin slightly produced caudad medially in an 
obtuse lobe. Pygofer moderately long, posterior opening slightly longer dorsoventrally than 
broad, dorsolateral angles strongly produced caudad, each rather abruptly terminating in an apical 
spine, lateral margins distinctly concave, ventral margin shallowly trilobate, lateral lobes blunt ; 
medioventral process as long as lateral lobes, acute ; diaphragm with dorsal margin excavate, 
rather broad medially. Aedeagus short, porrect caudad, genital styles moderately long, rather 
narrowed at middle, strongly expanded distally, inner apical angle produced caudad in a narrow 
acute lobe, outer apical angle produced laterobasad in a longer and more bluntly tapering lobe 
which is almost weakly bifurcate at tip. 

(J : length, 2-9 mm., tegmen, 1-5 mm. $ : length, 2-9 mm., tegmen, 1-3 mm. 

Holotype J, New Zealand : Mangonui, 8 . iii . 50 (R. A. Cumber), in collection of 
the Entomology Division, D.S.I.R., Nelson. 

Paratypes, 2 $, 1 nymph, same data. 

This species is distinguishable from the preceding by its relatively shorter frons 
and, in the <$ genitalia, by the development of spinose processes apically on the 
dorsolateral angles of the pygofer, not subapically on the inner face. The two species 
differ appreciably in the form of the genital styles, and to a less extent in details of 
aedeagal ornamentation. 

EORISSA gen. n. 

Stoutly built. Vertex about as long submedially as broad at base, about as wide at apex as 
at base, lateral margins straight or nearly so, apical margin transverse, with submedian carinae 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



29 




Figs. 86-94. Notogryps ithoma sp. n. 86, Frons and clypeus ; 87, head, thorax and left 
tegmen ; 88, head in profile ; 89, <$ genitalia, posterior view ; 90, $ genitalia, right 
side ; 91, anal segment of <$, right side ; 92, median portion of diaphragm ; 93, 
aedeagus, left side ; 94, genital style. 



not prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting at apex of vertex, basal 
compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (about 2:1); frons in middle 
line longer than wide at widest part (about 1-3 : 1), widest at middle, lateral margins strongly 
convex, each incurved basally to meet in middle line, median carina simple, clypeus at base 
distinctly wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc shorter than broad at base, distinctly 
convex, anteclypeus in profile angulately curved caudad ; rostrum attaining mesotrochanters, 
apical segment about as long as subapical, antennae slightly surpassing frontoclypeal suture, 
basal segment longer than broad, second segment longer than first (about 2:1), ocelli small. 
Pronotum with disc about as long in middle line as broad at anterior margin, lateral carinae 
weakly concave, not attaining hind margin. Total length of mesonotum not as long as that of 
vertex and pronotum together, posterolateral margins deeply concave. Legs relatively short 



30 R. G. FENNAH 

and stout. Post-tibial spur short, stout, with about n minute teeth. Tegmina broadly 
rounded distally. 

Type-species, Eorissa cicatrifrons sp. n. 

Eorissa cicatrifrons sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 95-104) 

Vertex as long submedially as broad at base, a little obtusely rounding into frons, as wide at 
apex as at base, lateral margins almost straight, apical margin transverse-convex, with submedian 
carinae not at all prominent, Y-shaped carina prominent, submedian carinae uniting at apex of 
vertex, two obscure transverse carinae in each lateroapical compartment, basal compartment of 
vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (2 : 1), and than median length (2-3 : 1) ; frons 
in middle line longer than wide at widest part (about 1-3 : 1), widest at middle, lateral margins 
strongly convex, each uniting basally with a thick arcuate transverse carina which separates 
vertex from frons, median carina simple to base, disc with about fourteen pustules ; clypeus at 
base distinctly wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc shorter than broad at base (nearly 
1 : 1-2), in profile depressed below level of frons, rather angulately convex, anteclypeus in profile 
angulately convex, so that entire clypeus in profile is doubly convex ; rostrum reaching to 
mesotrochanters, apical segment about as long as subapical, antennae slightly surpassing 
frontoclypeal suture, basal segment scarcely longer than broad, second segment longer than 
first (2 : 1). Ocelli indicated only by a small dark depression, pronotum with disc as long in 
middle line as broad at anterior margin, lateral carinae concave, not attaining hind margin ; 
sometimes a weak carina transversely across middle of disc ; mesonotum very short in both 
macropterous and brachypterous forms, in former, tegulae with a fine but distinct carina. Post- 
tibial spur very short and thick with 10-12 small but well separated teeth. Tegmina with 5c + 
R forked at middle, Cu x fork basad of Sc + R fork, M-Cu cross-vein long. 

Light yellowish brown ; pustules on frons, median carina of clypeus, and three spots laterally 
on each abdominal tergum, pallid ochraceous or stramineous ; a few short stripes on abdominal 
terga, fuscous. Tegmina (brachypterous) light brownish hyaline, veins concolorous. 

Anal segment of <J moderately large, ring-like, lateroapical angles each produced ventrad in an 
acute process. Pygofer rather long, posterior opening longer dorsoventrally than broad, lateral 
margins produced mesocaudad at middle in a stout subspinose process, diaphragm broad, with 
dorsal margin rather shallowly concave, armature in form of a rather small subtriangular 
eminence ; medioventral process indicated by a broad shallow median thickening on the lower 
margin. Genital styles moderately long, rather broad, flattened, with flat surfaces facing caudad, 
each style gradually expanding distad, curved caudad near apex, apical margin truncate. 

Seventh (pregenital) sternite of § scelerotized in form of a trapezoidal plate, with broader end 
distad, distal margin thickened and apparently submembranous. First valvifers of ovipositor 
each with inner margin produced mesad at base in a subtriangular lobe, acute at its apex. 

cj (brachypterous) : length, 3-3 mm. °- : length, 3-6-3-8 mm. ; tegmen, 4-0 mm. 

Holotype <J, New Zealand : Levin, 22.iv.50 (R. A. Cumber), in collection of the 
Entomology Division, D.S.I.R., Nelson. 

Paratypes, 1 $, same data; Pukebi, F., 1 $, 5 . iii . 50 (R. A. Cumber) ; Paiaka, 
Manawatu, 1 $, 29.1.51 (T. E. Woodward), 1 $, 4.L50 (R. A. Cumber). 

This remarkable species has all the appearance of an alohine. The condition of 
the post-tibial spur is indeterminate ; it is short, very thick, with the lower surface 
flattened and slightly recessed below the margins, the teeth, ten to twelve, are short 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



3i 



and small, but well separated. For the present it is best placed in the Alohini, in 
which it comes nearest to Nesodryas. The tegminal shape and venation, however, 
are very appreciably different from those found in Nesodryas. 

HAPLODELPHAX Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, 1907c! : 145. 
Orthotype, Haplodelphax iuncicola Kirkaldy. 




Figs. 95-104. Eorissa cicatrifrons sp. n. 95, Frons and clypeus ; 96, head and thorax of 
brachypterous form, dorsal view ; 97, head in profile ; 98, mesonotum of macrop- 
terous form, dorsal view ; 99, tegmen (brachypterous) ; ioo, tegmen (macropterous); 
101, <$ genitalia, posterior view ; 102, <$ genitalia, right side ; 103, aedeagus, right 
side ; 104, base of ovipositor, ventral view, with pregenital sclerite in upper third of 
illustration. 



32 



R. G. FENNAH 



Haplodelphax iuncicola Kirkaldy 

(Text-figs. 105-107) 
Kirkaldy, 1907c! : 146. 

Australia : New South Wales, Wee Jaspar, 4 $, 7.L55, on grasses and sedges 
(T. E. Woodward) ; S. E. Victoria, Bonang, 1 $, 9.1.55 (T. E. Woodward) ; Victoria, 
Lancefield, 1 $, 14.1.55 (T. E. Woodward) ; Lockyer, 1 $, 24.viii.39, on lucerne 
(Dept. of Agric.) ; Brisbane, 1 $, 9.XH.55 [W. F. Wildin). 

Kirkaldy separated the species naias from iuncicola in the brachypterous form by 
means of the pattern of markings on the abdominal terga. In the above series from 
Wee Jaspar, the range of markings includes patterns described as characteristic of 
each species. A specimen of this series was kindly compared with the type by Dr. 
J. W. Beardsley, and he reported that it appeared to be nearest to H. iuncicola. 





Figs. 105-107. Haplodelphax iuncicola Kirkaldy. 105, Frons and clypeus ; 106, head 
and thorax, dorsal view ; 107, head in profile. 



Haplodelphax euronotianus Kirkaldy 

(Text-figs. 108-110) . 
Kirkaldy, ioo7d : 146. 

Australia : Sydney, 1 topotypic <$, 85 . 119 (C. Darwin) [collected during voyage 
of the "Beagle". Presented to B.M.(N.H.) by G. Waterhouse in 1855.] 

The type-specimen of this species is not in the collection of the H.S.P.A., and 
cannot at present be traced. Kirkaldy separated H. euronotianus from the two other 
original species of the genus, iuncicola and naias, by its relatively longer vertex, 
which is described as being one half longer than wide between the eyes. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



33 






Haplodelphax euronotianus Kirkaldy. 108, Frons and clypeus; 109, 
vertex and pronotal disc ; no, head in profile. 



Haplodelphax darwini sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 111-119) 

Vertex longer medially than broad at base (about i-i : 1), strongly rounding into frons, 
distinctly narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins straight, weakly diverging basad, 
apical margin strongly convex with submedian carinae not prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, 
submedian carinae uniting before apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind 
margin than greatest length (1-5 : i), and than median length (i-8 : 1) ; frons in middle line 
longer than wide at widest part (2-8 : 1), widest at middle, lateral margins very shallowly 
convex, almost parallel, median carina simple ; clypeus at base very slightly wider than frons at 
apex, post-clypeal disc as long as broad at base, in profile weakly convex, anteclypeus in profile 
rather strongly curved caudad ; entire clypeus in profile moderately convex ; rostrum reaching 
to level of mesotrochanters ; antennae scarcely surpassing level of frontoclypeal suture, basal 
segment longer than broad (1-2 : 1), second segment longer than first (2:1); ocelli small. 
Pronotum with disc slightly shorter in middle line than broad at anterior margin (1 : i-i), lateral 
carinae straight, not attaining hind margin. Post-tibial spur with about 13 teeth. 

Anal segment of $ short, broader than long, lateroapical angles widely separated, a pair of 
stout spinose processes arising laterobasally on ventral surface, curving caudad then dorsad. 
Pygofer moderately long, posterior opening a little longer than broad, dorsolateral angles feebly 
produced and slightly inflected ; diaphragm with dorsal margin deeply concave, subrectangulately 
excavate at middle, where it is slightly thickened and contiguous with its ventral margin ; 
medioventral process present in form of a small coarsely granulate knob. Aedeagus moderately 
long, tubular, slightly laterally compressed and decurved in distal half, two rows of coarse teeth, 
about six in each, dorsally in distal half, and two rows each of about five teeth ventrally in distal 
half, orifice terminal. Genital styles simple, moderately long, narrow, subcylindrical, weakly 
sinuate in lateral view, arcuate in posterior view, incurved distally, and bluntly rounded at apex. 

cf : length, 2-2 mm. 

Holotype <$ (brachypterous), Australia: King George's Sound, 85.119. (C. 
Darwin) [collected during voyage of the " Beagle "], in B.M. (N.H.). 



This species differs from H. euronotianus in its relatively shorter vertex, and from 
naias in its relatively longer vertex. From iuncicola it differs in the subparallel 
lateral margins of the frons (these being distinctly arcuate in H. iuncicola) and in the 
union of the submedian carinae being more remote from the apex of the head. 
3 



34 



R. G. FENNAH 




Figs. 111-119. Haplodelphax darwini sp. n. 
thorax, dorsal view ; 113, head in profile ; 
view ; 11 6, anal segment of o\ ventral view ; 
aedeagus, left side ; 119, genital style. 



in, Frons and clypeus ; 112, head and 

114, tegmen ; 115, 6* genitalia, posterior 

117, median portion of diaphragm ; 118, 



ANCHODELPHAX gen. n. 

Vertex as long as broad, or a little longer, subrectangularly or obtusely rounding into frons, 
as wide at apex as at base, lateral margins straight, apical margin transverse-convex with sub- 
median carinae a little prominent, Y-shaped carinae distinct, submedian carinae uniting at apex 
of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (1-7 or i-8 : 1) ; 
frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (1-8-2-0 : 1), median carina simple, clypeus 
at base a iittle wider than frons at apex ; post-clypeal disc shorter in middle line than broad at 
base ; rostrum long, attaining or surpassing post-trochanters, antennae with basal segment 
longer than broad (1-4 : 1), second segment longer than first (about 1-7 : 1), third segment rather 
elongate, cylindrical at base of flagellum ; ocelli small. Pronotum with disc longer in middle 
line than broad at anterior margin (about 1-3 : 1), lateral carinae not attaining hind margin ; 
legs rather short and stout, post-tibial spur shallowly tectiform with 12-15 small teeth. 

Type-species, Anchodelphax olenus sp. n. 

In general structure, members of this genus resemble those of Toya or Syndelphax, 
but may readily be distinguished by the distinctly long rostrum. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



35 



Anchodelphax olenus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 120-126) 

Vertex as long submedially as broad at base, obtusely rounding into frons, as wide at apex as 
at base, lateral margins straight, apical margin truncate or slightly convex with submedian 
carinae slightly prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting at apex of 
vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (1-7 : 1) and than 
median length (2:1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (about 2:1), widest at 
middle, lateral margins shallowly convex ; median carina simple or forked only at extreme base ; 
clypeus at base a little wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc shorter in middle line than broad 
at base (1 : 1-2), in profile almost straight, anteclypeus separated by a transverse impression 
from postclypeus, in profile rather strongly convex, so that entire clypeus in profile is rather 
strongly convex ; rostrum with subapical segment surpassing mesotrochanters, apical segment 
attaining post trochanters ; antennae reaching little beyond frontoclypeal suture, basal segment 
longer than broad (1-4 : i), second segment longer than first (1-7 : 1). Ocelli present, rather 
small. Pronotum with disc longer in middle line than broad at anterior margin (1-4 : 1), lateral 
carinae concave, not very strongly diverging, not attaining hind margin ; post-tibial spur with 
13-15 teeth. 

Dark castaneous : carinae of frons and clypeus, vertex, pronotum and mesonotum, antennae, 
rostrum, legs and abdominal sternites of $ in part, and ovipositor, testaceous. 

Anal segment of <$ short, ring-like, lateroapical angles moderately close to one another, each 
produced ventrolaterad in a stout flattened spinose process, at base of segment on each side 
ventrally a long thin spine directed ventrad. Pygofer moderately long, posterior opening as 




Figs. 120-126. Anchodelphax olenus sp. n. 120, Frons and clypeus ; 121, head and 
thorax, dorsal view; 122, head in profile; 123, <$ genitalia, posterior view; 124, 
anal segment of $, left side ; 125, aedeagus ; 126, genital style. 



36 R.G.FENNAH 

broad as long, dorsal margin broadly excavate, dorsolateral angles moderately produced, obtuse 
in side view, diaphragm narrow with dorsal margin V-shaped and produced medially dorsad in a 
long bifurcate lobe ; medio ventral process absent. Aedeagus rather long, tubular, with a ridge 
along ventral margin, orifice subterminal, directed ventrad, apex slightly decurved. Genital 
styles moderately long, inner margin at base moderately produced caudad, thence margins 
sinuately parallel, outer apical angle acute, inner apical angle reflected in an obtusely angulate 
flange. 

First valvifers of ovipositor not produced mesad at base. Pregenital sternite not forming a 
sclerotised lobe. 

o* (brachypterous) : length, 2-0 mm. $ (brachypterous) : length 3-6 mm. 

Holotype <£ New Zealand : Manawatu, Paiaka, 5 . i . 50 (R. A . Cumber), in collection 
of Entomology Division, D.S.I.R., Nelson. 

Paratypes, 3 <$, 1 nymph, same data, 18 $, 9?, 1 mutilated specimen, 5.L50, on 
Muehlenbeckia australis (T. E. Woodward) ; Auckland, Western Springs, 1 <$, 22.iv.51 
(T. E. Woodward) ; Wellington, Ngahuaranga Gorge, 1 <$, 1 9, i.ii.51 (7\ E. Wood- 
ward) ; Levin (south of), Otaki R., 10 g, 4 $, 21 nymphs, 1 mutilated specimen, 
sweeping Convolvulus and Muehlenbeckia (T. E. Woodward) ; HE4 5 Road, RS 37 
Paddock, 1 $, 1 $ ; Three Kings Group, S.W. Id., 2 <$, 1 $, 13.1.50, on Lepidium 
oleraceum (T. E. Woodward). 

Anchodelphax hagnon sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 127-133) 

Vertex slightly longer submedially than broad at base (i-i : 1), subrectangularly rounding 
into frons, as wide at apex as at base, lateral margins straight, apical margin transverse, with 
submedian carinae distinctly prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting 
at apex of vertex or at extreme base of frons, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin 
than greatest length (about i-8 : 1) and than median length (2:1); frons in middle line longer 
than wide at widest part (i-8 : 1), widest at two-thirds from base, lateral margins shallowly 
convex, median carina simple ; clypeus at base a little wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc 
shorter in middle line than broad at base (1 : 1 ■ 1 ) , in profile slightly convex, anteclypeus in profile 
strongly curved caudad, so that entire clypeus in profile is moderately convex. Rostrum with 
subapical segment attaining post-coxae, apical segment almost surpassing post-trochanters ; 
antennae reaching little beyond level of frontoclypeal suture, basal segment longer than broad 
(1-4 : 1), second segment longer than first (i-6 : 1). Ocelli small. Pronotum with disc longer in 
middle line than broad at anterior margin (about 1-3 : 1), lateral carinae straight, not attaining 
hind margin. Post-tibial spur thin, with twelve teeth. 

Testaceous ; carinae of head and thorax, margins of thoracic segments and abdominal seg- 
ments and legs, dorsal mid-line of abdomen, anal segment and posterior margin of pygofer, 
stramineous. Apical segment of tarsi, genital styles and diaphragm of male and third valvulae 
of ovipositor at apex, fuscous. Tegmina (brachypterous) translucent, margins and veins strami- 
neous. 

Anal segment of $ rather short, lateroapical angles each produced ventrocaudad in a shallow 
lobe, a pair of stout, moderately long spinose processes at middle of ventral surface. Pygofer 
moderately long, posterior opening as broad as long, dorsolateral angles not produced, lateral 
margin in side view shallowly convex. Diaphragm narrow with dorsal margin very strongly 
produced dorsad medially in a V-shaped trough ; medio ventral process absent. Aedeagus 
moderately long, tubular, slightly sinuate, with about three small teeth on dorsal margin near 
apex ; orifice laterally at apex, apparently on left. Genital styles moderately long, in posterior 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



37 




Figs. 127-133. Anchodelphax hagnon sp. n. 127, Frons and clypeus ; 128, head and 
thorax, dorsal view ; 129, head in profile ; 130, pygofer, posterior view ; 131, anal 
segment of $, left side ; 132, aedeagus, left side ; 133, genital style. 

view rather narrow, parallel sided, and shallowly bifurcate at apex ; in lateral view slightly 
produced caudad basally, as shown in figure. 

$. No plate developed medially on pregenital sternite ; ovipositor with third valvulae 
distinctly longitudinally impressed near base. 

o* (brachypterous) : length, 2-0 mm. $ (brachypterous) : length, 2-2 mm. 

Holotype $, New Zealand : Wellington, Titahi Bay, i.xi.51, on Pimelia (T. E. 
Woodward), in Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Paratypes, 6 <$, 10 $, 1 mutilated specimen, same data, in Queensland Museum, 
and in collection of the Entomology Division, D.S.I.R., Nelson. 

The structure of the anal segment of the <$ resembles that of Delphax geranor Kirk., 
but the two species differ in the armature of the diaphragm. 

TAROPHAGUS Zimmerman 

Zimmerman, 1948 : 245. 

Orthotype, Megamelus proserpina Kirkaldy, I907d : 147. 



Tarophagus proserpina australis subsp. n. 

(Text-figs. 134-137) 

Vertex as long medially as broad at base, subrectangularly rounding into frons, distinctly 
narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins straight, apical margin shallowly convex, with 



38 R. G. FENNAH 

submedian carinae only weakly prominent, Y-shaped carina weak, submedian carinae not 
uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest 
length (1-7 : i), and than median length (2:1); frons in middle line longer than wide at widest 
part (2-1 : 1), widest at apex, lateral margins shallowly sinuately diverging, median carina 
forked at one quarter from base, clypeus at base not wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc as 
long as broad at base, in profile very shallowly convex, almost straight, anteclypeus in profile 
weakly convex ; entire clypeus in profile moderately convex ; rostrum just attaining post- 
trochanters ; antennae reaching almost to level of apex of post-clypeus, basal segment longer 
than broad (2-1 : 1), second segment longer than first (1-4:1); ocelli small. Pronotum with disc 
shorter in middle line than broad at anterior margin (1 : 1-2), lateral carinae straight, scarcely 
attaining hind margin. Total length of mesonotum greater than that of scutellum (2-2 : 1). 
Post-tibial spur with about 36 teeth. Tegmina much surpassing abdomen, deeply rounded 
apically : Sc + R fork and Cu x fork at same level, slightly distad of middle, both much distad of 
union of claval veins. 

Castaneous ; a broad band from vertex to apex of scutellum, creamy-white ; rostrum, 
mesopleurites marginally, post-coxae, tibiae apically, and second post-tarsal segment, 
stramineous. Tegmina castaneous, apical cells of R mostly colourless, commissural margin of 
clavus white. Wings dilute fuscous, with fuscous veins. 

Anal segment of male short, collar-like, lateroapical angles contiguous, each produced ventrad 
in a stout, tapering spinose process. Pygofer rather long, posterior opening about as long as 
broad, dorsolateral angles shortly produced, weakly inflected, diaphragm with dorsal margin 
excavate ; lateral margins below middle each strongly produced caudad in a stout process, 
tapering distad to an obliquely truncate apex ; medioventral process knob-like, on a stout stalk. 
Aedeagus only moderately long, laterally compressed, decurved in distal half, a short flagellum 
arising dorsally at apex, reflected cephalad above aedeagus for half its length, moderately 
expanding distad, bifurcate apically in two equal acuminate processes. Genital styles strongly 
divergent, each rather short, broad basally, tapering rapidly to narrow truncate apex, of which 
outer angle is acutely produced laterad. 

<J : length, 2-8 mm., tegmen, 3-0 mm. $ : length, 3-2 mm., tegmen, 3-5 mm. 

Holotype $ of subspecies, Australia : Queensland, Gordonvale, 16.ii.36 
(R. W. Mungomery) at light, in B.M. (N.H.). 

Paratypes, 2 $, same data, 16, 19.ii.36. 

This subspecies is distinguished from the typical subspecies from Fiji by the form 
of the vertex and of the J genitalia. In the typical subspecies the ventrolateral 
processes of the pygofer are large and broad, with the distal margin convex, and the 
outer distal angle acute, whereas in T. proserpina australis they are not large and 
each tapers rapidly to a short oblique apical margin. 

The writer has not seen any two examples of this genus that differ in the trilobate 
margin of the pygofer and occur side by side in the same area. The form of the lobes 
appears to be characteristic of the population in each locality, and on present evidence 
it would appear that T. proserpina is a polytypic species. 

ACRODELPHAX gen. n. 

Vertex declivous, longer submedially than broad at base (about 1-4 : 1), Y-shaped carina 
feeble, submedian carinae uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider than 
greatest length (about 1-3:1); frons longer than broad (about 1-7 : 1), lateral margins distinctly 
arcuate, median carina simple, rather thick ; clypeus at base not wider than frons at apex, 
postclypeal disc as broad at base as long in middle ; rostrum long, attaining post-trochanters ; 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 39 

136 




Figs. 134-137. Tarophagus proserpina australis ssp. n. 134, $ genitalia, posterior view ; 
135, process on ventral margin of pygofer, ventral view ; 136, aedeagus, left side ; 
137, genital styles. 

antennae reaching about to level of middle of clypeus, basal segment longer than broad (about 
1-5 : 1), second segment longer than first (nearly 1-7 : 1), ocelli minute ; pronotum with disc 
longer in middle line than broad at anterior margin (about 1-4 : 1), all carinae of disc prominent, 
lateral carinae straight, not strongly diverging, almost attaining hind margin ; mesonotum with 
disc smooth, almost polished, all carinae prominent and discal area between them shallowly con- 
cave ; protibiae as long as profemora, post-tibiae with apical teeth stout, rather short, not deeply 
cleft or strongly splayed out ; post-tibial spur with about 13 teeth. 

Anal segment of <J short. Pygofer moderately short with posterior opening a little longer than 
broad ; no medioventral process present. 

Type-species, Acrodelphax thimbron sp. n. 

This genus occupies a rather isolated position. Its members are most easily 
recognisable by the coarse and prominent carination of the frons, vertex, pronotum 
and mesonotum, the relatively long rostrum, by the relative length of the pronotum 
and the smooth, rather polished, intercarpal areas of the mesonotum, and by the 
moderate number of teeth on the post-tibial spur. 



Acrodelphax thimbron sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 138-145) 

Vertex longer submedially than broad at base (nearly 1-4 : 1), subrectangularly rounding into 
frons, very slightly narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins almost straight, apical margin 
truncate with submedian carinae prominent, Y-shaped carina feeble, submedian carinae uniting 
at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length 
(1*3 : 1) and than median length (about 1-4 : 1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest 
part (17 : 1), widest near middle, lateral margins distinctly arcuate, median carinae simple, 



4 o 



R. G. FENNAH 



coarse ; clypeus at base not wider than frons at apex, post-clypeal disc as broad at base as long 
in middle line, in profile moderately convex, its median carina not as prominent as that of frons ; 
anteclypeus in profile rather strongly curved caudad, so that entire clypeus in profile is rather 
strongly convex, rostrum with subapical segment surpassing mesotrochanters, apical segment 
reaching post-trochanters ; antennae reaching to level of middle of clypeus, basal segment longer 
than broad (1-5 : 1), second segment longer than first (nearly 1-7 : 1), ocelli minute ; pronotum 
with disc longer in middle line than broad at anterior margin (1-4 : 1), lateral carinae straight, 
not strongly diverging, almost attaining hind margin ; post-tibial spur with 13 teeth. 

Stramineous ; intercarinal areas of frons, anterior compartment of genae, mesonotum po- 
teriorly, pleurites and coxae, abdominal terga laterally and sternites except at margins, pygofer 
laterally and on diaphragm, fuscous. Tegmina yellowish hyaline, costa and clavus at base, and 
a suffusion in apical third and anal angle beyond apex of clavus, castaneous. 




Figs. 138-145. Acrodelphax thimbron sp. n. 138, Frons and clypeus ; 139, head and 
thorax, dorsal view ; 140, head in profile ; 141, <J genitalia, posterior view ; 142, $ 
genitalia, left side ; 143, anal segment of $, left side ; 144, aedeagus, left side ; 145, 
genital style. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 41 

Anal segment of £ short, ring-like, lateroapical angles distinctly separated, margin between 
them membranous, each produced ventrad in a long slender spinose process which appears as if 
annulate. Pygofer moderately long, posterior opening longer than broad, dorsolateral angles 
distinctly produced, inflected mesad, rectangulate ; diaphragm strongly impressed, dorsal 
margin rectangulately excavate, medially with a vertical ridge, lateral margins oblique, no 
medioventral process present. Aedeagus short, laterally compressed, moderately expanding 
distad, bluntly rounded apically with two tracts of teeth subapically on left side, one tract in 
dorsal half, with three rows of teeth, the other in ventral half, with four rows of teeth ; orifice 
apical. Genital styles rather long, narrow, sinuately tapering to near apex, abruptly expanded 
with inner and outer apical angles subacutely and about equally produced mesad and laterad, 
respectively. 

<J : length (brachypterous) 2-4 mm. 

Holotype <$, Australia : New South Wales, Barrington Tops, 22.xii.54 (T. E. 
Woodward) , in Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 



IZELLA gen. n. 

Vertex moderately declivous, longer submedially than broad at base (about 1-3 : 1), rather 
shallowly rounding into frons, about as wide apically as at base, apical margin truncate, Y-shaped 
carina feeble, submedian carinae uniting at apex of vertex or at extreme base of frons, basal 
compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (about 1-4 : 1) ; frons longer 
than broad (nearly 2:1), lateral margins shallowly arcuate, median carina simple or forked at 
extreme base ; clypeus at base slightly wider than frons at apex, post-clypeal disc longer in 
middle line than broad at base (about 1-2 : 1) ; antennae reaching almost to level of apex of post- 
clypeus, basal segment longer than broad (about 1-5 : 1), second segment longer than first (about 
1 -5 : 1) ; ocelli obsolete ; pronotum with disc longer in middle line than broad at anterior margin 
(about i-i : 1), lateral carinae concave, not attaining hind margin ; mesonotum shallowly 
convex, surface minutely granulate, carinae of disc fine, not at all prominent ; protibiae as long 
as profemora ; post-tibiae with apical teeth moderately short, not strongly splayed out ; post- 
tibial spur with about 22 teeth. 

Anal segment of <$ short. Pygofer moderately long, posterior opening slightly longer than 
broad ; no medioventral process present. 

Type-species, Izella triopas sp. n. 

This genus may possibly prove to be most readily recognizable by the strong 
characters of the genitalia in both sexes. These apart, its members may be recog- 
nized by the combined characters of a narrow flat frons, a long rostrum, a relatively 
long pronotum with carinae nearly reaching the hind margin, and a convex granulate 
mesonotum with very fine carinae. The general build is comparatively stout. 

Izella triopas sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 146-153) 

Vertex longer submedially than broad at base (1-3 : 1) obtusely rounding into frons, as wide at 
apex as at base, lateral margins straight, apical margin truncate with submedian carinae a little 
prominent, Y-shaped carina feeble, submedian carinae uniting at apex of vertex or at extreme 
base of frons, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (1-4 : 1) 
and than median length (i-6 : 1), frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (1-9 : 1), 



42 



R. G. FENNAH 



widest near middle, lateral margins shallowly arcuate, median carina prominent, rather coarse, 
forked at extreme base, clypeus at base very slightly wider than frons at apex, its median carina 
as strongly developed as that of frons, postclypeal disc longer than broad at base (nearly 1-2 : i), 
in profile rather strongly convex, anteclypeus in profile moderately curved caudad so that entire 
clypeus in profile is rather strongly convex ; rostrum long, surpassing meso-trochanters, and 
nearly attaining post-trochanters ; antennae reaching almost to level of apex of post-clypeus, 
basal segment longer than broad (1-5 : 1), second segment longer than first (nearly 1-5 : 1). 
Ocelli obsolete, represented only by a scar. Pronotum with disc longer in middle line than broad 
at anterior margin (about i-i : 1), lateral carinae strongly concave, not attaining hind margin. 
Post-tibial spur with 22 teeth. 

Fuscous-piceous ; carinae of frons and clypeus, posterior half of pronotum, posterior margin 
of ninth tergum, dorsal margin and lateral margins of pygofer, and anal style, stramineous to 
creamy white ; antennae and legs testaceous, post-tibiae and mesotibiae distally paler ; first 
valvifers of ovipositor rather broadly ochraceous on mesal border. Metafemora fuscous. Teg- 
mina (brachypterous) castaneous-piceous, posterior margin broadly creamy-white. 

Anal segment of o* short, ring-like, lateroapical angles each produced ventrad in a broad rather 
short spinose process. Pygofer moderately long, posterior opening slightly longer than broad, 
dorsolateral angles not or only feebly produced, lateral margins strongly sinuate ; diaphragm 
with dorsal margin moderately broad, distinctly produced caudad at middle in a knob-like 
process flattened on its upper surface ; medioventral process absent. Aedeagus moderately 
long, porrect caudad, serrate on both margins, orifice ventrally at apex. Genital styles moder- 
ately long, sinuate, inner margins parallel in basal half, strongly concave distally, exterior margin 
strongly convex distally, apical angle acute, directed mesad. 




Figs. 146-153. Izella triopas sp. n. 146, Frons and clypeus ; 147, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 148, head in profile ; 149, $ genitalia, posterior view ; 150, anal 
segment of o\ left side ; 151, median part of upper margin of diaphragm, posterolateral 
view from left ; 152, aedeagus, left side, 153, genital style. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 43 

Pregenital sternite of $ a little produced caudad at middle in a shallowly convex lobe, deflexed 
at margin. First valvifers of ovipositor each strongly produced mesad in an acutely angulate 
lobe, of which the apical portion is shallowly reflected. 

o* (brachypterous) : length, 2-1 mm. $ (brachypterous) : length, 3-2 mm. 

Holotype <$, New Guinea: Central Highlands, Daulo Pass, c. 8,000 ft., 20-22. viii. 
56 (T. E. Woodward) , in Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 

Paratypes, same data, 3 $. 

THRASYMEMNON gen. n. 

Vertex longer medially than broad at base (about 1-3 : 1), subrectangularly rounding into 
frons, slightly narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins straight or shallowly concave, 
apical margin transverse with submedian carinae moderately prominent, Y-shaped carina 
present, submedian carinae not uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at 
hind margin than greatest length ; frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (approxi- 
mately 2-5 : 1), widest near middle, lateral margins shallowly arcuate, median carina forked in 
basal half ; postclypeal disc rather longer than broad at base, in profile weakly convex ; rostrum 
surpassing mesotrochanters, almost attaining post-trochanters ; antennae slightly surpassing 
frontoclypeal suture, basal segment twice as long as broad, second segment longer than first 
(about 1-7 : 1) ; ocelli prominent. Pronotum with disc slightly longer in middle line than broad 
at anterior margin, lateral carinae straight or weakly convex, almost attaining hind margin. 
Post-tibial spur with about 16 teeth, including one at apex. 

Anal segment of o* short, lateroapical angles indistinct, not produced in a process. Pygofer 
moderately long, posterior opening distinctly longer dorsoventrally than broad, ventral margin 
produced caudad in a process medially ; diaphragm broad. 

Type-species, Delphax kaha Kirkaldy. 

Thrasymemnon kaha (Kirkaldy) comb. n. 

(Text-figs. 154-158) 
Delphax kaha Kirkaldy, 1907 : 158. 

Australia : Queensland, Tambourine Mts., 1 $, 18-25. v. 35 [R- E- Turner) B.M. 
1935-240. 

Muir (191yd : 328) placed this species in Megamelus, a delphacine genus denned at 
that time largely by the proportions of the vertex and the direction of the lateral 
discal carinal of the pronotum. The <$ genitalic structure of D. kaha, however, is 
entirely different from that of Megamelus notula Germar (type-species of Megamelus) 
and its allies, and the ocelli are well developed, not feeble. In superficial appearance 
D. kaha resembles a Sardia or Sogatodes, but the rostrum is distinctly longer than in 
either, and the structure of the vertex differs markedly from that of the former. 
From Matutinus the present genus is readily distinguishable by the form of the spur, 
which has teeth in a single row with a separated and well developed apical tooth : the 
latter is obsolete or weak in Matutinus and the teeth are usually arranged in two 
staggered rows. 



44 



R. G. FENNAH 




Figs. 154-158. Thrasymemnon kaha (Kirkaldy). 154, Frons and clypeus ; 155, vertex 
and pronotum ; 156, head in profile ; 157, antenna ; 158, tegmen. 

SARDIA Melichar 
Melichar, 1903b : 96. 
Haplotype, Sardia rostrata Melichar, 1903b : 96. 



Sardia rostrata pluto (Kirkaldy) stat. n. 

Hadeodelphax pluto Kirkaldy, 1906c : 313. 

Australia : S.E. Queensland, Bell Bunya Rd., 2 $, 4 $, 11.viii.55 (T. E. Wood- 
ward) ; Brisbane, 1 $, 10.iii.46 (R. Simmons) ; 1 <J, 3.XL57 (P. C. Kerridge) ; 1 $, 
4.iv.56 (W. Jones), 1 $, 4.U1.55. (B. R. Grant) ; 1^,1 $, 31.iii.56 (Kirkpatrick) , 
1 <$, 9.iv.56. (T. E. Woodward) ; Cleveland, 1 $, 10.iii.57 (A^. Yarrow) ; Queensland, 
5 miles from Kingarry, 1 <$, 5.VL59 (E. Exley) ; Northern Territory, Glen Ormiston, 
1 nymph, 18.viii.59 (E. M. Exley) ; Queensland, Lamington Nat. Pk., 1 $, 27. v. 59 
(F. R. Perkins) ; Lawes, 2 ^, 6.XU.56, 8.L57 (W- F- Wildin) ; Nosman, 1 $, 12. xi. 
58 (/. Resaeva) B.M. 1960-203. 

The writer has examined material of both sexes of rostrata from Ceylon (the type 
locality of this species), of pluto from Queensland, and of populations from India, 
Pakistan, Saigon, Cocos Id., New Britain, and Sunday Id., and cannot find any clear- 
cut line of division to suggest the existence of two species. The most obvious 
difference between the population in Ceylon and that in Queensland is the length of 
the vertex, but a range of intermediate stages has been found in areas more or less 
intervening. 

Sardia persephone (Kirkaldy) 
(Text-figs. 159-162) 

Liburnia fumipennis Melichar, 1903b : 97 (preoccupied by Liburnia fumipennis Fieber, 1872a : 
6), syn. n. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 

Hadeodelphax persephone Kirkaldy, 1907CI : 141. 
Sardia pronotalis Distant, 1916a : 141, syn. n. 

Australia : Lawes, 1 $, iii.53 (R. M. Beames). 



45 




Figs. 159-162. Sardia persephone (Kirkaldy). 159, Frons and clypeus ; 160, vertex and 
pronotum ; 161, head in profile ; 162, tegmen (apical portion incomplete). 



SOGATODES Fennah 



Fennah, 1963 : 71. 

Orthotype, Sogatodes molinus Fennah, op. cit. 



72. 



Sogatodes nicias sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 163-170) 

Vertex longer submedially than broad at base (1-4 : 1), subacutely rounding into frons, almost 
as wide at apex as at base, lateral margins straight, apical margin truncate with submedian 
carinae slightly prominent, Y-shaped carina feeble, only its anterior arms distinct, submedian 
carinae uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest 
length (about 1-4 : 1) and than median length (1-7 : 1) ; frons in middle line longer than wide at 
widest part (2-4 : 1), widest in distal half, lateral margins constricted between eyes, then parallel 
to frontoclypeal suture, median carina simple, clypeus at base little, if at all, wider than frons at 
apex, postclypeal disc as long as broad at base, in profile very shallowly convex, almost straight, 
anteclypeus in profile moderately convex, so that entire clypeus in profile is rather shallowly 
convex ; antennae attaining frontoclypeal suture, basal segment longer than broad (i-8 : 1), 
second segment longer than first (i-6 : 1). Pronotum with disc longer in middle line than broad 
at anterior margin (1-4 : 1) lateral carinae straight, not attaining hind margin. Total length of 
mesonotum longer than that of mesoscutellum (about 2-7 : 1). Post-tibial spur with 25-26 
teeth. 

Fuscous ; carinae of frons and clypeus, vertex, most of disc and lateral lobes of pronotum, 
disc of mesonotum and mesoscutellum and posterior margin of pygofer dorsally, creamy-white ; 



4 6 



R. G. FENNAH 



disc of clypeus between carinae, antennae, fore and middle legs, light testaceous ; hind legs 
stramineous or sordid white. Tegmina hyaline, most of corium and posterior half of membrane 
suffused fuscous, veins concolorous. Wings milky hyaline with fuscous veins. 

Anal segment of £ short, ring-like, lateroapical angles each strongly produced ventrocephalad 
in a short stout spinose process, flattened laterally. Pygofer moderately long, posterior opening 
ovate, longer dorsoventrally than broad, dorsolateral angles not produced caudad, lateral margins 
oblique, diaphragm moderately broad, produced caudad in median portion, with dorsal margin 
elevated at middle ; no medioventral process developed. Aedeagus tubular, sinuately tapering 
to acuminate apex. Genital styles short, twisted at middle, slightly expanded distally, inner 
apical angle acute, outer apical angle bluntly rounded. 

$ : length, 2-3 mm., tegmen, 3-1 mm. $ : length, 2-4 mm., tegmen, 3-2 mm. 

Holotype $, New Guinea : W. Highlands, Al Valley, c. 6,000 ft., 25.viii.56 (T. E. 
Woodward), in Queensland Museum. 

Paratype, 1 $, same data. 

This species is referred provisionally to Sogatodes on account of the shape of the 
head and the structure of most elements of the <$ genitalia. It is distinguished from 
other species of the genus by the shape of the armature of the diaphragm, in which it 
agrees only with Sogata anomala Muir. From this species it is separated by the short 
genital styles and the pattern of spinose ornamentation on the aedeagus. 

Sogatodes eupompe (Kirkaldy) comb. n. 

Delphax eupompe Kirkaldy, iQx>7d : 150. 

Australia : Queensland, Babinda, 1 $, n.x.35 (R. W. Mungomery). 




Figs. 163-170. Sogatodes nicias sp. n. 163, Frons and clypeus ; 164, vertex and pro- 
notum ; 165, head in profile ; 166, <$ genitalia, posterior view ; 167, anal segment of 
(J, left side ; 168, diaphragm of pygofer ; 169, aedeagus, left side ; 170, genital style. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 47 

CORONACELLA Metcalf 

Metcalf, 1950 : 59. 

Orthotype, Coronacella kirkaldyi (Muir), 1917c! : 329. (= C. bella Mete.) 

Coronacella kirkaldyi (Muir) 

Australia : Queensland, Cairns, 2 <$, viii.1904, B.M. 1942-95. 

The two males before the writer show interesting differences that for their inter- 
pretation require the study of further material. In one, the frons is relatively longer 
than in the other, and the clypeus is distinctly carinate medially, and the carina, like 
the lateral carinae, is creamy white. In the other the clypeus is ecarinate medially, 
and the disc is infuscate, only the lateral carinae being pale. The $ genitalia of the 
former specimen agree generally with those of the second, but all elements appear to 
be a little longer. 

SOGATELLA Fennah 

Fennah, 1956 : 471. 

Orthotype, Delphax furcifera Horvath. 

Sogatella kolophon (Kirkaldy) 

Delphax kolophon Kirkaldy, 1907c! : 157. 

Australia : Brisbane, 1 $, 24.iii.55 (Z). Greenhill), 1 $, 10.xii.55 (W. F. Wildin), 
2 (J, 19. hi. 54 (K. L. S. Harley), 1 <$, iv.54 (R. Domrow), 1 £, 12.x. 56 (J. Martin) ; 
S. Queensland, Lamington Nat. Pk., 1 mutilated specimen, 4. v. 56 (I. G. Yeo) ; Mog- 
gil, 2 $, 7.V.55, sweeping grass (T. E. Woodward) ; Queensland, Mackay (c. 100 m. 
S.), Lotus Creek, 1 $, 2.VL56, on grasses (I. C. Yeo) ; Redland Bay, 1 <$, 20. hi. 54 
(G. Hooper) ; Numinbah, 1 $, 20.iv.35 ; Yeerongpilly, 3 <$, 6.XL39, from lucerne 
(W. A. Smith) ; Running Ck., 1 $, 7 9, 15.iv.41 (^4. W. Smith) ; Ashton Pk., near 
Nosman, 1 $, 16.xii.59 (-W. Nickitin) B.M. 1960-203. 

Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) 

Delphax furcifera Horvath, 1899a : 372. 

Australia : Northern Territory, Humpty Doo, 2 <$, 1 $, 12.iv.62 (S. 7. Li). 

Sogatella longifurcifera (Esaki & Ishihara) 

Delphacodes longifurcifera Esaki and Ishihara, 1947 : 41. 

Australia : Lockyer, 1 $ (damaged), 24.vii.39, on lucerne (Dept. of Agric). 

This <$ is tentatively assigned to this species. Its coloration is more intense and 
the medioventral process of the pygofer more distinct than in specimens of this 
species from Formosa. 



48 R. G. FENNAH 

SYNDELPHAX Fennah 
Fennah, 1963 : 15. 
Orthotype, Delphax matanitu Kirkaldy. 

Syndelphax matanitu (Kirkaldy) 

Delphax matanitu Kirkaldy, 190yd : 155. 

Australia : Queensland, Ayr, 1 <$, i.xii.54 (G. Saunders). 

CORBULO gen. n. 

Vertex as long medially as broad at base, or a little longer than broad, obtusely angulately 
rounding into frons, about as wide at apex as at base, apical margin truncate with submedian 
carinae weakly prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting at apex of 
vertex or at extreme base of frons, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than 
greatest length (about 1-5:1); frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (about 2-2 : 
1), widest near middle, lateral margins convex, median carina simple ; clypeus at base scarcely 
wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc as long as broad at base, rostrum not quite reaching 
to post-trochanters ; antennae not or scarcely attaining level of frontoclypeal suture, basal 
segment about as long as broad, second segment longer than first (about i-8 : 1) ; ocelli rather 
small but distinct, blemmata distinct. Pronotum slightly wider than head (with eyes), disc in 
middle line as long as broad at anterior margin, lateral carinae straight, not attaining hind 
margin. Post-tibial spur thin, tectiform with about 20 minute teeth. 

Anal segment of o* moderately short, collar-like, two spinose processes arising apically, directed 
ventrad. Pygofer moderately short, with posterior opening longer dorsoventrally than broad 
or as long as broad, diaphragm moderately narrow. Genital styles rather short. 

Type-species, Delphax dilpa Kirkaldy, igoyd : 162. 

This genus is distinguishable by the combination of characters shown in the 
synopsis. From Coronacella it can be distinguished most readily by its distinctly 
coarser build. This is most evident in the structure of the hind leg, where, in 
Corbulo, the tibia is not greatly longer than the femur, and the spines at its apex are 
large and splay ed-out, whereas the opposite conditions are found in Coronacella. 

Corbulo dilpa (Kirkaldy) 
Delphax dilpa Kirkaldy, 190yd : 162. 

New Zealand : Auckland, Waitangi Est., 1 <?, 18-19. xi. 51 {T. E. Woodward) ; 
HE 4 3 Paddock, 1 $ ; Rotorua, Hannah's Bay, 1 $, 1 $, 4.ii.5i (T. E. Woodward). 

Australia : Queensland, Lam. Nat. Pk., 1 <$, 25. v. 49 (F. A. Perkins) ; Lockhart, 
R. Mission, 1 <$, 8.vi.56, sweeping grass and weeds (E. N. Marks) ; Eight M. Pins., 
1 <$, 14.iv.58 (F. R. From). 

Corbulo dodona sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 171-174) 

Kelisia pallidum Kirkaldy ; Muir, 19 17 : 310 (pars). 

Vertex as long medially as broad at base or slightly longer than broad. Subrectangularly- 
obtusely rounding into frons, slightly narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins straight, 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 49 

apical margin truncate with submedian carinae moderately prominent, Y-shaped carina moder- 
ately distinct, submedian carinae uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider 
at hind margin than greatest length (about 1-5:1); and than median length (i-8 : 1) ; frons in 
middle line longer than wide at widest part (2-2 : 1), widest at two thirds from base, lateral 
margins shallowly convex, median carina simple ; clypeus at base only very little wider than 
frons at apex, postclypeal disc as long as broad at base, in profile very weakly convex, antecly- 
peus in profile weakly convex ; entire clypeus in profile shallowly convex ; rostrum surpassing 
mesotrochanters, but not attaining post-trochanters ; antennae slightly surpassing fronto- 
clypeal suture, basal segment longer than broad (i-6 : 1), second segment longer than first 
(i-8 : 1) ; ocelli distinct, of moderate size. Pronotum with disc slightly longer in middle line 
than broad at anterior margin (i-i : 1), lateral carinae weakly concave, not attaining hind 
margin. Total length of mesonotum greater than that of scutellum (2-4 : 1). Post-tibial spur 
with about 19 teeth. 

Fuscous ; vertex, disc and hind margin of pronotum, carinae of frons and clypeus, basal seg- 
ment of rostrum, ventrites at posterolateral angles, and dorsal angles of pygofer, pallid yellow 
or creamy white ; apical segment of rostrum, antennae and legs testaceous. Tegmina hyaline, 
with very dilute fuscous suffusion, veins fuscous, a linear spot between common claval vein and 
commissural margin dark fuscous, the margin pallid just basad of this. 

Holotype <$, Australia : Deception Bay, 25.iii.54 (Y. B. Beri), in Queensland 
Museum, Brisbane. 

Paratypes, Lamington National Park, 1 <$, 25. v. 59 (F. A. Perkins) ; Moggil, 
1 $, 27.vi.54 (G. Hooper) ; Brisbane, 1 <$, iii.57 (N. McKenna). 

The <$ genitalia of this species have been figured by Muir and very closely resemble 
those of Hawaiian Kelisia pallidum Kirk., to which Muir (loc. cit.) was satisfied that 
this Australian and eastern Asiatic species should be referred. The two species are 
separable by the size of the ocelli, the form of the head and the slope of the lateral 
pronotal carinae. The Fijian form that Muir considered to be annectant between the 
Hawaiian and Australasian populations is a more heavily built insect with dark 
coloration and minute ocelli that are not greatly more distinct than the blemmata. 

SULIX gen. n. 

Species of robust build. Vertex longer submedially than broad at base, if only slightly so, 
subacutely rounding into frons, as wide at apex as at base, lateral margins straight, rather 
coarsely carinate, apical margin transverse or slightly convex, with submedian carinae moder- 
ately prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting at apex of vertex, basal 
compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (approximately 1-5 : 1) ; 
frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (about 2:1), widest at level of lower margin 
of eyes, lateral margins distinctly convex, median carina simple ; clypeus at base slightly or 
even markedly wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc about as long as broad at base, in 
profile convex, anteclypeus in profile evenly curved caudad, so that entire clypeus in profile is 
moderately convex ; rostrum surpassing mesotrochanters ; antennae a little surpassing fronto- 
clypeal suture, basal segment short, slightly longer than broad, second segment longer than first 
(about 2:1); ocelli small or obsolete. Pronotum with disc longer in middle line than broad at 
anterior margin, lateral carinae anteriorly straight, but curved laterad basally, not attaining 
hind margin. Post-tibial spur tectiform, with about 18 teeth. Basal metarsal segment apically 
with seven or eight spines. 

Anal segment of $ with distal margin narrow at middle, otherwise rather broad. Pregenital 
sternite of $ rather thick, produced ventrocaudad in a short narrowly-rounded finger-like lobe. 



5° 



R. G. FENNAH 




Figs. 171-174. Corbulo dodona sp. n. 171, Frons and clypeus ; 172, vertex and pro- 
notum, 173, head in profile ; 174, o* genitalia, posterior view. 



Type-species, Sulix vetranio sp. n. 

This genus is distinguished by the combination of characters given in the key to 
genera. Its members are all of moderate size, with a vertex longer than broad, and 
with coarse carinae, a moderately long rostrum and small ocelli, or none. 



Sulix meridianalis (Muir) comb. n. 

Delphacodes meridianalis Muir, 191 7d : 334. 

In this species the ocelli are small but distinct, and in the J genitalia the dorso- 
lateral angles of the pygofer are inflected and acutely pointed ; the diaphragm is 
narrow in its median portion and is inclined caudad from the ventral to the dorsal 
margin, and no vertical carina is developed in the middle line. 

New Zealand : Three Kings Group, Great Id., East Point, cliff slopes, on and 
under Poa anceps, 9 <$, 11 $, 14.1.51 (T. E. Woodward), 1 $, 2 $, 21 (J. S. Edwards) ; 
Great Id., Castaway Stream, 1 $, io.i.51, on sedges (7\ E. Woodward) ; Great Id., 
Bald Hill, 1 $, 12.1.51, on grasses and rushes (T. E. Woodward) ; Great Id., Tasman 
valley, east side, 1 $, 12.L51, on grasses and sedges (T. E. Woodward) ; S.W. Id. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



51 



I $, 3.1.51, on grasses (T. E. Woodward) ; Wellington, Titahi Bay, 5 <$, 59, i.ii.51, on 
grasses, sedges and rushes (T. E. Woodward); Manawatu, Foxton, 1 <$, 4 $, 28.L51, 
in sand dunes, on Scirpus frondosus (T. E. Woodward). 



Sulix insecutor sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 175-181) 

Vertex longer submedially than broad at base (1-2 : 1), subacutely rounding into frons, rather 
narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins feebly sinuate or straight, apical margin truncate 
with submedian carinae narrowly prominent, Y-shaped carina weak but distinct, submedian 
carinae uniting at apex of vertex or at extreme base of frons, basal compartment of vertex wider 
at hind margin than greatest length (17 : 1) and than median length (i-8 : 1) ; frons in middle 
line longer than wide at widest part (2-3:1); widest at about two-fifths from base, lateral margins 
shallowly arcuate, median carina simple or narrowly forked at extreme base ; clypeus at base not 
wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc as long as broad at base, in profile straight, anteclypeus 
in profile moderately convex, separated from postclypeus by a shallow transverse sulcus, so that 
entire clypeus in profile is shallowly sinuately convex. Rostrum slightly surpassing mesotro- 
chanters. Antennae reaching to frontoclypeal suture, basal segment longer than broad (i-8 : 1), 
second segment longer than first (i'6:i). Ocelli obsolete. Pronotum with disc longer in 




Figs. 175-181. Sulix insecutor sp. n. 175, Frons and clypeus ; 176, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 177, head in profile ; 178, q* genitalia, posterior view ; 179, median 
portion of diaphragm ; 180, aedeagus, left side ; 181, genital style. 

4§ 



5 2 R. G. FENNAH 

middle line than broad at anterior margin (1-2:1), lateral carinae straight or weakly concave, not 
attaining hind margin. Post-tibial spur with 17 teeth. 

Anal segment of o* short, broader than long, lateroapical angles moderately separated, each 
produced ventrad in a slender spinose process. Pygofer longer ventrally than dorsally, posterior 
opening as broad as long ; dorsolateral angles not produced, broadly rounded and very weakly 
inflected, diaphragm moderately narrow with dorsal margin strongly convex in its middle 
portion, and with a fine but distinct vertical carina medially ; medioventral process absent. 
Aedeagus moderately long, tubular, in lateral view with dorsal margin abruptly elevated in 
basal quarter ; about nine very small teeth laterally in the middle ; orifice on ventral surface 
subapically. Genital styles moderately long, rather narrow, sinuately diverging from base and 
tapering to apical quarter, where each expands and curves slightly mesad ; apical margin 
shallowly concave, with inner and outer angles subacutely produced. 

cj (brachypterous) : length, 3-4 mm. 

Holotype <$, New Zealand : Paiaka (Man.) H.E. 41, 4.1.50 (R. A. Cumber), in 
collection of the Entomology Division, D.S.I.R., Nelson. 

Paratype, Paiaka (Man.) H.E. 41, 1 $, 4.1.50 (R. A. Cumber). 

This species is near to 5. meridianalis Muir, but is distinguishable by the dorso- 
lateral angles of the pygofer not being acute or pointed, by the median portion of the 
diaphragm being strongly convex dorsally, vertical, and medially carinate, as opposed 
to weakly convex, obliquely inclined ventrocephalad and medially ecarinate, and by 
the strongly sinuate and tapering form of the genital styles. The species may be 
separated by the ocelli, which are obsolete or represented only by a scar in the present 
species, but present, though small, in S. meridianalis. 

Sulix tasmani (Muir) comb. n. 

Delphacodes tasmani Muir, 1923! : 258. 

In this species the intercarinal areas of the frons are usually dark fuscous, and the 
lateral ocelli distinct. In the <$ genitalia, the lateroapical spinose processes of the 
anal segment are widely separated and the dorsolateral angles of the pygofer are not 
inflected. 

New Zealand : Manawatu, Paiaka, 1 <$, 4.L50 (T. E. Woodward) ; HE 7 RS, 
7, 10, 31, 46, 57, 58, 6 <$, 2 $, 2 mutilated specimens, nymph ; HE7 48 Paddock, 2 <?, 
1 $ ; N. Auckland, near Kaikohe, Punakitere, 3 $, I $, ii.52 (T. E. Woodward) ; 
Hauraki Gulf, Little Barrier Id., 9 <$, 13 $, 11.xii.50, on grasses and sedges (T. E. 
Woodward) ; Little Barrier Id., Te Titoki Point, 1 $, 25 . xi . 54, swept at bush margin, 
(R. A. Harrison) ; Ohakura, 1 $ t 1923 (T. R. Harris) ; Whangarei, 1 <J, 12.xi.23 
(/. G. Myers) ; Mangonui, Paiaka, HE 41, 6 <?, 2 $, 11-14, 11.49, 4, 30.L50, 12.ii.50, 
16.L51 (R. A. Cumber) ; Wellington, Ngahuaranga Gorge, 1 $, i.vii.51 (7\ E. 
Woodward) ; Coromandel Pen., Cape Colville, Te Hope, Moehau Track, 1 <J, 1 §, 
17 . i . 52, grass sward ; Cape Colville, Otautu area, 2 $, 2 $, 16. i . 52 (T. E. Woodward) ; 
Manawatu, Foxton, 1 $, 6 $, 5.L50 (T. E. Woodward) ; Rotorua, Whaka, 3 ^, 
5. ii.52 (T. E. Woodward) ; W. Spirits Bay 1 9, 25.L50, on small-leaved Muehlen- 
beckia (T. E. Woodward). 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



53 



Sulix vetranio sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 182-187) 

Vertex scarcely longer submedially than broad at base (not quite i-i : i), subacutely rounding 
into frons, as wide at apex as at base, lateral margins straight, apical margin transverse with 
submedian carinae moderately prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting 
at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (1-5 : 1) 
and than median length (2:1); frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (2 : 1), 
widest near middle, lateral margins distinctly convex, median carina simple ; clypeus at base 
markedly wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc as long as broad at base, in profile convex, 
anteclypeus in profile evenly curved caudad so that entire clypeus in profile is moderately convex ; 
rostrum surpassing mesotrochanters but not attaining post-trochanters ; antennae a little sur- 
passing frontoclypeal suture, basal segment short, a little longer than broad, second segment 
longer than first (about 2:1); ocelli small. Pronotum with disc longer in middle line than 
broad at anterior margin (nearly i-6 : 1), lateral carinae distally straight, weakly curved laterad 
basally, not attaining hind margin. Post-tibial spur with 18 teeth. 

Stramineous ; a slight suffusion on coxae, abdominal terga anteriorly towards lateral margins, 
and (J genitalia except posterior margin of pygofer, castaneous ; distal part of genital styles more 
yellowish-brown. Tegmina castaneous, entire margin stramineous. 

Anal segment of <$ collar-like, lateroapical angles moderately close together, each produced 
ventrad in a stout spinose process. Pygofer moderately long, posterior opening broader than 
long, dorsolateral angles not produced, very weakly developed and inflected, diaphragm with 
dorsal margin deeply excavate, narrow medially, devoid of ornamentation, medioventral process 
absent. Genital styles rather long, directed mainly dorsad, approximately of equal width 
throughout, with inner margin slightly more concave than outer, and weakly produced mesad in 
a quadrate lobe in distal fifth ; apical margin truncate, outer apical angle acute. 

cJ : length, 3-0 mm. °- : length, 3-5 mm. 

Holotype <$, New Zealand : Manawatu, Foxton, 28.1.51, sand dunes, on Scirfins 
frondosus (T. E. Woodward), in Dominion Museum, Wellington. 




Figs. 182-187. Sulix vetranio sp. n. 182, Frons and clypeus 
dorsal view ; 184, head in profile ; 185, <$ genitalia, left side ; 
view ; 187, median portion of diaphragm. 



183, head and thorax, 
186, (J genitalia, posterior 



54 



R. G. FENNAH 



Paratypes, 3 <$, 4 $, same data, in Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 

This species is distinguished by the postclypeus being very markedly wider than 
the apical margin of the frons. The $ genitalia are generally similar to those of S. 
meridianalis , but the two species are different in the shape of the head and in 
coloration. 

EUMETOPINA Breddin 

Breddin, 1896a : 109. 

Haplotype, Eumetopina kruegeri Breddin, loc. cit. 

Gelastodelphax Kirkaldy, 1906c : 411, syn. n. 

Eumetopina histrionica (Kirkaldy) comb. n. 

Gelastodelphax histrionicus Kirkaldy, 1906c : 411. 

Post-tibial spur with about eleven teeth. 

Australia : Victoria (S.E.), Bonang, 9.L55 (T. E. Woodward). 

Eumetopina bicornis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 188-191) 

Vertex as long submedially as broad at base, subacutely rounding into frons, only very slightly 
narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins distinctly concave, apical margin transverse- 
convex with submedian carinae not at all prominent, Y-shaped carina with only distal arms 
distinct, submedian carinae uniting at apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind 
margin than greatest length (i-6 : 1) and than median length (i-8 : 1) ; frons in middle line 
longer than wide at widest part (1-4 : 1), widest at one-fifth from base, lateral margins shallowly 
convex, median carina simple ; clypeus at base distinctly wider than frons at apex, a little 
depressed below level of frons, postclypeal disc as long as broad at base, in profile shallowly 
convex, anteclypeus in profile almost straight, so that entire clypeus in profile is very shallowly 
convex ; rostrum attaining mesotrochanters, apical segment about equal to subapical ; antennae 
moderately surpassing frontoclypeal suture, basal segment longer than broad (2 : 1), second 
segment longer than first (2-2 : 1), ocelli distinct. Pronotum with disc longer in middle line than 
broad at anterior margin (nearly 2:1), lateral carinae almost straight, not attaining hind margin. 
Total length of mesonotum longer than that of scutellum (nearly i-8 : 1). Post-tibial spur 
with 25-30 minute teeth. 

Castaneous-piceous ; distal two-thirds of frons and genae, second antennal segment, except 
for a longitudinal band, a broad band along hind margin of pronotum, apex of mesoscutellum, 
and hind legs, pallid stramineous ; clypeus, tegulae, fore and middle legs and abdominal ventrites 
marginally, pale orange-yellow. Tegmina milky hyaline, apical margin infumed fuscous from 
apex of tegmen to apex of clavus, veins concolorous. Wings milky hyaline, with pale yellowish 
brown veins. 

Anal segment of <$ moderately long, rectangulately deflexed in distal half, apical margin 
strongly produced at middle in an elongate triangular process. Pygofer moderately long, pos- 
terior opening a little longer than broad, dorsolateral angles rather weakly produced, obtuse in 
lateral view, diaphragm developed only at sides, median transverse portion absent ; posterior 
margin of pygofer ventrally with a stout spinose process, flattened above and porrect caudad, on 
each side of middle line. Aedeagus narrowly tubular, porrect caudad, a slender spinose process 
arising on left at apex directed ventrocephalad, a stouter spinose process arising on right at apex, 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



55 




Figs. 188-191. Eumetopina bicornis sp. n. 188, Frons and clypeus ; 189, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 190, head in profile ; 191,6* genitalia, posterior view. 



directed to right. Genital styles moderately long and narrow, diverging only little, with dorsal 
margin straight and ventral margin shallowly convex, apical margin short, oblique. Anal 
segment, pygofer posteriorly and genital styles distally with rather long and stout setae. 
6* : length, 4-0 mm., tegmen, 4-3 mm. 

Holotype <$, New Guinea : Central Highlands, Daulo Pass, 7,300 ft -8,000 ft., 
20-22 . viii . 56 (T. E. Woodward), in Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 

Paratypes, Gomanigu Valley, c. 3 miles S.W. of Mt. Otto, c. 7,300 ft., 1 <£, 1 $, 
16-18. iii. 56 (T. E. Woodward). 

This species is separable in the <$ from all others of the genus by the presence of a 
single pair of stout spinose processes ventrally on the hind margin of the pygofer. The 
male of Eumetopina histrionica (Kirk.) possesses similar, but longer, processes, but be- 
tween them lies a second pair of short stout processes, of which there is no trace in E. 
bicornis. In both sexes the present species is also distinguishable by details of bodily 
and tegminal coloration. 

TERTHRON gen. n. 

Vertex as long medially as broad at base, subacutely rounding into frons, as wide at apex as 
at base, lateral margins straight or feebly concave, apical margin transverse with submedian 
carinae very feebly prominent, Y-shaped carina weakly present, submedian carinae uniting at 
apex of vertex, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (about 
2:1); frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (2 : 1), widest at middle, lateral 
margins shallowly convex, median carina simple, clypeus at base very slightly wider than frons 
at apex, postclypeal disc as long as broad at base, in profile very feebly convex, almost straight, 
entire clypeus in profile moderately convex ; rostrum rather short, surpassing mesotrochanters 
but not attaining post-trochanters ; antennae attaining level of frontoclypeal suture or slightly 



56 R. G. FENNAH 

surpassing it, basal segment distinctly longer than broad, second segment longer than first (about 
1*5 : i) ; ocelli distinct, blemmata present. Pronotum with disc about as long in middle line 
as broad at anterior margin, lateral carinae straight, not quite attaining hind margin, not directed 
towards tegulae, but farther mesad. Post-tibial spur thin, shallowly tectiform with about 
twenty teeth. 

Type-species, Delphax anemonias Kirkaldy. 

Members of this genus resemble those of Toya, but differ in having the following 
combination of characters ; the lateral carinae of the pronotal disc do not extend 
towards the tegulae and, if they were produced, would reach the hind margin ; the 
first valvulae of the ovipositor are long and narrow and arise from the base of the 
abdomen, which, in ventral view, is narrowly triangular ; the <$ genitalic pattern is 
close to that of the type-species. The species so far included possess a narrow white 
median stripe from the vertex to the apex of the mesoscutellum and a white commis- 
sural margin on the tegmina. 

In addition to the type-species, Terthron includes Delphacodes albovittata Mats., 
(1931a : 1268). The gender of the generic name is neuter. 

Terthron anemonias (Kirkaldy) 

Delphax anemonias Kirkaldy, 190yd : 159. 

Australia : Queensland, Carmila, 1 $, 8. v. 27, 6729. 

In this species a narrow pale stripe extends along the dorsal edge of the femora 
and the veins in the tegminal membrane are light yellowish brown. 

TOYA Distant 
Distant, igo6i : 472. 
Orthotype, Toya attenuata Distant. 

Toya propinqua (Fieber) comb. n. 
Delphax propinqua Fieber, 1866b : 525. 

Australia : Brisbane, 1 <£, 9.iv.56 (T. E. Woodward). 

Toya dryope (Kirkaldy) comb. n. 

Delphax dryope Kirkaldy, 190yd : 154. 

New Zealand : N. Auckland, Waitangi Est., 24 $, 25 <j>, 7 mutilated specimens, 1 
nymph, 18-19. xi. 51 (^- E- Woodward) ; 17 $, 6 $, HE 4, 1, 15, 24, 28 Paddock, 1, 3, 
41 Road ; Paihia, 7 $, 4 $, 1 mutilated specimen, ii.53 (R. A. Cumber). 

Australia : Lockyer, 14 $, 2 <j>, 24.viii.39 (Dept. of Agric.) ; Brisbane, 1 £, 2 $, 
at light (H. Jarvis) ; Bolingbroke, 2 <$, 22. v. 27 ; five miles from Kingaroy, 1 <$, 
3.VL59 (E. Bernays) ; Bald Hills, 1 <$, 24. hi. 54 [K. L. S. Harley) ; Yeerongpilly, 
2 <$, 6.XL39, from lucerne (W. A. Smith). 



DELPHACIDAE FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 



57 



Toya euonymus sp n. 

(Text-figs. 192-199) 

Vertex shorter submedially than broad at base (about 1 : 1-2), obtusely rounding into frons, 
slightly narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins straight, apical margin truncate, with 
submedian carinae very weakly prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting 
at apex of vertex or at extreme base of frons, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin 
than greatest length (2:1) and than median length (2-5:1); frons in middle line longer than 
wide at widest part (2-2 : 1), widest at two-fifths from base, lateral margins very feebly convex, 
median carina simple, or forked at extreme base ; clypeus at base distinctly wider than frons at 
apex, postclypeal disc longer than broad at base (nearly 1-2 : 1), in profile moderately convex, 
anteclypeus in profile very shallowly convex, so that entire clypeus in profile is shallowly convex ; 
rostrum short, attaining meso-trochanters ; antennae distinctly surpassing frontoclypeal 
suture, basal segment longer than broad (i-6 : 1), second segment longer than first (2:1); ocelli 
distinct. Pronotum with disc shorter in middle line than broad at anterior margin (about 
1 : 1-3), lateral carinae weakly concave, not attaining hind margin. Total length of mesonotum 
longer than that of scutellum (about 2-6 : 1). Post-tibial spur with 19 teeth. 

Fuscous ; carinae of head and pronotum, antennae, clypeus, rostrum, tegulae, mesonotum at 
lateral angles and along posterior margin, and legs, testaceous ; posterior margin of pronotum 
broadly white. Tegmina hyaline, veins very dilute testaceous, almost concolorous. Wings 
hyaline with dilute testaceous veins. 

Anal segment of £ very short, ring-like, lateroapical angles rather closely approximated, each 
produced ventrad in a long slender spinose process. Py gofer moderately long, posterior opening 
as broad as long, dorsolateral angles not produced, diaphragm with dorsal margin deeply 
concave, very narrow at middle, where dorsal margin is produced in a pair of small acutely 
angulate lobes ; medioventral process absent. Aedeagus moderately long, tubular, slightly 




Figs. 192-199. Toya euonymus sp. n. 192, Frons and clypeus ; 193, head and thorax, 
dorsal view ; 194, head in profile ; 195, £ genitalia, posterior view ; 196, anal seg- 
ment of 3, left side ; 197, median portion of diaphragm ; 198, aedeagus, left side ; 
199, genital style. 



5 8 R. G. FENNAH 

broader in basal two-fifths than in distal three-fifths, orifice at apex, its lower lip produced 
caudad in an acuminate lobe ; aedeagus otherwise without ornamentation. Genital styles long, 
flattened and rather broad, slightly expanding distad, apical margin oblique, inner margin at 
base a little produced caudad. 

6* : length, 3-0 mm., tegmen, 3-1 mm. 

Holotype £, Australia : South-east Queensland, Tambourine Mts., 11-18.iv.35 
(R. E. Turner) B.M. 1935—240, in B.M. (N.H.). 

Paratype, Miva, 1 $, i.51 (Lipsett). 

This species is distinguished by the proportions of the head, bodily coloration, and 
the structure of the <$ genitalia. 

Toya lazulis (Kirkaldy) comb. n. 

Delphax lazulis Kirkaldy, 190yd : 155. 
Delphacodes lazulis (Kirkaldy) Muir, 191yd : 333. 

Australia : Queensland, five miles from Kingaroy 1 g, 3.VL59 {E. Bernays). 

REFERENCES 

Esaki, T. & Ishihara, T. 1947. Species nova vel minus cognita Araeopidarum Japonicarum 

(Hemiptera). Mushi 17 : 39-42. 
Fennah, R. G. 1956. Fulgoroidea from Southern China. Proc. Calif . Acad. Sci. (4) 28: 441- 

527- 
1963. The Delphacid species-complex known as Sogata furcifera (Horvath) (Homoptera : 

Fulgoroidea). Bull. ent. Res. 54 : 45-79. 
1964. Delphacidae from Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (Homoptera : Fulgoroidea) . 

Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 116 : 1 31-150. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fasc. IV Fulgoroidea, Pt. 3 

Araeopidae pp. 1-552. 

1950. Homoptera from the Caroline Islands. Occ. Pap. Bishop Mus. 20, No. 5 : 59-76. 

White, F. B. 1878. List of the Hemiptera of New Zealand. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 14 : 

274-277. 
Zimmerman, E. C. 1948. Insects of Hawaii 4. Homoptera : Auchenorhyncha pp. i-vii, 

1-268. Univ. Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 



Acrodelphax, 5, 38 
Anchodelphax, 5, 34 
ancon, Temenites, 15 
anderida, Thymalops, 20 
Anectopia, 6 
anemonias, Terthron, 56 
Aplanodes, 5, 21 
australiae, Aplanodes, 22 

bicornis, Eumetopina, 54 
caelatus, Ugyops, 7 
Cemus, 4, 18 
cicatrifrons, Eorissa, 30 
Corbulo, 6, 48 
Coronacella, 6, 47 

darwini, Haplodelphax, 33 
dilpa, Corbulo, 48 
dodona, Corbulo, 48 
dryas, Tropidocephala, 13 
dryope, Toya, 56 

Eorissa, 5, 28 
erosus, Notohyus, 23 
Eumetopina, 6, 54 
euonymus, Toya, 57 
eupompe, Sogatodes, 46 
euronotianus, Haplodelphax, 32 
eximia, Tropidocephala, 13 

furcifera, Sogatella, 47 

Gelastodelphax , 54 

Haerinella, 4, 13 
hagnon, Anchodelphax, 36 
Haplodelphax, 5, 31 
histrionica, Eumetopina, 54 

insecutor, Sulix, 51 
ithoma, Notogryps, 28 
iuncicola, Haplodelphax, 32 
Izella, 5, 41 

kaha, Thrasymemnon, 43 
kirkaldyi, Cemus, 19 
kirkaldyi, Coronacella, 47 
kolophon, Sogatella, 47 

lazulis, Toya, 58 
longifurcifera, Sogatella, 47 
lugens, Nilaparvata, 24 

macleayi, Pseudembolophora, 12 
maidis, Peregrinus, 18 
matanitu, Syndelphax, 48 
melanthus, Notogryps, 26 



INDEX 

Synonyms printed in italics. 

meridianalis, Sulix, 50 
Micromasoria, 7, 12 
musgravei, Ugyops, 10 
myersi, Nilaparvata, 25 



59 



nicias, Sogatodes, 45 
Nilaparvata, 5, 24 
Notogryps, 5, 26 
Notohyus, 5, 22 

olenus, Anchodelphax, 35 

Paracona subgen. of Ugyops, 4, 11 

Peliades, 4, 17 

pelorus, Ugyops, 11 

Peregrinus, 4, 18 

Perkinsiella, 4, 16 

persephone, Sardia, 44 

Phacalastor, 4,17 

phyllocnemis, Peliades, 18 

propinqua, Toya, 56 

proserpina australis, Tarophagus, 37 

Proterosydne, 5 

Pseudembolophora, 4, 12 

pseudomaidis, Phacalastor, 17 

raouli, Ugyops, 12 
rhadamanthus, Ugyops, 9 
rostrata pluto, Sardia, 44 

saccharicida, Perkinsiella, 17 
saeva, Haerinella, 14 
Sardia, 5, 44 
Smicrotatodelphax, 5 
Sogata, 6 
Sogatella, 6, 47 
Sogatodes, 6, 45 
Stenocranus, 5 
Sulix, 6, 49 
Syndelphax, 6, 48 

Tarophagus, 5, 6, 37 
tasmani, Sulix, 52 
Temenites, 4, 15 
Terthron, 6, 55 
thimbron, Acrodelphax, 39 
Thrasymemnon, 4, 43 
Thymalops, 5, 20 
Toya, 6, 56 
triopas, Izella, 41 
Tropidocephala, 4, 12 

Ugyops, 4, 6 

vetranio, Sulix, 53 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 
BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED 
BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 






DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 
EMPIDIDAE 




KENNETH G. V. SMITH 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 2 

LONDON: 1965 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 
EMPIDIDAE 




BY 



KENNETH G. V. SMITH 



British Museum (Natural History) 



1 



Pp. 61-112 ; 66 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 2 

LONDON: 1965 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 17, No. 2 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1965 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY] 

Issued 23 September, 1965 Price £1 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



EMPIDIDAE 
By KENNETH G. V. SMITH 



CONTENTS 



Introduction 

Subfamily Tachydromiinae . 
Subfamily Hybotinae 
Subfamily Ocydromiinae 
Subfamily Empidinae 
Subfamily Hemerodromiinae 
Subfamily Clinocerinae 

References 

Index .... 



Page 

63 
65 
81 

85 
85 
90 
98 

109 

ill 



SYNOPSIS 

The Empididae collected on the 1954 an d 1961-62 British Museum Expeditions to Nepal are 
systematically treated. Thirty-eight new species, 1 new subspecies, representing 18 genera are 
described and their relationships discussed. A lectotype is designated for Hemerodromia 
xiphias Bezzi. 

INTRODUCTION 

This paper is based mainly on material collected by Mr. R. L. Coe, entomologist on 
the 1961-62 British Museum (Natural History) Expedition to Eastern Nepal. 
Cold winds necessitated collecting in sheltered river valleys, which accounts for the 
bias towards groups with aquatic immature stages, e.g. Hemerodromiinae, Clino- 
cerinae and Hilara. The Empidinae, such a prominent feature of the Palaearctic 
fauna were poorly represented, but members of this subfamily normally appear later 
in the year when more flowers are out. Most of Brunetti's (1913, 1920) Empidinae 
from the Indian Himalayas were captured during May-June. Mr. Coe's interesting 
collection suggests faunistic links with the Nearctic, Oriental and Eastern Palae- 
arctic regions. A few specimens collected by Mr. J. Quinlan on the 1954 Expedition 
are also included. 

I thank Drs. W. N. Ellis and H. P. Duffels of the Zoologisch Museum, Amsterdam 
and Dr. G. Petersen of the Deutsches Entomologische Institut, Berlin for the loan of 
type material, I thank Dr. T. Saigusa for a very useful exchange of Japanese 
material involving genera common to Nepal and Japan and for manuscript notes on 
his undescribed genera and species. I thank Mr. R. L. Coe and Mr. K. Hyatt for 
checking the Hindi and other Nepalese names used for the new species, the meanings 
of which are given in the text. Finally I thank my wife for her careful preparation 
of the typescript. 

Unfortunately I have been unable to examine or obtain information on Brunetti's 
types in the Indian Museum, Calcutta or Collin's types in the Leningrad Museum. 



6 4 



K. G. V. SMITH 



This means that comparisons with these species have been from descriptions only, 
and some of Brunetti's are often inadequate by modern taxonomic standards. 
However in most cases I am satisfied that the differences described are adequate 
indication that separate taxa are involved. I have stated clearly the few cases 
where I consider my species may prove to be conspecific with described forms and 
feel in these cases that the ultimate loss of a species to synonymy is better than 
starting a chain of misidentifications. 

Previously only one member of the family, Tachydromia nepalensis Brunetti, was 
recorded from Nepal. In the present paper 38 new species and 1 new subspecies are 
described, representing 18 genera. 

All type material is in the British Museum (Natural History), London. 

The nomenclature used for the male genitalia follows Bahrmann (i960). 



2 (1 

3 (2 

4 (3 

5 (4 



6 


(2) 


7 


(1) 


8 


(7) 


9 


(7; 


10 


(9 1 


11 


(9 


12 


(11 


13 


(11 



Key to Genera and Subgenera known from Nepal 

All veins running straight to wing margin without forking (except for Rs). Cell 

Cu absent (except Tachydromia) ........ 2 

Vein M always, and R i+& often forked. Cell Cu present .... 7 

Humeri not differentiated .......... 3 

Humeri clearly differentiated ......... 6 

Veins i? x and R 2+3 longer, the latter ending in costal vein well beyond middle of 

wing (Text-fig. 4). Front femora moderately swollen . . (DRAPETIS s.l.) 4 

Veins i? x and R 2+3 short, the latter ending in costal vein only a little beyond 

middle of wing (Text-fig. 6). Front femora very swollen . STILPON (p. 72) 

Distinct jowls below eyes. Second antennal segment with a distinct bristle 

beneath s.g. CROSSOPALPUS (p. 71) 

No distinct jowls below eyes. Second antennal segment without a distinct 

bristle beneath ........... 5 

No anterodorsal bristles present on hind tibiae . . s.g. DRAPETIS s.s. (p. 65) 

One or more strong anterodorsal bristles present on hind tibiae 

s.g. ELAPHROPEZA (p. 65) 

Cell Cu absent SICODUS (p. 74) 

Cell Cu present TACHYDROMIA (p. 75) 

Two veins issuing from end of 1st M 2 cell, neither of which is forked . . 8 

Either three veins issuing from 1st M 2 cell or two veins with one of them 

forked or 1st M 2 absent .... 

Cell Cu longer than cell M ... 

Cell Cu shorter than cell M and square ended 
1st M 2 cell absent ..... 

1st M 2 cell present ..... 

Cell Cu present. Axillary angle of wing well developed 
Cell Cu absent. Axillary angle of wing not developed 
Vein i? 4+5 not forked ..... 

Vein i? 4+5 forked ...... 

Front legs raptorial, i.e., front coxae greatly elongated . . CHELIPODA (p. 

Front legs not raptorial, i.e., front coxae not elongated . HELEODROMIA (p. 
Cell Cu only about half length of cell M 



. HYBOS (p. 
STENOPROCTUS (p. 



BICELLARIA (p. 
HEMERODROMIA (p. 



. CHELIPODA 
HELEODROMIA 

Front coxae greatly elongated 

CHELIFERA 
Cell Cu as long as, or nearly as long as, cell M . Front coxae at most only 
slightly elongated ........... 



9 

81) 

83) 
10 
11 

85) 
90) 
12 
13 
94) 
97) 



(p. 98) 



14 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



65 



14(13) Axillary angle of wing well developed ...... HILARA (p. 85) 

— Axillary angle of wing not developed . . . . . . . 15 

15 (14) Wings mottled brown with hyaline spots. Neck very high up on occiput 

DOLICHOCEPHALA (p. 98) 

— Wings clear or brownish tinged, but not mottled with hyaline spots . . . 16 

16 (15) Clypeus distinct and elongate and with fine vibrissae and hairs (Text-fig. 50) 

HYPENELLA (p. 100) 
No distinct clypeus ........... 17 



17 (16) Vein i? x setulose above (Text-fig. 63) 

- Vein i? x not setulose above 

18 (17) Acrostichal bristles present 

- Acrostichal bristles absent . 

19 (18) Scutellum hairy on disc 

- Scutellum bare above 



TRICHOCLINOCERA (p. 103) 

18 

PROCLINOPYGA (p. 104) 

19 

ACANTHOCLINOCERA (p. 101) 
CLINOCERA (p. 106) 



TACHYDROMIINAE 

DRAPETIS Meigen 

Drapetis Meigen, 1822, Sysi. Beschr. 3 : 91. 

No species of this genus in the restricted sense are recorded from Nepal, but I 
include it in the key and mention it here because usually Elaphropeza and Crosso- 
palpus are regarded as subgenera of Drapetis s. L. In the present paper the three 
groups are treated as subgenera, Elaphropeza and Crossopalpus being represented in 
Nepal. 

Subgenus ELAPHROPEZA Macquart 

Elaphropeza Macquart, 1827, Insect. Dipt. Nord France, 3 : 86. 
Ctenodrapetis Bezzi, 1904, Annls hist.-nat. Mus. natn. hung. 2 : 355. 

This subgenus is best represented in the Oriental region, but it is also well rep- 
resented in N. and S. America, Africa and Australia, though only one species occurs 
in the Palaearctic Region. Six species are now described from Nepal. 



Key to Nepalese Species of Elaphropeza 

1 Thorax entirely black, two or three dorsocentral bristles distinct . kala sp. n. 
Thorax mostly reddish yellow ; dorsocentral bristles inconspicuous except for a 

strong prescutellar bristle ......... 2 

2 (1) Arista densely long pubescent and thus appearing thicker, as an extension to 

the third antennal segment ; smaller species (1 mm.) . . uralo sp. n. 

Arista normal, slender ; usually larger species (1-25 mm. or more) ... 3 

3 (2) Thorax and scutellum yellow ......... 4 

- Thorax or scutellum partly black ........ 5 

4 (3) Antennae completely yellow ; occiput yellow ..... coei sp. n. 

- Third antennal segment black ; occiput black .... litoralis sp. n. 

5 (3) Head reddish yellow except for black frons ; thorax reddish yellow, scutellum 

black ........... ukhalo sp. n. 

- Head black, thorax reddish yellow with a large black spot on each side above wing 

bases ; scutellum yellow ....... sanguensis sp. n. 



66 K. G. V. SMITH 

Drapetis (Elaphropeza) kala sp. n. 

$. Head shining black, lightly dusted behind, but shining on a very broad postocular band 
on upper two-thirds. Occiput with sparse short yellow hairs. Frons about twice width of an 
ocellus above, narrowing to slightly more than width of an ocellus below. Face linear. Ocellar 
bristles rather weak, crossing, with a pair of weak hairs behind. A pair of strong yellow outer 
vertical bristles and a weak inner pair. Antennae with first and second segments yellow ; third 
segment black with base somewhat yellowish, short, less than twice as long as broad at base. 
Arista black, pubescent and a little less than twice antennal length. Proboscis short, brown. 
Palpi yellow, about two-thirds length of proboscis. 

Thorax shining black (a very light dusting is evident under higher magnification), with yellow 
bristles. Acrostichals absent ; dorsocentrals uniserial, the 3 or 4 posterior bristles strong ; a 
notopleural and a supra-alar present. Scutellum shining black on disc with margins lightly 
dusted and with a pair of crossing apical bristles. 

Abdomen yellowish at base, but otherwise shining black, with very light microscopic dusting 
and some rather long dark hairs. 

Legs slender, yellow except for last tarsal segment on all legs. Preapical anterior bristle 
distinct on middle femora. Middle tibiae with an anterodorsal bristle at middle. Hind tibiae 
with two anterodorsal bristles, a little closer to each other than either is from the ends of the tibia; 
apical process brownish, short and broad, but pointed. 

Wings clear with yellow veins. Third costal section about twice length of second section. 
Halteres yellow. 

<$ unknown. 

Length 1-5 mm. 

Holotype $. Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, mixed 
plants by damp cliff in deep river gorge, c. 5,200', i-ii.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratype $. Taplejung Distr., Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by stream in 
gully, xi. 1961.-i.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

This species resembles E. basalts Bezzi (1904 : 349), from Colombo, in size and in 
its predominantly black colour with yellowish base to the abdomen. It is apparently 
distinguished from that species by the anterodorsal bristle on the middle tibia, and 
the presence of two, instead of one, anterodorsal bristles on the hind tibia. The 
number and position of these bristles is somewhat variable within the genus, but firm 
differences are the shorter wings in E. basalts and the relative lengths of the second 
and third costal sections, the second vein ending midway between the first and third 
veins in Bezzi's species. Bezzi's type, a unique female, was in the Hungarian 
Museum, Budapest, but was destroyed in the autumn of 1956. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " black ". 

Drapetis (Elaphropeza) uralo sp. n. . 

<£. Head shining black, only lightly dusted around neck. Frons slightly wider than an ocellus 
above and about as wide as an ocellus below. Face linear. Ocellar bristles sub-parallel with a 
pair of tiny hairs behind. A pair of strong outer vertical bristles and a weak inner pair. 
Antennae with first and second segments yellow ; third segment black, about twice as long as 
broad ; arista about twice length of third antennal segment, black with rather long pubescence 
which gives it a thickened appearance, like an extension of the third antennal segment. Proboscis 
yellowish, about half as long as head is deep. Palpi whitish, a little more than half as long as 
proboscis and with whitish hairs. 

Thorax reddish yellow with a sub-triangular blackish patch above each wing base. The only 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 67 

obvious thoracic bristles are the single notopleural and the prescutellar dorsocentral. Pleurae 
reddish yellow with a blackish patch above the middle and hind coxae. Scutellum reddish 
yellow with a pair of crossing apical bristles. 

Abdomen yellowish except for blackish middle segment and hypopygium. 

Legs with coxae whitish, but otherwise yellow except for the last four tarsal segments of the 
front legs and the last tarsal segment of the remaining legs which are black. Middle femora with 
a distinct apical bristle. Middle tibiae with a distinct anterodorsal bristle at middle. Hind ti- 
biae with two anterodorsal bristles which are obviously closer to each other than either is from 
the ends of the tibia ; apical process short, but pointed. 

Wings clear, veins yellow. Third costal section about twice as long as second costal section. 
Halteres yellow. 

$ unknown. 

Length 1 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Arun Valley, east shore of R. Arun below Tumlingtar, 
c. 1,800', evergreen shrubs bordering dry stream beds, 14-23 . xii . 196 1 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 2 <$, same data as Holotype. 

This species resembles E. metatarsata Bezzi (1904 : 348) from Ceylon, in having a 
black thoracic spot on each side, but in that species these spots are rounded, the 
knobs of the halteres are black, and Bezzi described the arista as microscopically 
pubescent. Other species with paired black thoracic spots (E. sanguensis sp. n. is 
separated in the key) may be distinguished as follows : E. obliquinervis Meijere from 
Nonkodjadjar, has a very oblique hind crossvein {vide Meijere, 1913, pi. 2, fig. 19) 
and E. scutellaris Bezzi (1912 : 487) is a larger (2-2-2 mm.) species ; both species 
apparently have a normal arista. 

The specific name is from a Nepalese word meaning " down-hill ". 

Drapetis (Elaphropeza) coei sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 1) 

cj, $. Head reddish yellow and dusted yellow except for dull black frons and ocellar triangle. 
Frons narrow, barely as wide as an ocellus ; eyes contiguous beneath antennae. Ocellar bristles 
fairly strong and the posterior pair of ocellar hairs are longer and stronger than usual. Two 
pairs of vertical bristles, inner pair stronger, and there are also 4 short bristles between the inner 
verticals. Antennae completely yellow, third segment about i£ times as long as broad at base ; 
arista twice antennal length. Proboscis short, yellowish. Palpi pale yellow, about half length 
of proboscis. 

Thorax yellow. A pair of distinct, though small, upright acrostichal bristles at extreme front 
of thorax, but about 10 rows of hairs between the line of the dorsocentrals. Dorsocentrals 
uniserial with two distinct bristles behind in each row, the prescutellar being the stronger. A 
strong notopleural with a weaker bristle below, a supra-alar and a weak postalar. Pleurae 
reddish yellow. Scutellum reddish yellow with a pair of crossing apical bristles and a very weak 
outer pair. 

Abdomen yellowish with middle segment blackish. Hypopygium yellowish. 

Legs yellow except for last two tarsal segments on all legs. Preapical bristle distinct on middle 
femora. Hind tibiae with two (sometimes three) bristles closer to each other than either is from 
the tibial extremities ; apical process short and broad. 

Wings clear, veins yellowish. Third costal section only slightly longer than second section 
(about 1-2 : 1). Halteres yellow. 

Length 1-5 mm. 



68 K. G. V. SMITH 

Holotype <J. Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, mixed 
plants by damp cliff in deep river gorge, c. 5,200', 22.xi.1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes: 27 $, 71 $, same data as Holotype; Taplejung District, between Sangu 
and Tamrang, mixed shrubs in deep gorge, c. 5,200', x-xi. 1961, 4 <$, 10 9 (R. L. Coe) ; 
Taplejung District, below Sangu, c. 4,000', mixed vegetation on sheltered slopes 
above river, 3.1.1962, 3 <^, 14 $ (R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung, between Sangu and 
Tamrang, deep river gorge, c. 5,200', x-xi.1961, 2$, 5 £ ; Taplejung, between Sangu 
and Tamrang, wet boulder shaded permanently, in deep river gorge, c. 5,200', 
14. ii. 1962, 1 $ (R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung, north of Sangu, dry grass above river bank, 
c. 5,000', 5. i. 1962, 1 $ (R. L. Coe). 

This species resembles E. metatarsata Bezzi (1904 : 348) from Ceylon and E. 
variegata Brunetti (1913 : 42) from India in the colour of the abdomen, but both these 
species have dark thoracic markings and a black head. E. fulvithorax van der Wulp 
(1897 : 138) from Ceylon has the thorax completely yellowish red, but the abdomen is 
brown and the tips of the hind tibiae are blackish. 



Drapetis (Elaphropeza) litoralis sp. n. 

<J, $. Head black, heavily dusted greyish, but narrowly shining behind eye margins on upper 
third. Frons very narrow, less than width of an ocellus. Face linear. Ocellar bristles short 
with a pair of very tiny hairs behind. A pair of distinct vertical bristles. Antennae black, 
first and second segments somewhat paler in some lights. Third segment a little more than 
twice as long as broad at base. Arista dark, pubescent and slightly less than twice antennal 
length. Proboscis very short, brownish, palpi short, rounded and whitish, each with a long 
terminal bristle. 

Thorax shining reddish yellow, only dusted around margins. Acrostichals biserial. Dorso- 
centrals uniserial, a little longer than usual, but only the one strong prescutellar bristle. Two 
notopleural bristles, upper one stronger. Pleurae shining reddish yellow, somewhat dusted 
below. Scutellum reddish yellow, dusted, and with a pair of strong apical bristles. 

Abdomen brownish, with two basal segments yellowish, dusted and with short pubescence. 
Hypopygium dark brownish. 

Legs with femora yellowish, tibiae and tarsi brownish. Middle femora with distinct preapical 
anterior bristle. Hind tibiae with two strong anterodorsal bristles about middle. 

Wings clear with veins brown. Third costal section about twice length of third. Halteres 
yellow. 

Length 1-25 mm. 

Holotype $. Nepal : Arun Valley, below Tumlingtar, River Sabhaya, west shore, 
c. 1,800', dead leaves lying in sun on sandy shore, 22.xii.1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 2 <J, same data as Holotype ; Arun Valley, below Tumlingtar, River 
Sabhaya, west shore, c. 1,800', evergreen shrubs on sandy shore, 9-17. xii. 1961, 
1 $ {R. L. Coe). 

The brownish abdomen with yellow base distinguishes this species from any Indian 
species. E. fulvithorax van der Wulp (1897 : 138), which the species most resembles, 
has the abdomen entirely brown and the hind tibiae have black tips. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



69 







Figs. 1-4. Drapetis (Elaphropeza) coei sp. n. 1, <$ hypopygium : D. (E.) sanguensis 
sp. n. 2, <J hypopygium : D. (E.) ukhalo sp. n. 3, $ hypopygium showing details of 
epandrium : Drapetis (Crossopalpus) kholsa sp. n. 4, $ wing. 



7° 



K. G. V. SMITH 



Drapetis (Elaphropeza) sanguensis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 2) 

^, $. Head black, dusted greyish except for broad shining postocular orbits on upper half. 
Occiput with some short yellow hairs. Frons narrowing from about 1 J times width of an ocellus 
above to width of an ocellus below ; face linear. A strong pair of incurved anterior vertical 
bristles and a weak inner pair. An anterior pair of strong ocellar bristles with a very weak pair 
behind. Antennae with first and second segments yellow ; third segment blackish and about 2 J 
times as long as broad at base ; arista blackish, short pubescent and a little less than twice 
antennal length. Proboscis very short, brown. Palpi short, pale yellow and pale haired. 

Thorax shining reddish yellow with a large elliptical black spot on each side above wing bases. 
A pair of short acrostichals at front of thorax ; dorsocentrals uniserial, short except for a strong 
prescutellar bristle ; a strong notopleural with a weaker bristle below. Pleurae reddish yellow 
with a brownish patch on each of the sternopleurae and hypopleurae, above the middle and hind 
coxae. Scutellum and metanotum yellow, the former with a pair of long slender crossing apical 
bristles. 

Abdomen black, except for whitish second segment. Hypopygium black. 

Legs (including coxae) yellowish, except for tarsi, knees, and hind femora in front distally, all 
of which are somewhat brownish. All femora slender. Middle femora with distinct preapical 
anterior bristle. Tibiae slender ; hind tibiae with two strong anterodorsal bristles. Postero- 
ventral apical process on hind tibiae brown, short and blunt. 

Wings clear, veins brownish. Third costal section about 3 times length of second costal 
section. Halteres yellow. 

Length 2 mm.. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, mixed 
plants by damp cliff in deep river gorge, c. 5,200', 22.xi.1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 79 <$, 67 $, same data as Holotype ; Taplejung District, between Sangu 
and Tamrang, mixed shrubs in deep gorge, c. 5,200', x-xi.1961, I (J, I $ (R. L. Coe) ; 
Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by stream in gully, xi.1961.-i. 
1962, 1 J, 3 $ (R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung District, north of Sangu, dry grass above river 
bank, c. 5,000', 5 .i. 1962, 8 $, 8 $ (R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung District, Dobhan, east bank 
of River Tamur, c. 3,500', mixed vegetation by stream in deep gully, i-ii . 1962, 1 <$ 
(R. L. Coe) ; Arun Valley, east shore of River Arun below Tumlingtar, c. 1,800', 
swept from Ricinus communis L., 23.xii.1961, 1 $ (R. L. Coe) ; Arun Valley, east 
shore of River Arun below Tumlingtar, c. 1,800', evergreen shrubs bordering dry- 
stream beds, 14, 23.xii.1961, 3 $ (R. L. Coe) ; 2 miles SW. of Ulleri, 6,000-7,000', 
18. v. 1954, 1 <J (J. Quinlan) ; Ghanpokhara, 5,500-7,000', 2. v. 1954, 2 $ (J. Quintan). 

This species resembles E. metatarsata Bezzi (1904 : 348) from Colombo, in having 
two black marks on the otherwise reddish yellow thorax and in the long slender hind 
metatarsi. However, Bezzi's species is a little longer, has round thoracic spots, a 
tooth and bristle at the base of the hind metatarsus and the halteres have dark 
knobs. Bezzi's type, a unique female, was in the Hungarian Museum, Budapest, but 
is now destroyed. 

D. (E.) sanguensis is also very similar to the only known Palaearctic species, 
E. ephippiata Fallen, but in that species the sternopleurae are reddish yellow, the 
scutellum and metanotum are black, the hind metatarsus is thicker, and the hypo- 
pygium (vide Collin, 1961 : 41, fig. 16) is quite different. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 71 

This species closely resembles D. (E.) binotata Meijere, of which I have seen the 
type $, but that species has no black markings on the pleurae. 

Drapetis (Elaphropeza) ukhalo sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 3) 

<J. Head yellow and dusted yellowish except for dull blackish frons and ocellar triangle. 
Frons at widest point, above barely wider than an ocellus and about half this width below. 
Eyes contiguous below antennae. Ocellar bristles weak, crossing, with a pair of tiny hairs behind. 
Vertical bristles weak, the inner pair hardly distinguishable from the other pale hairs on the 
occiput. Antennae with first and second segments yellow ; third segment black, elongate, 
about four times as long as broad at base ; arista black, pubescent, and only slightly longer than 
third antennal segment. Proboscis short, brownish. Palpi short, yellow and with yellow hairs. 

Thorax shining reddish yellow. Acrostichal hairs quadriserial ; dorsocentrals uniserial, 
hairlike except for a strong prescutellar bristle. A strong notopleural with two weaker bristles 
below and a weak postalar. Pleurae reddish yellow except for black hypopleurae. Scutellum 
black with corners yellow and with a pair of strong apical bristles and weak outer pair. 

Abdomen pale yellow except for blackish middle segment and hypopygium. 

Legs completely yellow. Femora thickened. Middle femora with preapical anterior bristle 
distinct and with tiny black points ventrally, which are multiserial on basal half, but become 
uniserial distally. Hind femora with short but distinct anteroventral bristles, those towards 
tip of femur are blackish. Hind tibiae somewhat thickened, with two strong anterodorsal 
bristles, which are closer to each other than either is from the ends of the tibia ; apical process 
broad and short. Hind basitarsus with at least one short, but distinct, bristle below. 

Wings clear, veins yellow. Third section of costal vein i£ times length of second section. 
Halteres yellow. 

$ unknown. 

Length 2-5 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, river banks below Tamrang Bridge, 
c> 5,5oo', x-xi.1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, mixed plants by 
damp cliff in deep river gorge, c. 5,200', i-ii. 1962, 2 <$ (R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung District, 
Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by stream in gully, xi. 1961-1.1962, 1 <$ (R. L. 
Coe). 

This species resembles E. metatarsata Bezzi (1904 : 348) from Ceylon, and E. 
variegata Brunetti (1913 : 42) from India, in having a yellow abdomen with the middle 
segment black, but in both these species the head is black. E. xanthocephala Bezzi 
(1912 : 488) from Formosa is also similar and has a yellow head, but the metapleurae 
and the knobs of the halteres are black. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " up-hill ". 

Subgenus CROSSOPALPUS Bigot 

Crossopalpus Bigot, 1857, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 5 : 563. 
Eudrapetis Melander, 1918, Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 11 : 187. 

Brunetti (1920:380) regarded Crossopalpus as a synonym of Drapetis, but none of 
the Indian species included by him under Drapetis appear to be referable to Crosso- 
palpus. 



7 2 K. G. V. SMITH 

Collin (i960 : 387), in a discussion of the C. aenescens Wiedemann complex, 
described C. hirtipes from Southern India. 

The subgenus is world-wide in distribution. One species is now described from 
Nepal. 

Drapetis (Crossopalpus) kholsa sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 4) 

°.. Head black, heavily dusted grey, but shining on narrow postocular margins on upper half, 
and about mouth. Wide jowls below eyes. Frons about twice width of an ocellus above, 
narrowing to width of an ocellus below. Face very narrow, eyes closest together just below half 
way down from antennae, then face widening above mouth. An erect pair of divergent ocellar 
bristles, but no vertical bristles. Occiput with only a few extremely short hairs. Antennae with 
first and second segments yellow, second segment with a strong bristle beneath, third segment 
black, about as long as first and second segments together and with some distinct hairs below on 
distal half. Arista black, nearly 3 times antennal length. Proboscis short, brown. Palpi small, 
rounded and blackish. 

Thorax black, lightly dusted but subshining and clothed with short pale hairs. A distinct 
prescutellar dorsocentral, two notopleurals and a postalar. Pleurae shining black except for a 
thin line of dust from middle coxa up to join dusted area at base of halteres, and thin bands of 
dust around all coxae. Scutellum black, dusted yellowish with a pair of strong marginal bristles 
with a tiny pair between and another tiny pair outside. 

Abdomen with basal segment shining black and bare, remaining segments brownish, shining on 
disc, but dusted around margins and short haired. 

Legs yellowish. Front and middle tibiae and all tarsi more brownish. Front femora slightly 
swollen. Anterior preapical bristle more or less distinct on all femora. Front and middle tibiae 
with antero- and postero ventral apical bristles. Hind tibiae with large apical process and a 
short apical anterior bristle. 

Wings clear, veins brownish except for crossvein r-m and basal section of vein M. Vein Rs 
very short, second costal section a little longer than third section. Veins i? 4+5 and M distinctly 
bent towards each other distally. Halteres yellow. 

3 unknown. 

Length 2 mm. 

Holotype $. Nepal : Arun Valley, east shore of River Arun below Tumlingtar, 
c. 1,800', evergreen shrubs bordering dry stream bed, 14-23. xii.1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratype : $, same data as Holotype. 

This species resembles the Palaearctic species D. (C.) minima Meigen (1838 : 100) 
and D. (C.) humilis Frey (1913 : 69) in having no anterodorsal bristles on the hind 
tibia. The longer arista and paler legs put this species closer to D. (C.) humilis, but 
D. (C.) kholsa is distinguished from both species by the longer wing, the equally 
convergent i? 4+5 and M, and r-m being nearer the middle of the cell M. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " valley ". 

STILPON Loew 

Stilpon Loew, 1859, Neue Beitr. Kenntn. Dipt. 6 : 34. 

This genus has five, possibly seven (Smith, 1965) known Palaearctic species and is 
otherwise only recorded from the United States of America and South Africa. 

One species is now described from Nepal. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



73 




Figs. 5-6. Stilpon divergens sp. n. 5, $ hypopygium showing enlarged details of epan- 

drium and cerci ; 6, $ wing. 



74 K. G. V. SMITH 

Stilpon divergens sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 5, 6) 

,3. Head black, heavily dusted greyish. Frons about 3 times width of an ocellus, eyes 
contiguous below antennae. A pair of tiny, slightly convergent ocellar bristles with two pairs 
of tiny bristles behind. A pair of short crossing vertical bristles. Occiput with sparse short hairs 
above and a few longer pale bristly hairs behind mouth. Antennae with first and second seg- 
ments yellow, second segment with 2 strong bristles below, one short, one long ; third segment 
black, extremely short, shorter than second segment and with a few longish hairs at tip. Arista 
black, subapical, 3 times antennal length and pubescent. Proboscis brown, about one-third head 
height. Palpi short, yellow and with a strong black apical bristle. 

Thorax black, dusted greyish. Disc of thorax with about 6 rows of short brownish bristly 
hairs. A distinct humeral, a tiny posthumeral, a distinct notopleural and a distinct postalar. 
Pleurae black, dusted greyish. Scutellum black, dusted greyish with a pair of fairly strong 
convergent apical bristles. 

Abdomen pale and fleshy except for the black complex hypopygium. 

Legs (including coxae) yellow except for slightly darkened front tibiae and blackish distal 
three-quarters of hind femora and last tarsal segment of all legs. Front femora strongly swollen 
and with some postero ventral bristles. Middle femora with a strong preapical anterior bristle 
and 3 posteroventral bristles on basal half. Hind femora with a row of short slender antero- 
ventral bristles, two or three of which, towards tip, are longer. Legs otherwise rather short 
haired. 

Wings clouded brownish about veins. Vein R 2+3 joining costal vein beyond centre of wing. 
Main veins divergent. Halteres with yellow stem and black knob. 

$ similar to male, but terminal abdominal segments laterally compressed ; anal papillae with 
some rather long bristly hairs. 

Length 1 mm. 

Holotype (J. Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, mixed 
shrubs and plants by damp cliff in deep river gorge, c. 5,200', x-xi. 1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 4 $, same data as Holotype. 

This species may be distinguished from all Old World species by the long vein 
R 2+3 which joins the costal vein beyond the middle of the wing and by the distinctive 
genitalia. 

SICODUS Rafinesque 

Sicodus Rafinesque, 1815, Analyse de la Nature, 130. 
Tachista Loew, 1864, Z. Ent. 17 : 15. 

This genus is mainly a Palaearctic one, but also occurs in Africa, Formosa and 
North America. Brunetti (1920 : 375-376) described Tachydromia latifascipennis 
from India, but I have studied specimens in the British Museum determined by 
Brunetti and they clearly belong to Sicodus. Only one species was taken on the 
Nepal Expeditions, represented by a damaged female, belonging to the S. annuli- 
manus Mg.-S. calceana Mg. group. 

Sicodus sp. 

Shining black species, dusted about neck and on scutellum, thoracic bristle strong. Legs 
with coxae yellow ; front femora yellow ; middle and hind femora black ; all tibiae blackish ; 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 75 

tarsi yellow except for darkened last two segments. Wings with the two dark transverse 
bands broadly joined along anterior edge. 

Nepal : Aran Valley, below Tumlingtar, River Sabhaya, west shore, c. 1,800', 
evergreen shrubs on sandy shore, 9-17.xii.1961, 1 $ (R. L. Coe). 

TACHYDROMIA Meigen 

Tachydromia Meigen, 1803 in Illiger, Mag. Ins. 2 : 269. 
Platypalpus Macquart, 1827, Mem. Soc. Sci. Lille, 3 : 92. 
Howlettia Brunetti, 1913, Rec. Ind. Mas. 9: 23 

Tachydromia is almost world-wide in distribution, but is best represented in the 
northern temperate regions. T. nepalensis (Brunetti) has previously been described 
from Nepal (Brunetti, 1913, 1920) and 7 new species are now described. 

Key to Nepalese Species of Tachydromia 

1 Large (4-0 mm.) species with very long palpi (Text-fig. 7) brunettii (Melander) 

- Smaller (2-0 mm.) species with smaller palpi ...... 2 

2 (1) Thorax black ............ 3 

- Thorax partly yellow .......... 7 

3 (2) Costa intensely blackened for basal 2/3 between end of vein jF? x and end of vein 

i? 2+s (Text-fig. 10) 4 

Costa not as above ........... 5 

4 (3) Antennae black. Tibiae black, front and middle femora with a black band. 

Male genitalia large ......... tapa sp. n. 

First and second antennal segments yellow. Legs yellow. Male genitalia 

small ........... sanguensis sp. n. 

5 (3) Middle and hind femora black on apical half and all tibiae blackish . shealsi sp. n. 

- Legs with less extensive black markings ....... 6 

6 (5) Legs of male yellow ....... taplejungensis sp. n. 

- Front and hind femora blackish above at tip. Middle femora brownish on 

anterior face .......... kosi sp. n. 

7 (2) Thorax reddish yellow with a black median stripe which broadens posteriorly to 

include whole of scutellum ....... quinlani sp. n. 

- Thorax without a black median stripe ....... 8 

8 (7) Thorax entirely reddish yellow, scutellum black .... narangi sp. n. 

Thorax with a short black streak above each wing, apparently joined behind by 

an irregular blackish mark, scutellum yellow . . . nepalensis Brunetti 

Tachydromia brunettii (Melander) 

(Text-fig. 7) 

{Platypalpus brunettii Melander, 1927, Gen. Ins. 185: 349 [n.n. for H. flavipes Brunetti ; 1913: 23] 

$. Head black, completely and heavily dusted greyish except for shining frons and face. 
Frons twice ocellar width at level of front ocellus, narrowing to ocellar width below. Face about 
as wide as an ocellus. Occiput rather densely pale haired above and with long pale bristly hairs 
below. A pair of widely divergent ocellar bristles and two pairs of small vertical bristles. 
Antennae dark brownish ; first segment longer than second segment and third segment short, 
hardly as long as first and second segments together and hairy. Arista black, long, about 2^- 
times antennal length and obviously pubescent. Proboscis about half head height, brownish. 
Palpi yellow and very large, with fine pale hairs. 



7 6 K. G. V. SMITH 

Thorax black, only lightly dusted and subshining on disc, but heavily and broadly dusted 
around margins, over humeri and on a triangle behind humeri. Thorax with even short pale 
pubescence ; a slender prescutellar dorsocentral ; two notopleurals, upper one stronger ; a 
weak postalar. Pleurae black, densely dusted greyish, but sternopleurae shining black except 
for upper hind corner. Scutellum black, dusted greyish, with a pair of crossing apical bristles 
and a weak outer pair of hairs. 

Abdomen tergites black, sternites pale brownish ; clothed with sparse pale hairs. 

Legs (including coxae) yellow, except for last four tarsal segments of all legs which are 
darkened. Front femora slightly swollen. Middle femora strongly swollen with two ventral 
rows of short black spines and a posteroventral row of bristles. Hind tibiae distinctly curved. 
Legs short haired without outstanding bristles other than those described on middle femora. 

Wings clear, veins brown. Veins R i+5 and M very gently convergent distally. Haltcres 
yellow. 

(J unknown. 

Length 4 mm. 

Nepal : Taplejung District, damp evergreen oak forest above Sangu, c. 8,500', 
2-26.xi.1961, 1 $. (R. L. Coe). 

This large species resembles T. orientalis Brunetti (1920 : 378) from Darjiling and 
T. valens Melander (1927 : 366) from Java, but the former has a parallel-sided dusted 
frons and the latter has a linear face and a large tibial spur. Compared with type $, 
Mussoorie, in British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

Tachydromia tapa sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 8) 

$. Head black, dusted greyish except for the shining frons. Frons about twice ocellar width, 
narrowing to slightly more than ocellar width above antennae. Face narrow, only half as wide 
as an ocellus. A pair of divergent ocellar bristles. Occiput pale haired, the hairs on lower part 
longer. Antennae black, third segment elongate, twice length of first and second segments 
together ; arista black, about three-quarters length of third segment. Proboscis black, rather 
slender and a little more than half as long as head is deep. Palpi yellow, about half as long as 
proboscis. 

Thorax : shining black, with sparse microscopic pubescence ; anteriorly the hairs in the outer 
acrostichal series are directed outwards, all other hairs being directed backwards. Heavily dusted 
on a very narrow transverse band in front of scutellum. The only distinct bristles are two noto- 
pleurals, the uppermost being the stronger and a weak prescutellar dorsocentral. Pleurae black, 
dusted greyish, but sternopleuron and mesopleuron largly shining. Scutellum black, dusted 
greyish with a pair of crossing apical bristles and a weaker outer pair. 

Abdomen shining black with sparse short pale hairs and a fringe of longer hairs on the pre- 
genital sternite. Hypopygium large and black, dusted greyish. 

Legs coxae yellow. Front femora yellow. Middle femora only slightly swollen, yellow, with 
a broad black band beyond middle ; hind femora with a black preapical band. All tibiae black, 
more or less yellowish at base ; tarsi black. Front tibiae with very short erect bristles above on 
distal half. 

Wings clear, veins brownish, but second costal section intensely blackened on basal three- 
quarters. Cells R and M of equal length. Veins R i+b and M gently diverging basally, but 
almost parallel distally. Halteres yellow. 

$ unknown. 

Length 2 mm. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



77 




Figs. 7-14. Tachydromia spp. T. brunettii (Mel.) 7, head : T. tapa sp. n. 8, $ hypopygium 
showing orientated details of epandrium and cercus : T. sanguensis sp. n. 9 <J hypo- 
pygium ; 10, wing : T. shealsi sp. n. 11, hypopygium showing details of epandrium ; 
12, wing : T. kosi sp. n. 13, lateral lamella of epandrium of hypopygium : T. taplejun- 
gensis sp. n. 14, hypopygium. 

2 



7 8 K. G. V. SMITH 

Holotype g. Nepal : Taplejung District, damp evergreen oak forest above Sangu, 
c. 9,200', 2-26.xi.1961 (R. L. Coe). 

This and the following species resemble T. gentilis Brunetti (1920 : 377) from 
Darjiling and Simla, but that species has the scutellum shining black and the costa is 
not darkened on the basal three-quarters. The costal character is reminiscent of the 
European T. stigmatella Zetterstedt, but that is a larger (2 '5-3-0 mm.) species, with 
yellow legs, a shining black head and different genitalia. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " summit " (of hill or mountain). 

Tachydromia sanguensis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 9, 10) 

<J. Head black, dusted greyish, but frons only lightly so and therefore subshining. Frons 3 
times ocellar width at level of first ocellus, narrowing to about slightly more than ocellar width 
above antennae. Face about half ocellar width. A pair of weak ocellar bristles, shorter than 
in T. tapa. Occiput with short pale pubescence above and longer pale hairs below. Antennae 
with first and second segments yellow ; third segment black, less than twice length of first and 
second segments together ; arista black, a little longer than third antennal segment. Proboscis 
brownish, slender and a little more than half as long as head is deep. Palpi whitish, about half 
as long as proboscis. 

Thorax shining black on disc but greyish dusted around margins and over humeri, especially 
on a prescutellar band about as broad as third antennal segment is deep. Thoracic pubescence 
yellow, short and sparse ; anteriorly, the hairs of the outer acrostichal series are directed out- 
wards, but all other hairs are directed backwards. Bristles yellow. A distinct, though weak, 
notopleural, a similar prescutellar dorsocentral and a very weak postalar. Pleurae black, dusted 
greyish, but mesopleurae and sternopleurae largely shining. Scutellum black, dusted greyish 
with a pair of crossing apicals and a weak outer pair. 

Abdomen shining black with sparse short pale hairs and a fringe of longer hairs on the pre- 
genital sternite. Hypopygium small and black. 

Legs yellow with the last tarsal segment somewhat darkened. Middle femora only slightly 
swollen. Front tibiae without the short erect bristles above which are present in T. tapa. 

Wings clear, veins brownish, but second costal section intensely blackened as in T. tapa. 
Venation otherwise resembling that species, but wings longer. Halteres pale yellow. 

$. Similar to male, except for abdominal terminalia. 

Length 1-5 mm. 

Holotype <J. Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by 
stream in gully, xi. 1961-1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 3 $, same data as Holotype ; Taplejung District, edge of mixed forest 
above Sangu, c. 6,500', 17.x-i.xi.1961, 1 $ (R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung District, between 
Sangu and Tamrang, mixed plants in deep river gorge, c. 5,200', 22.xi.1961, 1 $ 
{R. L. Coe). 

Tachydromia shealsi sp. n. 

(Text-figs, n, 12) 

cj. Head black, dusted greyish. Frons nearly twice ocellar width at level of first ocellus. 
Face linear, broadening above mouth, silvery. Ocellar bristle divergent. Two pairs of vertical 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 79 

bristles. Occiput medium haired above, with longer pale hairs below. Antennae with first and 
second segments yellow ; third segment black, short and hairy apically below ; arista sub-apical, 
black and a little longer than antenna. Proboscis shining black and a little more than half head 
height. Palpi short, black and with a strong bristle at tip. 

Thorax black, lightly dusted greyish, bristles and hairs yellow. Acrostichal bristles quadri- 
serial. Only one strong posterior dorsocentral with a few biserial hairs in front of it. A weak 
humeral ; two notopleural bristles, lower one weaker ; a weak postalar and some bristly hairs 
between the dorsocentrals and the notopleurals. Pleurae black lightly dusted greyish, but 
sternopleurae largely shining. Scutellum black, heavily dusted greyish and with two crossing 
apical bristles. 

Abdomen shining black with a narrow band of dust across the anterior margin of each tergite, 
sparsely haired. Hypopygium black, dusted greyish. 

Legs with coxae yellow ; front femora yellow except for a blackish patch above at tip ; 
middle and hind femora yellow on a little less than basal half, remainder black ; middle femora 
hardly swollen ; all tibiae blackish ; all tarsi with first two segments yellow, remainder black. 
Hairs of medium length, but no outstanding bristles except for the short posteroventrals on 
middle femora. 

Wings clear, veins brownish. Second costal section thickened on basal half. Veins R i+S and 
M gently convergent distally. 

$ unknown. 

Length 2 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by 
stream in gully, xi. 1961-1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 2 <$, same data as Holotype ; Taplejung District, Sangu, spray-splashed 
rocks in shallow ravine, c. 6,200', 13.1.1962, 1 <$ (R. L. Coe). 

This, and the following species, are similar to the Javanese T. maculifemur Meijere 
(1914 : 78) and T. maculifemoratus Melander (1927 : 358), but the former has a patch 
of dust on each side of the thorax in front of the posterior callus, brown legs and the 
middle femora without blackish marks, while the latter has blackish marks on only the 
middle legs. 

Tachydromia kosi sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 13) 

o*. Very similar to T. shealsi, but differing as follows : Antennae completely black ; arista 
apical and about i£ times antennal length ; palpi smaller. Hypopygium very similar, but the 
slender lateral lamella is of a different shape. Front femora as in T. shealsi with an apical black 
spot above but middle femora moderately swollen and only obscurely blackish on anterior and 
posterior faces with the tips, base, dorsal and ventral surfaces yellow ; hind femora obscurely 
blackish on anterior and posterior faces for distal half, and black above at tip ; all tibiae yellow 
but anterior tibiae vaguely darkened about middle ; tarsi with last three segments darkened. 
Wings with basal half of second costal section not so obviously thickened and with veins i? 4+5 
and M parallel distally. 

$ unknown. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, river banks below Tamrang Bridge, 
c. 5,500', x-xi.1961 (R. L. Coe). 
The specific name means " river ". 



8o K. G. V. SMITH 

Tachydromia taplejungensis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 14) 

cj. Head black, dusted greyish, frons about twice ocellar width, face a little wider than an 
ocellus. A pair of divergent ocellar bristles and a pair of incurved vertical bristles. Occiput 
with short pale hairs above and longer pale bristly hairs below. Antennae black, third segment 
about i£ times length of first and second segments together. Arista black and only slightly 
longer than antenna. Proboscis black, about three-quarters head height. Palpi yellow and 
very small with a bristle at tip. 

Thorax black, humeri and postalar calli brownish, only microscopically dusted on disc, hence 
subshining but more heavily dusted around margins. No distinct acrostichals as the thorax is 
clothed with short fine even pubescence. One distinct prescutellar dorsocentral. A tiny 
humeral ; two notopleurals, upper one stronger and a weak postalar. Pleurae black, dusted 
greyish, but sternopleurae largely shining except for dusted upper margin. Scutellum black, 
dusted greyish with a pair of crossing apical bristles. 

Abdomen blackish, short haired, but hypopygium with longer hairs and the epandrium with a 
long slender sickle-shaped process above. 

Legs yellow, short haired ; middle femora swollen, with two rows of short black spines beneath 
and a row of short posteroventral bristles, otherwise legs without strong bristles. 

Wings clear with veins brown. Veins i? 4+5 and M parallel distally. Halteres yellow. 

$ unknown. 

Length 2-5 mm. 

Holotype <£. Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by 
stream in gully, xi. 1961-1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratype : <$, Taplejung District, below Sangu, edge of small mixed wood, c. 6,000', 
4.XL1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Similar to T. gentilis Brunetti, but that species has the scutellum shining black 
and the antennae brownish yellow. 

Tachydromia narangi sp. n. 

$. Head black, heavily dusted greyish. Frons about twice ocellar width and face hardly as 
wide as an ocellus. A pair of slightly divergent ocellar bristles and two pairs of vertical bristles. 
Occiput with a few short pale hairs above and some longer pale bristly hairs below. Antennae 
yellow, third segment short and rounded, only as long as first and second antennal segments 
together. Arista black and twice antennal length. Proboscis yellow with a brown tip, about 
half head height. Palpi yellow, short. 

Thorax orange-yellow, shining on disc, but narrowly dusted at sides and on humeri. Acro- 
stichals irregularly biserial ; dorsocentrals uniserial, longer posteriorly with a strong prescutellar ; 
a strong notopleural with a much weaker bristle and a few hairs below ; a very strong postalar 
bristle present. Pleurae orange-yellow but yellowish dusted except for stern opleural spot ; also 
there is a narrow black streak down the hind margin of the sternopleuron. Scutellum black, 
lightly dusted, with a strong pair of crossing apical bristles and a very weak pair of outer hairs. 
Mesonotum black. 

Abdomen with first four segments black, only lightly dusted and thus subshining ; the last 
segment is also dark, but rather heavily dusted ; remaining segment and anal papillae yellow. 

Legs (including coxae) yellow except for last tarsal segment on all legs. Front femora slightly 
swollen ; middle femora strongly swollen with two rows of black ventral spines and a postero- 
ventral row of bristles which are long and strong on basal half. Hind femora slender, with a 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 81 

ventral row of minute spaced points. Middle tibiae with an apical process as long as tibia is 
broad at tip, rounded apically. 

Wings clear, veins yellow. Veins R i+5 and M very slightly convergent distally. Halteres 
yellow. 

<J unknown. 

Length 2 mm. 

Holotype $. Nepal : Ghanpokhara, 5,500-7,000', 2. v. 1954 (/. Quintan). 

This species resembles T. nepalensis Brunetti, but in that species there is a short 
black streak above each wing and the scutellum is ferrugineous. 
The specific name means " orange ". 

Tachydromia quinlani sp. n. 

$. Resembling T. narangi, but differing as follows : Arista shorter, hardly i£ times antennal 
length. Thorax with a wide black median stripe, which widens posteriorly to equal width of the 
black scutellum and metanotum ; the upper notopleural and the postalar bristles are strong, but 
the prescutellar dorsocentral is not as strong as usual ; otherwise the thorax is clothed with fine, 
pale, rather long hairs. Abdomen shining blackish with sparse pale hairs. The black spaced 
points on the hind femora are longer and stronger than in T. narangi. 

<J unknown. 

Holotype $. Nepal : 2 miles SW. of Ulleri, 6,000-7,000', 18 . v . 1954 (/. Quinlan) . 

This species is similar to T.ferruginea Brunetti (1920 : 376), but in that species the 
head is brownish yellow, and there is an abbreviated stripe on each side of the median 
stripe. 

Tachydromia nepalensis Brunetti 

Brevios longicornis Brunetti, 1913, Rec. Indian Mus. 9 : 22. 

Tachydromia nepalensis Brunetti, 1920, Fauna of British India, 1 : 377 [n.n. for B. longicornis 
Brunetti] . 

This species was described from a unique male from Sarath, 24 . ii . 1908, and has not 
been taken since. 

HYBOTINAE 

HYBOS Meigen 

Hybos Meigen, 1803 in Illiger Mag. Ins. 2 : 269 ; 1804, Klass. Z. Ins. 1 : 239. 

This genus is almost world-wide in distribution, but is better represented in the 
Oriental and Austro-oriental regions than in the Palaearctic. Two species are now 
described from Nepal. 

Hybos aimai sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 15, 16) 

$. Head black, dusted greyish. Eyes with upper facets enlarged, contiguous above antennae, 
but separated below antennae by a short broad face which is heavily dusted grey. A pair of 
distinct ocellar bristles and occiput with a postocular fringe of bristly hairs which are bent for- 
ward at tip. Occiput otherwise with short dark hairs and a few pale hairs below. Antennae 



82 



K. G. V. SMITH 



black, third segment about twice as long as broad, arista black and about twice antennal length. 
Proboscis dark brown, directed forwards. Palpi black, not quite as long as proboscis, and with 
some bristles beneath. 

Thorax arched, black, heavily dusted brownish. A weak humeral bristle ; acrostichals 
quadriserial ; dorsocentrals uniserial, ending with a strong bristle on front margin of prescutellar 
depression ; two notopleural bristles, upper one stronger ; a postalar. Pleurae black, dusted 
greyish. Scutellum black, heavily dusted yellowish with a pair of strong black apical bristles 
and two outer pairs of pale hairs. 

Abdomen shining black except for a narrow band of light dust on the anterior margins of 
tergites with sparse short dark hairs above and longer pale hairs laterally. Terminalia with a 
tuft of bristly hairs and a pair of upright anal papillae. 

Legs shining black. Front and middle femora with pale slender posteroventral bristles. Hind 
femora with a black slender, anterodorsal bristle at middle and another at distal three-quarters ; 
pale slender posteroventral bristles, longer on distal half ; a row of short but strong black antero- 
ventral bristles and a ventral row of short black tuberculate spines. Front tibiae with a short 
anterodorsal bristle, a long anterodorsal apical bristle, other apical bristles short. Middle tibiae 
with a very long anteroventral apical bristle, other apical bristles shorter ; an anterodorsal 
bristle at middle and another near base. Hind tibiae with a very slender dorsal bristle near tip. 
Tarsi longer and sparser haired above, short and thicker haired below, without bristles. 

Wings clear with a long faint stigma. Halteres yellow. 

cj unknown. 

Length 3-5 mm. 

Holotype $. Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, c. 5,500', 
open ground by hill stream, 20-23. x.i 961 [R- L. Coe). 




Wttv< 



Figs. 15-18. Hybos spp. H. aimai sp. n. 15, § terminalia ; 16, wing : H. bhainse sp. n. 

x 7> 6* hypopygium ; 18. wing. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 83 

Paratypes : Taplejimg District, between Sangu and Tamrang, mixed shrubs in deep 
gorge, c. 5,200', x-xi.1961, 2 $ (R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung District between Sangu and 
Tamrang, mossy ground under bush by hill stream, 20.x. 1961, c. 5,500', 1 $ (R. L. 
Coe). 

This species most resembles H. nigronitidus Brunetti (1920 : 342) from India, but 
in that species the thorax is shining black. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " woman ". 

Hybos bhainse sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 17, 18) 

cj. Head black, dusted brownish. Eyes with upper facets slightly enlarged, contiguous 
above antennae, face linear. Ocellar bristles divergent. Occiput with black bristly hairs. 
Antennae black, third segment a little longer than first and second segments together ; arista 
black, about 3 times antennal length. Proboscis short, black, palpi black. 

Thorax arched, black, dusted brownish but subshining on disc and humeri. Two humeral 
bristles, two notopleural bristles, upper one stronger ; acrostichals biserial, dorsocentrals 
uniserial ending with a strong bristle at front margin of prescutellar depression ; a postalar. 
Scutellum shining black on disc, dusted brownish around margins with a pair of divergent apical 
bristles and two pairs of weak outer hairs. Pleurae black, dusted brownish. 

Abdomen shining black with short dark hairs above and longer pale hairs at sides. Hypo- 
pygium black. 

Legs black with all metatarsi and second tarsal segments of front and middle legs yellow. 
Front and middle femora without distinct bristles. Hind femora with strong tuberculate spines 
ventrally, irregularly biserial on basal half, but uniserial distally. Front tibiae short haired 
anteriorly, long haired posteriorly ; with the posteroventral the longest of the circlet of slender 
preapical bristles. Middle tibiae with distinct anterodorsal bristles and a long slender postero- 
ventral preapical bristle. Hind tibiae with distinct anterodorsal bristles and a long slender 
posterodorsal preapical. Front and middle tarsi with circlets of long bristly hairs ; hind tarsi 
with short bristly hairs above. 

Wings somewhat brownish tinged, stigma short, squarish and dark. Halteres black. 

$. Similar to male, but hind femora more slender and abdomen terminating in two bristly 
papillae. 

Length 3 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, above Sangu, c. 6,500', evergreen scrub, 
5-13.X.1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratype : $, Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by stream in 
gully, ix.x-1961 (R. L. Coe). 

This species resembles H. geniculates Wulp (1897 : 137) from Ceylon in having the 
legs partly yellow, but that species has whitish halteres. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " buffalo ". 

STENOPROCTUS Loew 

Stenoproctus Loew, 1858, Ofvers. VetenskAkad. Fork., Stockh. 15 : 340. 
Stenoproctus Loew ; Loew, i860, Abh. naturw. Ver. Sachsen 2 : 261. 
Acanthopeza Becker, 1914, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 83 : 122. 

This genus has previously only been recorded from the Ethiopian region. The type 



84 



K. G. V. SMITH 



species, S. unipunctatus Loew, was described from the Cape of Good Hope. Becker 
(1914) described a second species, 5. sylvaticus (under Acanthopeza) from East Africa 
and Jones (1940) described three species from the Ruwenzori region. I refer one 
species from Nepal to this genus, although the hind femora are simple and slender, 
in this feature resembling an undescribed species I have seen from Africa. When 
males are known, it may be advisable to erect a new genus for this and the African 
species. 

Stenoproctus nepalensis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 19) 

9- Head black, heavily dusted greyish. Eyes contiguous above antennae, face about as 
broad as third antennal segment is deep. Slender ocellar bristles, curved forwards and slightly 
divergent. Occiput with sparse pale hairs. Antennae black, third segment a litle more than 
twice length of first and second segments together, the apical arista slightly longer than antenna. 
Proboscis short, directed forward. Palpi black. 

Thorax rather high and arched ; black, heavily dusted greyish around broad margin, but disc 
somewhat lighter, brownish dusted. Thoracic pubescence short, sparse and pale, except for a 
notopleural bristle, a dorsocentral at anterior corner of prescutellar depression, and a weak 
postalar. Pleurae black, dusted greyish. Scutellum black, dusted yellowish with 4 equally 
strong marginal bristles and several pale hairs. 




Fig. 19. Stenoproctus nepalensis sp. n. $ wing. 



Abdomen brownish, dulled by yellowish dust and with short sparse pale hairs. 

Legs slender, pale brown, but hind tibiae and all tarsi dark brown. Frpnt and middle femora 
with short slender postero ventral bristles, short haired above ; hind femora slender with 
additional longer posteroventral bristles on distal half, a weak series of anteroventral bristles 
with a few longer curved bristles at tip and with some upright bristly hairs above on basal half. 
Front tibiae with rather long bristly hairs and a long anterodorsal subapical bristle and a similar 
posteroventral bristle. Middle tibiae with a long brown anterodorsal bristle at basal quarter, a 
shorter pale anteroventral bristle at middle and a slender apical bristle in the antero- and 
posteroventral positions. Hind tibiae with a strong brown anterodorsal bristle at basal third, 
and some slender posterodorsal bristly hairs which become longer towards tip ; two slender pale 
anteroventral bristles about middle and with rather short dense hairs below on distal third. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 85 

Wings clear, veins dark brown. Cell Cu square ended and much shorter than cell M. Vein 
1 A continued to wing margin. Rs (the common stem of R 2+3 and J? 4+5 ) long. A distinct brownish 
stigma below tip of vein R v Axillary angle well developed. Halteres yellow. 

<J unknown. 

Length 2-5 mm. 

Holotype $. Nepal : Arun Valley, below Tumlingtar, River Sabhaya, west shore, 
c. 1,800', dead leaves lying in sun on sandy shore, 22.xii.1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratype: $, same data as Holotype. 

This species is distinguished at once from all described species by the slender simple 
hind femora. 

OGYDROMIINAE 

BICELLARIA Macquart 

Bicellaria Macquart, 1823, Mlm. Soc. Set. Lille, 1819-22 : 155. 

Cyrtoma Meigen, 1824, Syst. Beschr. 4 : 1. 

Enicopteryx Stephens, 1829, Syst. Cat. Brit. Ins. 2 : 264. 

This genus is known only from the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions. One species 
has been taken in Nepal which is very close to the Palaearctic B. vana Collin, but 
since this is represented by only a damaged male I am reluctant to comment further 
until more material is available. 

Bicellaria sp. 
Nepal : Ghanpokhara, 5,500-7,000', 2. v. 1954, 1 <$ (J. Quintan). 

EMPIDINAE 
HILARA Meigen 

Hilara Meigen, 1882, Syst. Beschr. 3 : 1. 

This genus is almost world-wide in distribution with a large number of described 
species. Unfortunately, many descriptions are inadequate, which has made taxo- 
nomic studies difficult. It is essential that the male genitalia be dissected and 
studied in detail and illustrated in descriptions. 

Three species are now described from Nepal and are distinguished from other 
Himalayan species by the following key. At least another 4 species are represented 
by females only and are thus not described. 

Key to known Himalayan Species of Hilara 

1 Wings brownish tinged .......... 2 

- Wings clear ............ 4 

2 (1) Thorax light yellowish brown with 3 black stripes . . rufithorax Brunetti 

- Thorax brownish or blackish ......... 3 

3 (2) Blackish species. Middle femora with a long slender ventral bristle near base 

bhiga sp. n. 

- Brownish species. Middle femora without such a bristle . . bares Walker 



86 K. G. V. SMITH 

4 (i) Halteres brownish yellow . 



Halteres black . 

(4) Acrostichal bristles biserial 
Acrostichal bristles quadriserial 

(5) Legs brown. Front basitarsus of 
Legs yellow, except for brown: 



cj greatly swollen 

sh tarsi. Front basitarsus of £ moderately 



compacta Brunetti 

5 

gila sp. n. 

6 

peshawarensis Brunetti 



swollen .......... khola sp. n. 

Hilara gila sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 20-23) 

<J. Head black, heavily dusted brownish grey. A pair of frontal bristles and a strong pair of 
widely divergent ocellar bristles. Some long postocular bristly hairs curved forward over eye- 
margins on upper half of head. Antennae black, style about two-thirds length of third segment. 
Proboscis black. Palpi black, with a long black ventral bristle. 

Thorax black, heavily dusted brownish grey. A small humeral, intrahumeral and post- 
humeral present. Acrostichals rather short, biserial ; dorsocentrals a little longer, uniserial and 
ending in a longer prescutellar bristle. A notopleural with a short bristle in front and another 
behind, a supra-alar and a postalar present. Pleurae bare, brownish grey dusted. Scutellum 
greyish dusted with two pairs of marginal bristles, outer pair weaker. 

Abdomen blackish, dusted brownish grey, rather short haired. Hypopygium dusted brownish 
grey. 

Legs dark brown, first tarsal segment of front leg moderately swollen, otherwise legs slender. 
Mainly short haired, but middle and hind femora with slender anteroventral bristly hairs and 
hind tibiae with some longer posterodorsal bristly hairs. Front tibiae with weak antero- and 
posterodorsal preapical hairs. 

Wings greyish with blackish veins. Stigma pale brownish. Vein iA very faint. Halteres 
black. 

$. Similar to male, but front metatarsi simple and abdomen terminating in a pair of papillae. 

Length 2-25 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, wet boulder 
permanently shaded in deep river gorge, c. 5,200', 14. ii. 1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes: 17 <$, 5 $, same data as Holotype. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " wet ". 

Hilara bhiga sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 24-27) 

cj. Head black, heavily dusted brownish grey. A pair of frontal bristles and a pair of widely 
divergent ocellar bristles. The longer upper postocular bristles are not strongly curved forward 
over eye margins as in H. gila. Antennae black and resembling H. gila in proportions. Palpi 
yellow with a long ventral bristle. 

Thorax black, brownish dusted, but viewed from in front with a narrow black stripe on each 
side between acrostichals and dorsocentrals, a fairly long bristle on each side of prothoracic 
collar, a humeral, a posthumeral, a long intrahumeral and a strong notopleural with a shorter 
bristle in front and another behind. Acrostichals quadriserial, but a little irregular ; dorso- 
centrals uniserial ending in a longer prescutellar bristle. A supra-alar and a long postalar 
present. Pleurae heavily dusted brownish grey. Scutellum dusted brownish grey with 4 
marginal bristles, outer pair weaker. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



87 



x '- - - 1 - '" ' ' . ' '*~~ ■'<■**» 




Figs. 20-23. Hilara gila sp. n. 20, wing ; 21, epandrium and cerci (anterior view) ; 22, 

aedeagus ; 23, basistylus. 



88 



K. G. V. SMITH 



Abdomen black, dusted brownish grey, rather short haired, but with longer bristly hairs on 
hind margins of segments. Hypopygium blackish, dusted brownish. 

Legs slender, except for moderately swollen front metatarsus in male ; front coxae yellowish 
brown, middle and hind coxae brownish grey. Front and middle femora yellowish brown to 
brown, hind femora yellowish brown on basal third, blackish distally. Tibiae brownish, darker 
towards tip, rest of legs blackish. Front femora short haired with some longer bristly hairs 
posterodorsally ; middle femora with long slender anterodorsal bristles, a long slender ventral 
bristle near base and slender posteroventral bristles on distal half ; hind femora short haired 
with some longer antero ventral bristly hairs. Front tibiae with anterodorsal bristles and a 
circlet of preapical bristles ; middle tibiae with one or two anteroventral bristles and a postero- 
ventral bristle just beyond middle ; hind tibiae with some spaced anterodorsal, anteroventral 
and posterodorsal bristles. Tarsi with one or two bristly hairs above towards tip on first and 
second segments. 

Wings distinctly brownish tinged with an elongate dark brown stigma and dark veins. Vein 
i A distinct almost to wing margin. Halteres black. 

$ ? unknown (see below). 

Length 275-3 mm. 




Figs. 24-27. Hilara bhiga sp. n. 



24, wing ; 25, aedeagus ; 26, left cercus (anterior view) 
27, basistylus. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



89 



Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, wet boul- 
der permanently shaded in deep river gorge, c. 5,200', 14. ii. 1962 (R. L. Coe). 
Paratypes : 2 $, same data as Holotype. 

A female (same data) may belong to this species, but is not included in the type 
series ; it has yellow legs and the hind tibiae are somewhat swollen distally. 

In Frey's (1952) key to East Asian Empididae this and the following species run to 
H. fistulipes Frey, but that species has black palpi. 

The specific name is another Nepalese word meaning " wet ". 



Hilara khola sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 28-30) 

<J. Head blackish, dusted greyish. Chaetotaxy as in the previous two species, but as in H. 
%a the postocular occipital bristly hairs do not curve forward over eye margins. Antennae 
black. Palpi yellow with a long ventral bristle. 

Thorax black, but heavily dusted brownish to greyish and, viewed from in front, with a narrow 
stripe on each side between the acrostichal and dorsocentral rows of bristles. Prothoracic collar 
with a distinct bristle on each side. A humeral, intrahumeral and posthumeral bristles present. 
Acrostichals quadriserial, dorsocentrals uniserial, about the same length as acrostichals but 
ending in a longer prescutellar bristle. A notopleural bristle with a shorter bristle in front but a 
bristle of almost equal length behind, a supra-alar and a postalar. Pleurae black but heavily 
dusted brownish. Scutellum completely brownish dusted and with 4 marginal bristles, outer pair 
weaker. 

Abdomen blackish, heavily dusted dark grey with short black hairs and some longer lateral 
bristly hairs. Hypopygium dusted greyish. 

Legs yellow with last 4 tarsal segments of all legs dark brown. Front metatarsus moderately 
swollen. Middle femora with distinct anterodorsal bristles ; hind femora with weak antero- 
dorsal and antero ventral bristles. Middle tibiae with a short an tero ventral bristle at distal 




Figs. 28-30. Hilara khola sp. n. 



28, aedeagus ; 29, epandrium and cerci (anterior view) 
30, basistylus. 



9 o K.G.V. SMITH 

three-quarters. Hind tibiae with some short anteroventral bristles and a weak posterodorsal 
at middle. Legs otherwise moderately short haired. 

Wings clear with brown veins. Stigma faint, vein iA faint. Halteres black. 

9 unknown. 

Length 2 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, Dobhan, c. 3,500', shady places on 
shrubby slope above River Tamur, 21-27. i. 1962 C^- L. Coe). 
The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " river ". 

HEMERODROMIINAE 

Hemerodromia Meigen 

Hemerodromia Meigen, 1822, Syst. Beschr. 3 : 61. 
Microdromia Bigot, 1857, Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 3 : 557, 563. 

A genus of world-wide distribution. Brunetti (1913 : 33) described H. dorsalis 
from India (as Chelipoda) and four species are now described from Nepal. 

Key to Nepalese Species of Hemerodromia 

1 Thorax completely reddish yellow. Scutellum yellow .... pila sp. n. 
- Thorax mostly black. Scutellum entirely black ...... 2 

2 (1) Halteres with knobs black. Thorax completely black. Antennae yellow 

serpa sp. n. 
Halteres yellow Thorax partly reddish yellow. Antennae whitish ... 3 

3 (2) Pleurae and sides of metanotum reddish yellow .... chita sp. n. 

Thorax, including pleurae, black, except for reddish yellow patch over humeri 

lomri sp. n. 

Hemerodromia chita sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 31, 32) 

<$. Head black, dusted greyish, but silvery behind eyes on lower half. Frons slightly wider than 
third antennal segment is deep. Face linear about middle, widening beneath antennae and above 
mouth and with some white hairs. Occiput with pale bristly hairs, cheeks with close set silvery 
hairs. A weak pair of yellow ocellar bristles. Antennae whitish ; third segment pointed, a 
little longer than first and second segments together and with distinct hairs above and below on 
distal half. Proboscis yellow. Palpi yellowish with pale hairs. 

Thorax broadly black, lightly dusted on a median stripe which widens to width of scutellum 
posteriorly ; reddish yellow laterally on prothoracic collar, over humeri and laterally to wing 
base, bristles pale. Acrostichal bristles very short, biserial ; dorsocentrals minute, uniserial. A 
single distinct notopleural bristle with a row of about 6 bristly hairs below. Pleurae yellow and 
yellowish dusted. Scutellum black, yellowish dusted, with a pair of weak apical bristles. 

Abdomen black distally, yellow ventrally with pregenital segment completely yellow. Hypo- 
pygium black, basistylus with some broad flattened bristles at tip. 

Legs completely yellow. Front legs of usual Hemerodromiid type with elongate coxae and 
swollen femora. Front femora with a double row of black points below and a row each of 
brownish antero- and posteroventral bristles. Middle and hind femora slender and without 
outstanding bristles. Front tibiae with a row of ventral bristles and a strong ventral apical 
bristle. Legs otherwise simple, without outstanding bristles. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 91 

Wings clear, veins brownish. Section of costa between end of R 2 +z an d en d °f upper branch 
of R 4+s obviously longer than upper branch of R i+b . A distinct stump of the lower section of Cu 
present (vein that would close cell Cu if present). Halteres yellow. 

§. Similar to male, but bristles on front femora a little longer and stronger. 

Length 2-75 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by 
stream in gully, xi. 1961-1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 3 <$, 2 $, same data as Holotype. 

This species resembles Brunetti's (1913 : 33) description of H. dorsalis from the 
Western Himalayas, but the hypopygium is not large as in that species. H. orientalis 
Meijere has the thorax more extensively darkened. 

The specific name means " leopard ". 

Hemerodromia pila sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 33, 34) 

3. Head similar to H. chita, but only very lightly dusted and proboscis a little smaller and 
more slender. 

Thorax reddish yellow. Acrostichals very short and biserial ; dorsocentrals only a little 
longer and uniserial. The only other distinct bristle is a weak notopleural. Scutellum yellow 
with 4 pairs of weak marginal hairs. Pleurae yellow. 

Abdomen black dorsally, except for yellow pregenital sternites, yellow ventrally. Hypo- 
pygium black. 

Legs completely yellow. The swollen front femora with antero- and posteroventral bristles 
and a double row of black points beneath. Front tibiae with a row of ventral bristles and a 
strong ventral apical bristle. Legs otherwise slender and short haired without outstanding 
bristles. 

Wings clear, with yellow veins. Section of costa between end of R 2+3 and upper branch of 
i? 4+5 only slightly longer than upper branch of R i+b . No trace of lower section of Cu. Halteres 
yellow. 

§. Resembling male except for abdominal terminalia. 

Length 2-75 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, Dobhan, evergreen trees overhanging 
stream in deep gully, c. 3,500', 30. i. 1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratype $, same data as Holotype. 

Very similar to the Palaearctic H. oratorio. Fin. but thorax less heavily whitish 
dusted and thus more shining and differing from that species and Collin's (1941) 
allied species H. bifurcata and H. acuminata in structure of genitalia. 

The specific name means " yellow ". 

Hemerodromia serpa sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 35) 

<J. Head black, brownish dusted, with face and lower half of head broadly silvery behind 
eyes. Frons twice ocellar width. Face linear at middle, the eyes very nearly touching for a 
short distance, with a row of hairs. A pair of weak ocellar bristles. Occiput short haired. 
Antennae yellow, third segment pointed. Proboscis yellow. Palpi short, pale yellow. 



92 



K. G. V. SMITH 




Figs. 31-37. Hemerodromia spp. H. chita sp. n. 31, wing ; 32, <$ basistylus and 
epandrium ; H. pila sp. n. 33, wing ; 34 $ epandrium : H. serpa sp. n. 35, <J basistylus 
and epandrium : H. lomri sp. n. 36, $ epandrium ; 37, $ basistylus and epandrium. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 93 

Thorax completely black, brownish dusted but subshining. Acrostichal bristles very short, 
biserial, dorsocentrals also very short, but uniserial. A weak notopleural bristle. Pleurae 
black, dusted brownish. Scutellum black, dulled by brownish dust and with 4 weak marginal 
hairs of which the apical pair are slightly longer. 

Abdomen black, dulled by brownish dust. Hypopygium black, part of epandrium resembling a 
snake's head in shape. 

Legs with front femora brownish, otherwise completely yellow. Chaetotaxy resembling H. 
pila, but bristles weaker. 

Wings greyish, veins brown. Section of costa between end of R 2+3 and upper branch of R 4+s 
only slightly longer than upper branch of i? 1+s . No trace of the lower section of Cu. Halteres 
black, with extreme base of stem yellowish. 

$. Similar to male except for the abdomen, which is very slender apically, the last two 
segments being black and shining with the preceding segment whitish above and below, but 
shining black on a lateral stripe. 

Length 2-25 mm. 

Holotype J. Nepal : Taplejung District, Dobhan, east bank of River Tamur, c. 
3,500', mixed vegetation by stream in deep gully, i-ii.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 3 <$, 2 $, same data as Holotype ; Taplejung District, Dobhan, c. 
3,500', shady places on shrubby slope above R. Tamur, 21-27. i. 1962, 2 <$, 1 £ 
(R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung District, Dobhan, evergreen trees overhanging stream in 
deep gully, c. 3,500', 30. i. 1962, 2 <$, 1 $ (R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 
6,200', mixed vegetation by stream in gully, xi. 1961-1.1962, 1 $ (R. L. Coe) ; 
Taplejung District, north of Sangu, dry grass above river bank, c. 5,200', 5. i. 1962, 
1 <$ (R. L. Coe) ; Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, mixed shrubs in 
deep gorge, c. 5,200', x-xi.1961 2$, (R. L. Coe) ; Arun Valley below Tumlingtar, 
River Sabhaya, west shore, c. 1,800', evergreen shrubs on sandy shore, 9-17 . xii . 1961, 
1 <? (R. L. Coe). 

This species is very similar to H. orientalis Meijere (191 1 : 330) from Java, but in 
that species the pleurae and venter are yellow, and the upper branch of R i+5 is 
steeper. H. xiphias Bezzi (1914 : 74) from Formosa has the thorax, pleurae, venter 
and halteres black as in H. serpa, but differs from the male type in genital characters. 
Dr. Morge sent a male and two female syntypes and I have designated the male as 
lectotype. 

The specific name means " snake ". 

Hemerodromia lomri sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 36, 37) 

cJ. Head black, lightly brownish dusted and silvery behind eyes below. Frons twice ocellar 
width, but eyes touching for a short distance below antennae, so that the silvery face is divided 
into two small triangles. Ocellar bristles and occipital hairs longer than in the three preceding 
species. Antennae whitish, third segment pointed. Proboscis and palpi pale yellow. 

Thorax, humeri and posterior calli yellowish, rest of thorax black, rather dulled by greyish 
dust. Acrostichals short and biserial, dorsocentrals short and uniserial. A distinct notopleural 
bristle with a few short bristly hairs in front. Pleurae black, but vaguely reddish around front 
and hind coxae. Scutellum black, completely dulled by greyish dust and with a pair of apical 
bristles. 



94 K. G. V. SMITH 

Abdomen black, but pale yellowish at sides of first segment and first segment whitish below ; 
short haired at sides, longer haired below especially on pregenital sternites. Hypopygium black. 

Legs pale yellow, chaetotaxy similar to H. serpa. 

Wings clear, veins brownish. Section of costa between end of R 2+3 and upper branch of 
i? 4+5 obviously longer than the upper branch of R i+5 , which is slightly sinuous. No trace of the 
lower section of Cu. Halteres yellow. 

°.. Similar to male, but abdomen whitish below on first three sternites. Anal papillae 
brownish. 

Length 2-25 mm. 

Holotype <J. Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation below 
stream in gully, xi. 1961-1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratype $, Taplejung District, river banks below Tamrang Bridge, c. 5,500', 
x-xi.1961 (R. L. Coe). 

Similar to H. orientalis Meijere and H. xiphias Bezzi, but in both these species the 
halteres are black. 

The specific name means " fox ". 

CHELIPODA Macquart 
Chelipoda Macquart, 1823, Mem. Soc. Sci. Lille, 1819-22 : 148. 

This genus is distinguished from Phyllodromia Zetterstedt only by the presence of 
the first M 2 cell. Melander (1927 : 263) regarded both as subgenera and, as Collin 
(1962 : 691) has pointed out, the presence or absence of one veinlet is of doubtful 
value at generic level (although similar cases occur elsewhere, e.g. Empis and Rham- 
phomyia) . One female of Chelipoda bakra (described below) has this veinlet missing 
in both wings (Text-fig. 39), though the longitudinal veins are bowed in where the 
veinlet should be ; in another female the veinlet is duplicated (Text-fig. 40). How- 
ever I am for the present retaining both names at generic level since there appears to 
be some difference in the distribution of the two genera, Chelipoda occurring in 
Europe, N. and S. America, Formosa, Java, Australia and New Zealand, while 
Phyllodromia has only been correctly recorded from Europe and Formosa. 

Brunetti (1920 : 368-9) described Phyllodromia flavida from India, but this has a 
1st M 2 cell and thould be referred to Chelipoda. Bezzi's (1912, 1914) species should 
be reversed in their generic positions. 

Two species are now described from Nepal. 

Chelipoda bakra sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 38-41) 

$. Head black, rather heavily brownish dusted. Frons rather broad, but face linear. 
Ocellar bristles divergent, two pairs of vertical bristles and short hairs behind on lower half of 
head. Antennae blackish with long white terminal arista. Proboscis short, brownish ; palpi 
very small, yellow. 

Thorax black, dulled by brownish dust. A pair of microscopic acrostichal hairs at front of 
thorax. A strong pair of anterior dorsocentrals (almost intrahumeral in position), a pair of tiny 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



95 



median dorsocentral hairs and a weak pair of prescutellar dorsocentrals. A strong notopleural 
bristle with a very weak bristle in front and a strong supra-alar. Pleurae black, dusted brownish, 
metapleurae with a few bristles. Scutellum black, dusted brownish with a pair of weak apical 
bristles. 

Abdomen black, dulled by brownish dust and short haired. Hypopygium large, black. 

Legs yellowish with middle and hind femora and last tarsal segment of all legs brownish. 
Front coxae greatly elongated as is usual in this genus. Front femora swollen, with two rows of 
black points beneath and antero- and postero ventral bristles. Front tibiae " keeled " beneath. 
Legs otherwise slender and short-haired. 

Wings clear with brown veins. Venation typical of the genus with ist M % cell complete. 
Halteres dusky. 

$. Similar to male, but more robust, a little longer and abdomen terminating in a pair of 
yellow papillae. 

Length 2-25 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by 
stream in gully, xi. 1961-1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 3 <J 4 $, same data as Holotype. 

The specific name means " goat ". 



Chelipoda keta sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 42) 

<J. Head black, rather heavily dusted greyish. Ocellar bristles short, divergent. A pair of 
outer vertical bristles. Occiput with short pale hairs which become longer below. Antennae 
with first and third segments blackish, second segment yellow and arista whitish with extreme 
base daikened. Proboscis short, brownish, palpi small, yellowish. 

Thorax black, dusted greyish on disc, but reddish brown laterally about humeri and wing 
bases. Chaetotaxy as in C. bakra. Scutellum dark brown with a pair of apical bristles. 
Pleurae reddish brown, metapleurae with two or three bristles. 

Abdomen black, dusted brownish. Hypopygium pale. 

Legs yellow except for blackish last two tarsal segments on all legs. Chaetotaxy as in C. 
bakra, but bristles on front femora a little stronger. 

Wings clear with brown veins. Venation as in C. bakra. Halteres yellow. 

$ unknown. 

Length 2-25 mm. 

Holotype $. Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by 
stream in gully, xi.1961-i.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

This and C. bakra resemble C . fuscicornis Bezzi (1912 : 478) from Formosa in having 
a white arista. The types of C. fuscicornis are not present in Sauter's collection at 
the Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin, but Dr. G. Petersen has kindly sent 
two males later recorded by Bezzi (19 14 : 74). These specimens differ from the 
Nepalese species in having veins R 2+3 and R 4+5 distinctly bowed forward about the 
middle and in genital characters and the formation of the pregenital tergite (Text-fig. 

43). 

The specific name means " boy ". 

3§ 



96 



K. G. V. SMITH 




Figs. 38-43. Chelipoda spp. C. bakra sp. n. 38, wing ; 39, 40, part of wing showing 
abnormal venation ; 41, <J hypopygium : C. keta sp. n. 42, <J hypopygium : C. 
fuscicornis Bezzi. 43, <J hypopygium. 



Chelipoda sp. 

A third new species resembling C. keta is represented by a headless male. I am 
reluctant to describe a species in this condition, but I have dissected the genitalia 
and these, with the specimen, are available for study by future workers. 

Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200', mixed vegetation by stream in 
gully, xi. 1961-1.1962, 1 <$ (R. L. Coe). 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 97 

HELEODROMIA Haliday 

Heleodromia Haliday, 1833, Ent. Mag. 1 : 159. 

Sciodromia Haliday in Westwood 1840, Introd. Mod. Class. Ins. 2 : 132. 

This genus is represented by two species in Europe, one from North America and 
recently Saigusa (1963) has described four species from Japan. One species is now 
described from Nepal. 

Heleodromia hilo sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 44, 45) 

cJ. Head olivaceous brown with the narrow face greyish. As usual with this genus, the 
" vertex " appears very large due to a flattening of the upper part of the occiput. Two pairs of 
bristles on each side of the flattened " vertex " with shorter postocular occipital bristles and 
some short fine hairs below. A pair of short but strong ocellar bristles present. Antennae 
short and black ; third segment short, ovate with a slender apical projection from which the long 
arista arises. Proboscis about as long as head is deep. Palpi black, short with a strong dorsal 
bristle towards tip. 





Figs. 44-45. Heleodromia hilo sp. n. 44, <£ hypopygium ; 45, <$, enlarged view of epan- 
drium (some bristles missing but sockets shown). 



Thorax (including pleurae and scutellum) dull olivaceous brown. No acrostichals, 4 pairs of 
dorsocentrals, the third pair weak. A weak humeral, a tiny posthumeral and a postalar present. 
Scutellum with a pair of crossing apical bristles. 

Abdomen blackish with sparse pale hairs. Hypopygium black with longer pale hairs and some 
bristles distally. 

Legs slender, brown, with last two tarsal segments of all legs blackish. Without strong 
bristles and short haired except for some long bristly hairs on basal half of front femora and 
similar shorter hairs on basal half of middle femora. The first tarsal segment is elongate on all 
legs and on the middle and hind legs is longer than the remaining tarsal segments. 

Wings brownish tinged with venation typical of the genus. Hal teres brownish. 

°. unknown. 

Length 2 mm. 



98 K. G. V. SMITH 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, c. 5,500', 
mossy ground under bushes by hill stream, 20.x. 1961 (R. L. Coe). 

This species is browner than the European H. immaculata Haliday and the 
hypopygium is smaller. In Saigusa's key it runs to H. boreoalpina Saigusa, but that 
species has black legs and differs in genital characters. The North American 
species H. pullata (Melander, 1902 : 345) is a black insect with only the hypopygium 
olivaceous brown. 

The specific name means " mud ". 

CHELIFERA Macquart 

Chelifera Macquart, 1823, Mem. Soc. Sci. Lille, 1822 : 150. 
Mantipeza Rondani, 1856, Dipt. Ital. Prodr. 1 : 148. 
Polydromia Bigot, 1857, Annls. Soc. ent. Fr. (3) 5 : 562. 

This genus is best known from the Palaearctic Region at present, but is recorded 
from North America and New Zealand ; Collin (1933 : 284) has described a some- 
what atypical species from Chile. 

One female was brought back from Nepal, but since species of Chelifera are not 
easily distinguishable in this sex I am reluctant to describe the species under a new 
name. 

Chelifera sp. 

A black, greyish dusted species with antennae, palpi, venter, halteres and legs lemon-yellow. 
Wing stigma distinct. Halteres yellow. Length 3 mm. 

Nepal : Taplejung District, river banks below Tamrang bridge, c. 5,500', x-xi. 
1961, 1 $ {R. L. Coe). 

CLINOCERINAE 

DOLICHOCEPHALA Macquart 

Dolichocephala Macquart, 1823, Mem. Soc. Sci. Lille, 1822 : 147. 
Ardoptera Macquart, 1827, Mim. Soc. Sci. Lille, 1827 : 105. 
Leptosceles Haliday, 1833, Ent. Mag. 1 : 160. 

Three Palaearctic species of Dolichocephala are known and several species occur in 
Africa. Brunetti (1913 : 35 ; 1920 : 371) described D. septemnotata from Simla. 
Although the immature stages are unknown, they are probably aquatic since the 
adults are never found far from streams or lakes. One species is now described 
from Nepal. 

Dolichocephala flamingo sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 46-48) 

<J. Head brown, dusted greyish around neck and on face ; a pair of strong ocellar bristles and 
a weaker pair of vertical bristles. Postocular bristles strong above, becoming finer below. 
Antennae short, dull black, third segment rounded, shorter than first and second segments 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



99 




Figs. 46-48. Dolichocephala flamingo sp. n. 46, wing ; 47, <£ hypopygium ; 48, $ enlarged 

view of aedeagus. 



together ; arista black, a little more than twice antennal length and downcurved in the manner 
characteristic of the genus. 

Thorax brownish, dusted greyish on a median line. Acrostichal bristles absent, 5 pairs of 
dorsocentrals, a humeral, a posthumeral, a notopleural and a postalar present. Pleurae greyish 
dusted, metapleurae with a few hairs. Scutellum brown with a pair of upright parallel apical 
bristles. 

Abdomen dark brownish, hypopygium with a tuft of bristly hairs on the sternal keel and the 
tip of the aedeagus rather suggestive of a flamingo's head in profile. 

Legs yellowish brown, except for middle and hind coxae, which are greyish and all tibiae are 
darkened at tip. Legs extremely short haired and devoid of bristles. 

Wings brownish with some darker patches especially on anterior half of wing and numerous 
hyaline spots ; vein i? 2+3 undulating. Halteres yellow. 

$ unknown. 

Length 2 mm. 

Holotype £. Nepal : Aran Valley, east shore of River Aran below Tumlingtar, 
c. 1,800', 14-23. xii.1961, evergreen shrubs bordering dry stream-beds (R. L. Coe). 

This species resembles the Palaearctic D. irrorata Fallen in having hyaline spots 
along the costal vein. However the patterning of the wing is otherwise rather differ- 
ent and the genitalia are quite distinct. 



ioo K. G. V. SMITH 

HYPENELLA Collin 

Hypenella Collin, 1941, Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 10 : 239. 

Collin (1941 : 239) erected the genus Hypenella to receive H . empodiata Collin from 
the Far Eastern border of the U.S.S.R. He distinguished the genus from Clinocerella 
Engel, which it most resembles, by the presence of fine vibrissae, hairy jowls, long 
triangular clypeus and the small palpi. Dr. T. Saigusa informs me (in litt.) that 
several species occur in Japan, but I have studied his manuscript figures and all are 
distinct from the Nepalese material. Two species are now described from Nepal 
which may be separated as follows : 

1 Wings clear ; legs blackish ...... sputnarius sp. n. 

- Wings brownish tinged ; femora yellow ..... bhura sp. n. 

Hypenella sputnarius sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 49-51) 

<$, $. Similar to H. empodiata Collin, but differing from Collin's description as follows : 
The facial hairs are weaker. The humerus and upper third to half of the mesopleuron is 
brownish. Prescutellar depression darker than thoracic disc but flanked by a greyish patch 
under the two posterior dorsocentrals. Hypopygium with the terminal process broadened 
towards tip. Hind tibiae with two or three short dorsal bristles just before tip. Wing stigma 
narrow and indistinct. 
Length 2-5 mm. 

Holotype $. Nepal : Taplejung District, Dobhan, spray-splashed rocks in River 
Tamur, c. 3,300', 3.11.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 2 <£, 5 $, same data as Holotype. 

I have been unable to examine, or obtain information on, the type of H. empodiata 
Collin (in the Leningrad Museum) which is obviously very similar, but I prefer to 
regard this species as new rather than risk starting a chain of misidentifications by 
referring it erroneously to Collin's species. 

Hypenella bhura sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 52) 

(J, $. Head similar to preceding species, but occiput black. Facial hairs much stronger 
more resembling H. empodiata Collin. 

Thorax dark brown with paler mid-stripe ; darker on the prescutellar depression and without 
any pale areas under two posterior dorsocentrals, though paler on humeri and notopleurae. 
Under the high power of the binocular microscope, the thorax is clothed with dense microscopic 
pile. Chaetotaxy as in H. spumarius. Pleurae greyish. Scutellum dark brown and with two 
long apical bristles. 

Abdomen olivaceous brown, greyish on disc. Venter more greyish. Hypopygium brownish. 

Legs coxae and femora yellow, remainder blackish. Without outstanding bristles except for 
a " comb " of 5 short dorsal bristles on distal quarter of hind tibiae. 

Wings distinctly brownish tinged, without stigma. Venation similar to H. spumarius. 
Halteres yellowish. 

Length 2-25 mm. 



IOI 




Figs. 49-52. Hypenella spp. H. spumarius sp. n. 49, wing ; 50, head ; 51, <J hypopygium : 

H. bhura sp. n. 52, $ hypopygium. 

Holotype <J. Nepal : Taplejung District, Dobhan, c. 3,500', spray-splashed rocks 
in River Maewa, 25^.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratype $, same data as Holotype. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " brown ". 

ACANTHOCLINOCERA Saigusa 
Acanthoclinocera Saigusa, 1965. Kontyu, 33 : 53. 

Saigusa erected this genus for one species, A . dasyscutellum from Japan. A further 
species is now described from Nepal. 



K. G. V. SMITH 




Figs. 53-60. Clinocera spp. C. evae sp. n. 53, wing ; 54, 6* hypopygium : C. pant sp. n. 
55, wing ; 56, ^ hypopygium : C. sp. 57, wing ; 58, <J hypopygium : C. wodi sp. n. 
59. 6* hypopygium : C. chilamche sp. n. 6o, o* hypopygium. 



Acanthoclinocera saigusai sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 61, 62) 

o*. Head olive-brown with light grey postocular orbits and face. Ocellar bristles divergent. 
A single row of postocular occipital bristles and some long yellow bristly hairs below. Antennae 
black. Palpi dark brown with longish dark hairs. 

Thorax dark olive-brown with a light grey patch on notopleurae and a light grey median stripe 
on prescutellar depression. A humeral and a posthumeral present. Two notopleural bristles, 
upper one stronger, and a postalar present. Five distinct pairs of dorsocentrals present and 
3 pairs of tiny hairs between rows on the prescutellar depression, a line of three each side of the 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 103 

light grey prescutellar median stripe. Pleurae light grey except for a narrow brown band below 
notopleural suture. Metapleurae with a few slender pale bristles. Scutellum olive-brown 
except for a median continuation of the pale grey prescutellar stripe at base, upon which are a few 
hairs. A pair of scutellar marginals present with a weak pair of hairs outside and a tiny pair of 
hairs inside. 

Abdomen olive-brown above, light grey at sides and below. Short dark haired above and short 
pale haired below. Hypopygium brown. 

Legs dark brown, except for grey coxae. Front femora somewhat thickened basally. Legs 
short haired except for a short, but distinct anteroventral bristle towards tip of front femora and 
a few short anterodorsal and posteroventral bristles towards tip of hind tibiae, and bristles 
beneath tarsi including a stronger one at base. 

Wings clear, long and narrow. Cell 1st M 2 pointed with only two veins issuing from its end 
due to short stalk, to the fork of M. (This feature may be an aberration, but both wings are 
identical.) Hal teres blackish. 

Length 3 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, Dobhan, c. 3,500', spray-splashed rocks 
in River Maewa, 2, 5.1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

This species may be distinguished at once from the only other described species, 
A. dasyscutettum Saigusa, by the grey postocular orbits and the abbreviated grey 
prescutellar stripe. 

TRICHOCLINOCERA Collin 
Trichoclinocera Collin, 1941, Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B), 10 : 237. 

Collin (1941 : 237) erected this genus to receive T. stackelbergi Collin described from 
Tigrovaja on the Far Eastern border of the U.S.S.R. Collin also included the 
American Clinocera dolicheretma Melander (1902 : 241) and Wiedemannia hamifera 
Melander (1927 : 233) in Trichoclinocera, as he says that both have the subcostal vein 
setulose. 

One new species is now described from Nepal. 

Trichoclinocera maewa sp. n. 

o*. Head grey. Eyes quite widely separated above antennae ; face about twice width of an 
ocellus, with a dark median stripe. Eyes hairy. Ocellar triangle dark with two short divergent 
ocellar bristles. Occiput with some short black bristly hairs above and long pale hairs below. 
Antennae black, third segment about as long as first and second segments together ; arista 
black, about i| times antennal length. Proboscis short and black, palpi black, with short black 
hairs below. 

Thorax dull brown on disc, but greyish behind humeri along notopleurae and in region of 
posterior calli. No acrostichal bristles ; 5 pairs of dorsocentrals ; a humeral ; a posthumeral ; 
two notopleurals, upper one stronger ; two supra-alars and a weak postalar. Pleurae greyish 
with a brownish patch below wing base and with a few short pale hairs on mesopleurae, sterno- 
pleurae, metapleurae and hypopleurae. Scutellum grey, somewhat brownish on disc with a pair 
of crossing apical bristles. 

Abdomen slate-grey at sides, but more brownish above. Hypopygium grey. 

Legs with coxae grey, otherwise brownish. Front femora slightly thickened and with short 
black bristly hairs below. Middle femora slender, short haired with short spaced posteroventral 
bristles and one or two similar posteroventral bristles, but only towards tip. Hind femora 
slender with one or two short antero- and posteroventral bristles towards tip. All tibiae short 



io 4 K. G. V. SMITH 

haired, but hind tibiae with one or two bristly hairs above and below near tip. Tarsi simple and 
short haired, hind metatarsi with a few very short spaced bristles below. 

Wings long and clear ; halteres brownish. 

$. Similar to male, but frons and face wider. Abdomen blunt at tip. Legs shorter haired, 
but front femora with some long pale bristly hairs posteroventrally. 

Length 2-5 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, Dobhan, c. 3,500', spray-splashed, rocks 
in River Maewa (R. L. Coe). 

Paratype $, same data as Holotype. 

Similar to T. stackelbergi Collin, but that species has wings with clouded cross- 
veins, and a blunter cell 1st M 2 ; grey legs and seven pairs of dorsocentral bristles. 

PROCLINOPYGA Melander 
Proclinopyga Melander, 1927, Gen. Ins. 185 : 220-221. 

This genus was erected by Melander to receive 5 species and a variety from North 
America. Collin (1941 : 241) described P. pervaga from the Far Eastern border of 
the U.S.S.R. and Saigusa (1963) has described two species and recorded P. pervaga 
Collin from Japan and notes that others occur there. 

One species was found in Nepal, which is here treated as a subspecies of the 
Japanese P. seticosta Saigusa. 

Proclinopyga seticosta occidentalis subsp. n. 

(Text-figs. 65, 66) 

cj. Head brownish grey with face more greyish. A pair of long outcurved ocellar bristles 
with a pair of divergent hairs between and a further pair behind ocellar triangle. Two rows of 
occipital bristles, those above longer. Antennae black. Proboscis short, palpi black, thickened 
at tip and clothed with dark hairs. 

Thorax brown, somewhat greyish on narrow median line, on humeri and at sides. Acrostichal 
bristles biserial and usually 6 uniserial dorsocentrals present, but sometimes 5-7 of varying 
strength. A humeral and long curved intrahumeral, 3 notopleurals in an oblique row, 3 supra- 
alars and a postalar present. Pleurae greyish brown, 2 or 3 weak metapleural bristles. Scutel- 
lum greyish brown with 4 marginal bristles, outer pair weak. 

Abdomen greyish with short hairs below and longer above. Hypopygium blackish with 
aedeagus heavily sclerotized and shining. 

Legs black. Coxae with some pale bristly hairs in front. Front femora short haired except 
for one or two weak posterodorsal bristles. Middle femora with slender postero ventral bristles. 
Hind femora with weak anteroventral bristles, but fairly strong anterodorsals. Front tibiae 
with a weak but distinct anterodorsal and a similar posterodorsal in a pair near base, postero- 
ventral bristly hairs longest. Hind tibiae with an anterodorsal bristle above near base. Tarsi 
slender. 

Wings brownish tinged with a faint stigma. Costa with distinct setulae from base of stigma 
to tip of vein R 2+3 . Halteres dark brown. 

$. Similar to male, but legs with much weaker bristles and hairs except for the anterodorsals 
on the hind femora. 

Length 2-5 mm. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 

mm 



105 




Figs. 61-66. Acanthoclinocera saigusai sp. n. 61, wing ; 62, $ hypopygium. Tricho- 
clinocera maewa sp. n. 63, wing ; 64, $ hypopygium. Proclinopyga seticosta Saigusa 
subsp. occidentalis subsp. n. 65, wing ; 66. 6* hypopygium. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, spray- 
splashed rocks in deep gorge, c. 5,200', Li-14.ii.1962 (R. L. Coe). 



io6 K. G. V. SMITH 

Paratypes : 3 <$, 3 $, same data as Holotype. 

The subspecies differs from the typical form as follows : wings less strongly 
brownish tinged, hence making the stigma a little more distinct ; the thorax is more 
greyish at sides and on the humeri and the scutellum is greyish ; the legs are darker ; 
coxae with some pale hairs below (all black in P. seticosta). The genitalia are very 
similar, but the anterior margin of the aedeagus is strongly sinuate. 

Saigusa apparently included the intra-humerals in his range of 7-9 dorsocentrals. 

These differences are slight, but consistent in the series studied and the two sub- 
species are certainly reproductively isolated, though they may prove to form part 
of a cline when material is available from intermediate territories. Meanwhile it 
seems advisable to give a subspecific name to the form described. 

CLINOCERA Meigen 
Clinocera Meigen, 1803, in Illiger. Mag. Ins. 2 : 271. 

Five species of Clinocera s. s. were collected by Mr. Coe. 

Key to Nepalese Species of Clinocera 

1 Larger species with long (4 mm.) narrow wings and both sexes with short 

black antero- and posteroventral points beneath the brown front femora 

evae sp. n. 
Smaller species with short (3 mm.) wings. Front femora of males with distinct 
antero- and posteroventral bristles (or, if with black points, then femora are 
yellow beneath) ........... 2 

2 (1) Front femora yellowish for entire length beneath ...... 3 

- Front femora at most yellowish for short distance beneath towards tip . . 4 

3 (2) ^ with slender, pale antero- and posteroventral bristles on front femora 

Thoracic bristles strong ....... chilamche sp. n. 

- o* with short black antero- and posteroventral points which are restricted to 

middle third. Thoracic bristles weak ...... nadi sp. n. 

4 (2) Front coxae yellowish .......... sp. 

Front coxae dark brown ......... pani sp. n. 

Clinocera evae sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 53, 54) 

o*. Head brown with face grey. A pair of widely divergent ocellar bristles, two more or less 
distinct outer vertical bristles and a pair of postvertical bristles. A series of postocular occipital 
bristles above and pale hairs below. Antennae black. Palpi dark brown with some bristly 
hairs at tip. 

Thorax brown with prothoracic collar, humeri and a small notopleural patch grey ; viewed 
from above with a dark median stripe (which commences as two very narrow stripes which merge 
above middle of thorax) and two dark lateral patches, one behind humerus and one behind 
notopleural bristle. A humeral, notopleural, postalar and five pairs of dorsocentral bristles 
present. Pleurae grey. Prothoracic sternum with some long pale hairs at sides and metapleurae 
with about a dozen long pale bristly hairs. Scutellum brown with a pair of slender apical bristles. 

Abdomen brown dorsally, grey laterally and ventrally, short haired. Hypopygium grey. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 107 

Legs dark brown. Front femora thickened, with some very short black an tero ventral bristles 
on basal half, some stouter anteroventral black points on distal half ; long pale posteroventral 
bristles on basal two-thirds and some stout black points on distal third. Middle femora slender 
with slender anterior bristles along entire length. Hind femora slender with short anterodorsal 
bristles. All tibiae slender, front tibiae ciliate beneath, otherwise with no outstanding bristles. 
Tarsi slender. 

Wings faintly brownish tinged, with brown veins. Halteres brown. 

$. Similar to male, but front femora not so thickened, without the tiny basal anteroventral 
bristles and with the pale posteroventral bristles weak. 

Length 3 mm. 

Holotype <$. Nepal : Taplejung District, Dobhan, c. 3,500', spray-splashed rocks 
in River Maewa, 25. i. 1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 2 <$, 2 $, same data as Holotype. 

This species resembles C. fluviatilis Brunetti (1913 : 34, fig. 33) from India, but 
in that species the thorax is darker, the first M 2 cell less pointed distally, cell R t is 
broader, and the genitalia quite different. 

The species is named after my mother. 

Clinocera chilamche sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 60) 

£. Head blackish, face dusted greyish. A pair of long ocellar bristles swept backwards. 
Occiput with a pair of outer vertical bristles, a row of postocular bristles and some short pale 
hairs below. Palpi short with bristly hairs at tip. 

Thorax blackish, dusted brownish but subshining with humeri and notopleurae dusted 
greyish. A humeral, and a posthumeral ; two notopleurals, upper one longer ; a supra-alar and 
a postalar ; five pairs of dorsocentrals. Pleurae blackish, dusted brownish. Metapleurae with 
about a dozen fine bristles. Scutellum concolorous with thorax and with two apical bristles. 

Abdomen dark brownish, dusted brown, very sparsely short haired. Hypopygium blackish. 

Legs with front coxae largely yellowish, all femora yellowish below, but otherwise legs brown. 
Front femora with weak pale antero- and posteroventral bristles. Front tibiae with some antero- 
dorsal bristles hairy. Hind tibiae with some short bristles above and below distally. 

Wings faintly brownish tinged, venation resembling the unnamed Clinocera sp. described 
below, but base of fork of R i+& complete. Halteres blackish. 

$. Similar to male, but bristles beneath front femora very weak. 

Length 2-5 mm. 

Holotype £. Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, spray-splashed rocks in shallow 
ravine, c. 6,200', 13.1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 2 $, same data as Holotype. 

Mr. Coe informs me that he has seen this species washed from one rock to another 
without being harmed. 

Very similar to C. megalatlantica Vaillant (1956 : 65), but first M 2 cell more pointed, 
cell # 4 narrower and genitalia differing in the blunter broader surstylus and more 
slender aedeagus. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " washing bowl ". 



108 K. G. V. SMITH 

Clinocera pani sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 55, 56) 

(J. Head dark olive-brown, with a pair of divergent ocellar bristles and a pair of distinct outer 
vertical bristles. Postocular bristles in a single row with some longer pale hairs below. Antennae 
black. Palpi dark brown with very short hairs. 

Thorax dark olive-brown with small greyish patches on humeri, notopleurae and posterior 
calli. Viewed from above the thorax looks blackish, with a broad dark brown median stripe 
drawn to a point anteriorly, and narrowly pale around all margins. Humeri somewhat reddish 
yellow on hind corner. A humeral and posthumeral bristles ; two notopleurals present, upper 
one stronger ; five pairs of dorsocentrals ; a supra-alar and postalar. Pleurae greyish with a 
few bristles on metapleurae. Scutellum dark olive-brown with a pair of apical bristles. 

Abdomen dark brownish grey with black hairs. Hypopygium black. 

Legs dark brown with front femora yellowish at tip beneath and hind coxae somewhat 
yellowish behind. Front femora with short anteroventral bristles and slightly longer postero- 
ventral bristles, short haired above. Middle femora almost bare below, short haired above but 
with some longer anterodorsal bristly hairs. Hind femora weakly haired below, short haired 
above. Tibiae and tarsi slender without outstanding bristles. 

Wings grey with brown veins ; halteres black with yellow base. 

§. Similar to male, but front femora without bristles beneath. 

Length 3 mm. 

Holotype <$.- Nepal : Taplejung District, Dobhan, c. 3,500', spray-splashed rocks 
in River Maewa, 25.1.1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Paratypes : 9 <$, 5 $, same data as Holotype. 

In structure of the male genitalia this species resembles Clinocera rufipes Bezzi as 
figured by Vaillant (i960 : 177, pi. 2, figs. c-f). Bezzi (1899 : 147) described this as a 
variety of C. nigra Meigen and Collin (i960 : 743) treats it as " only a pale legged form 
of C. nigra " and states that this is " now generally accepted ". However Vaillant 
(loc. cit.) regards it as a distinct species and if the Russian species figured by him is in 
fact conspecific with Bezzi's type then he is justified. Although obviously very close, 
the leg coloration appears to distinguish C. pani. 

The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning " rain ". 

Clinocera nadi sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 59) 

<J. Very similar to C. chilamche, but differing as follows : 

Head and thorax heavily brownish dusted and completely dull. Thoracic bristles weaker, 
dorsocentrals weak, other bristles very weak. Abdomen greyish almost bare except for tiny 
hairs on hind margins of tergites and sternites. Hypopygium distinct. Antero- and postero- 
ventral bristles beneath front femora short and spine-like, black and restricted to middle. 

°. unknown. 

Holotype $. Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, spray-splashed rocks in shallow 
ravine, c. 6,200', 13. i. 1962 {R. L. Coe). 

The hypopygium of C. nadi strongly resemble Engel's (1931 : 487) figure of his 
C. feuerborni from Java, but that species has a small costal stigma. 
The specific name is a Nepalese word meaning "river". 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 109 

Clinocera sp. 

(Text-figs. 57, 58) 

The venation of this specimen may be aberrant and while the genitalia are distinct 
I am reluctant to describe the species under a new name until further material is 
available. 

Nepal : Taplejung District, between Sangu and Tamrang, spray-splashed rocks in 
deep gorge, c. 5,200', 1-14.il. 1962, 1 <$ (R. L. Coe). 

REFERENCES 

Bahrmann, R. i960. Vergleichend-morphologische Untersuchungen der mannlichen 

Kopulationsorgane bei Empididen (Diptera). Beitr. Ent. 10 : 485-540. 
Becker, T. 1907. Zur Kenntnis der Dipteren von Central- Asien. Ezheg. zool. Muz. 12 : 253- 

317- 

1914. Dipteres nouveaux d'Afrique orientale. Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 83 : 120-130. 

Bezzi, M. 1899. Contribuzioni alia fauna ditterologica italiana, 2. Ditteri delle Marche e 

degli Abruzzi. Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 30 : 1 21-164. 
1904. Empididae Indo-Australiani raccolti dal Signor L. Biro. Annls hist. not. Mus. natn. 

hung. 2 : 320-361. 
1912. Rhagionidae et Empididae ex insula Formosa a clar. H. Sauter missae. Annls 

hist. nat. Mus. natn. hung. 10 : 442-496. 
1914. H. Sauters Formosa-Ausbeute. Rhagionidae et Empididae (Dipt.). Suppl. ent., 

Berl. 3 : 65-78. 
Bigot, J. M. F. 1859. Dipterorum aliquot nova genera. Rev. Mag. Zool. 11 : 305-315. 
1889. Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus, 34me. partie. XLII. Empidi. Annls Soc. ent. Fr. 

9 : 111-134. 
Brunetti, E. 1913. New Indian Empididae. Rec. Indian Mus. 9 : 11-45. 

1920. Diptera Brachycera, 1. Fauna of British India, London. 

Collin, J. E. 1941. Some Pipunculidae and Empididae from the Ussuri Region on the far 

Eastern border of the U.S.S.R. (Diptera). Part 2. Empididae. Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 

(B) 10 : 225-248. 

i960 (1959). Some Empididae from Palestine. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (13) 2 : 385-420. 

1961. British Flies. 6. Empididae. Cambridge. 

Engel, E. O. 1931. Empididae (Dipt.) aus Java. Arch. Hydrobiol. 8 : 486-489. 

Engel, E. O. and Frey, R. 1938-1956. In Lindner, Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region, 

Empididae. Stuttgart. 
Frey, R. 1913. Zur Kenntnis der Dipterenfauna Finlands, 2, Empididae. Acta Soc. Fauna 

Flora fenn. 37 : 1-89. 
1938. Hybotinen (Dip., Empididae) von Formosa und den Philippinen. Notul. ent., 

Helsingf. 18 : 52-62. 
1943. Ubersicht der palaarktischen Arten der Gattung Platypalpus Macq. ( = Coryneta 

Meig.) (Dipt., Empididae). Notul. ent., Helsingf. 23 : 1-19. 
1952. Studien iiber ostasiatische Hilara-Arten (Diptera, Empididae). Notul. ent., 

Helsingf. 32 : 1 19-143. 

1955. Studien iiber ostasiatische Dipteren 4. Notul. ent., Helsingf. 35 : 1-14. 

Hennig, W. 1941. Verzeichnis der Dipteren von Formosa. Ent. Beih. Berl.-Dahlem, 8 : 1- 

239. 
Jones, C. G. 1940. Empididae : A.-Hybotinae, Ocydromiinae, Clinocerinae and Hemero- 

dromiinae. Ruwenzori Expedition 1934-5. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) London, 2 (5) : 257-323. 
Loew, H. 1861. Die Dipteren-Fauna Siid-Afrikas. Abh. naturw. Ver. Sachsen u. Thiiringen, 

2 : 57-402. 



no K. G. V. SMITH 

Meigen, J. W. 1 818-1838. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europaischen zweifliig- 

ligen Insecten. Hamm. 
Meijere, J. C. H. de. 191 1. Studien iiber Sudostasiatische Dipteren. 6. Tijdschr. Ent. 54 : 

258-432. 

1914- Studien iiber Sudostasiatische Dipteren. 8. Tijdschr. Ent. 56 : 1-99. 

Melander, A. L. 1902. Monograph of the North American Empididae, part 1 . Trans. Amer. 

ent. Soc. 28 : 195-367. 

1927. Empididae, in Wytsman, P., Genera Insectorum 185. Brussels. 

Osten-Sacken, C. R. 1881. Enumeration of the Diptera of the Malay Archipelago, collected 

by Prof. O. Beccari, Mr. L. M. d'Albertis and others. Annali Mus. Civ. Stor. nat. Giacomo 

Doria 16 : 393-492. 
1882. Diptera from the Phillippine Islands brought home by Carl Semper. Berl. ent. 

Z., 26 : 83-120 ; 187-252. 
Saigusa, T. 1963a. The genus Proclinopyga, a nearctic element of Empididae, in Japan 

(Diptera, Empididae). Sieboldia, 3 : 91-95. 
1963b. Studies on the genus Heleodromia in Japan (Diptera, Empididae). Sieboldia, 3 : 

119-129. 
— — 1963c. Three new species of the genus Hilara from Japan (Diptera, Empididae). Sie- 
boldia, 3 : 1 77-18 1. 
— ■ — 1965. Two new species of Clinocerinae (Diptera, Empididae) from Japan. Kontyu, 33 : 

53-57- 
Smith, K. G. V. 1965. A new species of Stilpon Loew, 1859 (Diptera Empididae) from 

Portugal. Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 34 : 48-50. 
Vaillant, F. 1956. Contribution a l'etude des Dipteres Empididae du Grand- Atlas marocain. 

1. Hemerodromiinae et Atalantinae. Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. phys. Maroc, 36 : 61-71. 
• — — i960. Quelques Empididae Atalantinae d'Asie russe (Dipt.). Bull. Soc. ent. Fr., 65 : 170- 

186. 
Walker, F. 1848-1855. List of the specimens of Dipterous Insects in the collection of the British 

Museum. London. 
White, R. Senior-. 1922. Notes on Indian Diptera. Mem. Dep. Agric. India, Ent., 7 : 83- 

169. 
— — 1924. New Ceylon Diptera. 3. Spolia zeylan. 12 : 375-406. 
Wiedemann, C. R. W. 1828-30. Aussereuropdische zweiflugelige Insekten. Hamm. 
Wulp, F. M. van der. 1897. Zur Dipteren-Fauna von Ceylon. Termeszetr. Fiiz., 20 : 136- 

144. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



INDEX 



Synonyms in italics 



Acanthoclinocera Saigusa, 101 
Acanthopeza Becker, 83 
aimai sp. n., 81 
Ardoptera Macquart, 98 

bakra sp. n., 94 
bares Walker, 85 
bhainse sp. n., 83 
bhiga sp. n., 86 
bhura sp. n., 100 
Bicellaria Macquart, 85 
brunettii (Melander), 75 

Chelifera Macquart, 98 

Chelipoda Macquart, 94 

chita sp. n., 90 

chilamche sp. n., 106 

Clinocera Meigen, 106 

coei sp. n., 67 

compacta Brunetti, 86 

Crossopalpus Bigot (s.g. of Drapetis), 71 

Ctenodrapetis Bezzi, 65 

Cyrtoma Meigen, 85 

divergens sp. n., 74 
Dolichocephala Macquart, 98 
Drapetis Meigen, 65 

Elaphropeza (s.g. of Drapetis), 65 
Enicopteryx Stephens, 85 
Eudrapetis Melander, 71 
evae sp. n., 106 

flamingo sp. n., 98 
flavipes Brunetti, 75 

gila sp. n., 86 

Howlettia Brunetti, 75 
Heleodromia Haliday, 97 
Hemerodromia Meigen, 90 
Hilara Meigen, 85 
hilo sp. n., 97 
Hybos Meigen, 81 
Hypenella Collin, 100 



kala sp. n., 66 
keta sp. n., 95 
khola sp. n., 89 
kholsa sp. n., 72 
kosi sp. n., 79 

Leptosceles Haliday, 98 
litoralis sp. n., 68 
lomri sp. n., 93 
longicornis Brunetti, 81 

maewa sp. n., 103 
Mantipeza Rondani, 98 
Microdromia Bigot, 90 

nadi sp. n., 108 

narangi sp. n., 80 

nepalensis Brunetti (Tachydromia), 81 

nepalensis sp. n. (Stenoproctus), 84 

occidentalis ssp. n., 104 

pani sp. n., 108 
peshawarensis Brunetti, 86 
pila sp. n., 91 
Platypalpus Macquart, 75 
Polydromia Bigot, 98 
Proclinopyga Melander, 104 

quinlani sp. n., 81 

rufithorax Brunetti, 85 



(Drapetis s.g. Elaphro- 



saigusai sp. n., 102 
sanguensis sp. n. 

peza), 70 
sanguensis sp. n. (Tachydromia), 78 
Sciodromia Haliday, 97 
serpa sp. n., 91 
seticosta Saigusa, 104 
shealsi sp. n., 78 
Sicodus Rafinesque, 74 



II2 INDEX 

sp. (Bicellaria), 85 Tachista Loew, 74 

sp. (Chelifera), 98 Tachydromia Meigen, 75 

sp. (Chelipoda), 96 tapa sp. n., 76 

sp. (Clinocera), 109 taplejungensis sp. n., 80 

sp. (Sicodus), 74 Trichoclinocera Collin, 103 

spumarius sp. n., 100 

Stenoproctus Loew, 83 ukhalo sp. n., 71 

Stilpon Loew, 72 uralo sp. n., 66 




PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 
BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED 
BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



-: 



■ " 



-^ 

<#*. 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 

THE ALEYRODIDAE OF 

WESTERN AFRICA 

(HOMOPTERA) 






L. A. MOUND 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 3 

LONDON : 1965 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 
THE ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 

(HOMOPTERA) 




BY 



L. A. MOUND 



•v 



4 



British Museum (Natural History) 'Pv 



Pp. 1 13-160 ; 50 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 3 

LONDON: 1965 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in Jive series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 17, No. 3 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1965 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 23 September, 1965 Price Eighteen Shillings 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 
THE ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 

(HOMOPTERA) 

By L. A. MOUND 





CONTENTS 




Introduction 




Page 
■ 115 


List of species discussed 




. 116 


Key to genera . 




. 117 


Systematic treatment 




. 118 


References 


SYNOPSIS 


• 158 



The Aleyrodidae of Africa are very poorly known, only about fifty species being hitherto 
recorded from the entire continent. Forty species are here recognized from West Africa and 
the Congo, including thirteen new species, one new genus, three new synonyms, and three new 
combinations. Considerable variation is shown by some species, e.g. Bemisia hancocki, and this 
is correlated with the host leaf structure in some cases, e.g. Pealius fici and Trialeurodes desmodii. 
Reasons are given for considering that Bemisia hancocki is not a vector of Cassava Mosaic Virus, 
and that the spread of this disease and Cotton Leaf Curl was the result of the introduction of 
B. tabaci, the known vector, from India. 



INTRODUCTION 

The generic and specific classification of the sub-family Aleyrodinae of the Aleyro- 
didae is based entirely on the study of the so-called pupal cases, the exuviae of the 
fourth instar nymphs. Adults in this sub-family cannot as yet be placed in genera, 
although this is not true of the Aleurodicinae which are found mainly in the Neo- 
tropics. The absence of a systematic study of the adults is partly due to the failure 
of collectors to obtain adult whitefly along with their related pupal cases, but is also 
the result of the homogeneity of the adult structure in the Aleyrodinae. Although 
the adults show remarkably little variation, the nymphs exhibit a considerable range 
of structure, and a number of quite large genera can be clearly denned. However, 
the appearance of the pupal cases of several species is now known to vary, depending 
on the structure of the leaf of the host plant upon which the insect has developed 
(Russell, 1948 ; Hussey, 1957 ; Mound, 1963). This variation usually affects the 
dorsal setae, in that on hairy leaves these setae are long, but on glabrous leaves they 
are short. Other features are also affected, particularly the type of marginal crenula- 
tion, the form of the thoracic tracheal fold, and the overall shape and size of the body. 
About fifty species of whitefly have until now been known from the continent of 
Africa, although more than seventy species have been recorded from Madagascar 



n6 L. A. MOUND 

alone. That this is not a true faunal difference has become evident from collections 
made in the last few years in Nigeria, Kenya, and Sudan*. The family is clearly well 
represented throughout the continent, and this paper has been drawn up to indicate 
how inadequate is the available information on the occurrence of the species, to 
provide a means of recognizing the genera, and a basis from which further studies 
may be made. The magnification is indicated in the figures by a line o-i mm. in 
length. All the species recorded from West Africa and the Congo are referred to 
here, and if possible redescribed. The genera Corbettia and Aleuropteridis however 
are only treated briefly as they have recently been revised elsewhere. Thirteen new 
species and one new genus are described, with three new synonyms and three new 
combinations. Forty species are now recognizable from the area. 

Unless stated to the contrary, the material used in this study is deposited in the 
British Museum (Natural History), and this incudes the type material of the African 
species described by both Corbett and Dozier. Most of the recent material has been 
collected by Dr. V. F. Eastop (V. F. E.), or the author (L. A. M.) and his assistants, 
E. A. James (E. A. J.) and M. O. Ezeigwe (M. 0. E.). Dr. Eastop spent eighteen 
months on secondment from the British Museum to the West African Inter-Terri- 
torial Secretariat collecting aphids and whitefly, and the author was employed for 
eighteen months by the Federal Department of Agricultural Research, Nigeria. 
This paper is the outcome of work begun then at the request of the Director, Dr. 
J. M. Waterston, under the direction of the Principal Entomologist, Mr. F. A. Squire. 

The author received collections, or assistance whilst collecting, from several workers 
in West African Departments of Agriculture ; Mr. B. Beck and Mr. J. L. Gregory of 
the Federal Department, Nigeria ; Mr. J. A'Brooke and Mr. G. Farley of North 
Nigeria ; Mr. H. Caswell of the University of Ibadan ; Mr. P. Rushton of Sierra 
Leone, and Dr. C. P. Hoyt of the South Pacific Commission. Dr. Charles Tao of 
Taipeh loaned a slide of paratypes of Pealius longispinus Tak., and G. R. Cunningham 
van Someren submitted several large collections from East Africa which have been 
important in defining certain species. The author wishes to express his gratitude to 
the Rockefeller Foundation for enabling him to visit the United States National 
Museum, Washington, and to Miss L. M. Russell of that Museum and Dr. V. F. Eastop 
of the British Museum (Natural History) for their frequent assistance. 

LIST OF SPECIES DISCUSSED 
Synonyms are shown in italics, page references are given to disused combinations. 
ACAUDALEYRODES ALEUROCANTHUS 

africana (Dozier) Pwoglumi Ashby 

citri (Priesner & Hosny) Pspiniferus (Quaintartce) 

alhagi (Priesner & Hosny) Icitricola (Newstead) 

palmae Ghesquiere (Cerataphis) (p. 124) 



AFRICALEURODES 



regis sp. n. 



trispina sp. n. 
coffeacola Dozier 

loganiaceae Dozier ALEUROLOBUS 

ochnaceae Dozier hargreavesi Dozier 

vrijdaghii (Ghesquiere) onitshae sp. n. 

*See also Cohic, F., Cah., O.R.S.T.O.M. (In press). [New species from Congo.] 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



117 



ALEUROLONGA gen. n. 
cassiae sp. n. 

ALEUROMARGINATUS 
tephrosiae Corbett 

ALEUROPLATUS 
andropogoni Dozier 
fimbriae sp. n. 
periplocae (Dozier) 

ALEUROPTERIDIS 

filicicola (Newstead) 

douglasi Mound 
eastopi Mound 
hargreavesi Mound 
jamesi Mound 

ALEUROTRACHELUS 
africanus Dozier (p. 119) 

ALEUROTUBERCULATUS 
nigeriae sp. n. 
kusheriki sp. n. 

ALEYRODES 

africana Newstead (p. 146) 
filicicola Newstead (p. 135) 
periplocae Dozier (p. 134) 
zimmermanni Newstead (p. 



154) 



BEMISIA 

tabaci (Gennadius) 

goldingi Corbett 

nigeriensis Corbett 

gossypiperda Misra & Lamba 
hancocki Corbett 



CORBETTIA 

milletiacola Dozier 
baphiae Russell 
indentata Russell 
grandis Russell 
graminis sp. n. 

DIALEURODES 

kirkaldyi (Kotinsky) 

DIALEUROLONGA 

africana (Newstead) 
hoyti sp. n. 
akureensis sp. n. 
emarginata sp. n. 

NEOMASKELLIA 
bergii (Signoret) 

PEALIUS 

fici sp. n. 
ezeigwi sp. n. 

POGONALEYRODES 

zimmermanni (Newstead) 

TETRALEURODES 
ghesquierei Dozier 

TRIALEURODES 

desmodii Corbett 

lubia El Khider & Khali fer 
hargreavesi Corbett 
ricini (Misra) 



Key to Genera 



1 Lingula broader than long ; sub-margin with a series of setae ; on Gramineae 

and occasionally other Monocotyledons . . . NEOMASKELLIA (p. 149) 

Lingula longer than broad ......... 2 

2 (1) True margin evenly reflexed ventrally, apparent margin with a series of setae ; on 

ferns ' ALEUROPTERIDIS (p. 135) 

True margin not reflexed evenly if at all . . . . . . . 3 

3 (2) Operculum fills much less than half of orifice ; black species 

ACAUDALEYRODES (p. 118) 
Operculum fills at least half of orifice ........ 4 

4 (3) Dorsal disc separated from sub-margin by suture-like fold .... 5 

Dorsal disc not so separated from sub-margin ...... 8 

5 (4) Sub-marginal folds parallel and longitudinal, not meeting at anterior 

ALEUROLONGA (p. 130) 
- Suture-like folds continuous around anterior sub-margin ; pupal case sub- 

circular to oval ........... 6 



n8 L. A. MOUND 

6 (5) Pupal case clear or only weakly pigmented . . AFRICALEURODES (p. 120) 

- Pupal case black ........... 7 

7 (6) Dorsal disc elevated by vertical sub-margin . . TE TRALE URODES (p. 155) 

- Dorsal disc not elevated, small setae near sub-marginal fold 

ALEUROLOBUS (p. 126) 

8 (4) Thoracic tracheal pores defined as distinct or indistinct pores, or strongly developed 

marginal teeth ........... 9 

- Thoracic tracheal pores not apparent, or indicated by a few differentiated mar- 

ginal crenulations ...........12 

9 (8) Margin or sub-margin with setae on distinct bases ; dorsal surface with charac- 

teristic circles of papillae POGONALEYRODES (p. 154) 

- No such marginal or sub-marginal setae . . . . . . . 10 

10 (9) Caudal furrow broad, operculum conceals lingula ; first abdominal setae absent ; 

no setae associated with legs ; thoracic tracheal pore indistinct ; sub-margin 

with pores distal to a series of tubercles ALEUROTUBERCULATUS (p. 136) 

— Not as above ............11 

11 (10) Vasiform orifice usually large, knobbed lingula exposed ; seventh abdominal 

segment shorter than sixth ; first abdominal setae present ; usually a stout 
spine at base of mesothoracic leg ; tracheal folds well developed ; sub-margin 
with a series of pores or papillae, if both then the pores are proximal of the 
papillae DIALEUROLONGA (p. 146) 

— Orifice usually small, lingula not exposed ; seventh abdominal segment equal in 

length to sixth ; legs without spines ; sub-margin without a series of papillae 

DIALEURODES (p. 144) 

12 (8) No dorsal setae on first abdominal segment . . . . . . . 13 

— Paired setae on first abdominal segment (This segment is not visible in Trialeu- 

rodes hargreavesi) ........... 14 

13 (12) Lingula tip D-shaped ; orifice floor dissected by ridges ; sub-marginal setae 

conspicuous ......... PE ALIUS (p. 150) 

— Lingula and orifice floor otherwise ; sub-marginal setae inconspicuous or absent 

ALEUROPLATUS (p. 132) 

14 (12) Less than four pairs of dorsal setae ; sub-margin with a series of pores or papillae 

TRIALEURODES (p. 155) 

— More than four pairs of dorsal setae . . . . . . . . 15 

15 (14) Sub-dorsum with paired longitudinal rows of papillae ; sub-margin with sixteen 

pairs of setae . CORBETTIA (p. 143) 

— Sub-dorsum and sub-margin otherwise . . . . . . . . 16 

16 (15) Vasiform orifice elongate triangular ..... BEMISIA (p. 140) 

— Vasiform orifice otherwise ..........17 

17 (16) Dorsal setae smafl, inconspicuous, each marginal crenulation with a large pore 

ALEUROMARGINATUS (p. 131) 

— Dorsal setae large, very conspicuous . . ALEUROCANTHUS (p. 124) 



ACAUDALEYRODES Takahashi, 1951 

Type-species : Acaudaleyrodes pauliani Tak., 1951. 

Pupal-cases of whiteflies of the genus Acaudaleyrodes are easily recognized by the 
elongate vasiform orifice with a short transversely rectangular operculum. All the 
described species have been referred to as black with a white waxy marginal fringe. 
Two species are known from West Africa. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 119 

Acaudaleyrodes africana (Dozier, 1934) 
(Text-fig. 1) 

Aleurotrachelus africanus Dozier, 1934. 

Acaudaleyrodes africana (Dozier) Takahashi, 1951 : 382. 

Pupal case : On lower surface of leaves ; dark brown or black ; white waxy fringe between 
one-tenth and one-fifth width of body ; probably some similar wax on dorsum. Length o-6o- 
0-75 mm. Breadth 0*45-0 • 55 mm. 

Margin : Finely crenulate, twenty teeth in o-i mm., recurved ventrally, often difficult to 
observe. Apparent margin broadly crenulate, eight teeth in o-i mm. Anterior and posterior 
marginal setae present, apparently arising ventrally. Minute sub-marginal setae, 3 [i long, six 
pairs on cephalothorax and one pair on abdominal segments four to seven. 

Dorsal surface : Setae on first abdominal segment minute, less than 3 ft. Cephalic, eighth 
abdominal, and caudal setal bases large, the latter close to posterior margin. Sub-dorsum with 
simple pores, five pairs on cephalothorax, one pair on each of abdominal segments one and three 
to seven, just mesad of sub-marginal setae. Cephalic tubercle weakly developed, lateral to 
cephalic seta. Distinctive sub-marginal fold between cephalic tubercle and second abdominal 
segment. Cephalothorax keeled anteriorly. Transverse moulting suture anterior to thoracico- 
abdominal suture, curved deeply to posterior then recurved anteriorly. Abdominal segments 
one to six sub-equal in length, seven about two-thirds of six, eight about twice seven. Rhachis 
well developed, segmental sutures clear in sub-dorsum. Median tubercles not apparent. 
Length of vasiform orifice one and a half times breadth (0-06 x 0-04 mm.), floor with radiating 
lines of small tubercles. Operculum transverse, one-quarter the length of orifice. Lingula half 
length of orifice, sharply expanded apically, terminal setae curved. 

Ventral surface : Thoracic tracheal folds poorly defined, posterior fold clear. No setae at base 
of legs. Many small papillae anterior to mouth parts. Abdominal segmentation clearly visible. 

Material examined : Syntypes ; twenty pupal cases, Congo : Barambu, on 
Desmodium sp., i. 1926 (/. Ghesquiere). Also ten pupal cases, Nigeria : Ibadan, under 
leaf of herbaceous plant, i.1914 (W. A. Lambourn). 

A. africanus can be distinguished from the other species in Acaudaleyrodes by the 
absence of setae from the base of the legs, the strongly expanded lingula tip, the finely 
crenulate recurved margin, and the conspicuous setal bases near the vasiform orifice. 



Acaudaleyrodes citri (Priesner & Hosny, 1934) 

Aleurotrachelus citri Priesner & Hosny, 1934. 
Aleurotrachelus alhagi Priesner & Hosny, 1934. s y n ' n ' 
Acaudaleyrodes alhagi (Priesner & Hosny) Russell, 1962. syn. n. 
Acaudaleyrodes citri (Priesner & Hosny) Russell, 1962. 

A. alhagii was distinguished from A. citri by the possession of a broader rhachis 
with a larger number of median tubercles. The present author has collected both 
of these forms abundantly on various Leguminous trees and shrubs along the Nile 
in Sudan and Egypt. The shape of the rhachis is highly variable within any one 
population, from narrow and trachea-like, forming a strong median ridge, to broad 
and rounded. This variation also exists in the syntype series. The broad rounded 
abdominal shape is commonly, although not solely, associated with the presence of an 
internal hymenopterous parasite. 



120 L. A. MOUND 

A . citri differs from A . africana in the following characters : Margin strongly crenulate (eight 
teeth in o-i mm.), not recurved ventrally ; setal bases on dorsal surface not so large ; cephalic 
tubercles more pronounced ; median tubercles of rhachis occasionally in two or more rows ; 
lingula less expanded apically ; meso- and metathoracic legs each with a large conical seta near 
its base (o-i mm. long). 

Material examined : Numerous specimens from Egypt and Sudan, including 
abundant syntype material of both nominal species from that region at the Egyptian 
Department of Agriculture, Dokki, Cairo. Twelve pupal cases, Sierra Leone : 
Njala, on a leguminous weed, i.1927 (E. Hargreaves). Eight pupal cases, Nigeria : 
Samara, on unknown host, ix.1960 (L. A. M.). 

Unfortunately, specimens of A . pauliani, the type-species described from Madagas- 
car, and A. rhachipora (Singh) from India, are not available for study. Material of 
this genus from India and Pakistan in the British Museum collection cannot be 
distinguished from A . citri. Singh, however, indicated that the lingula of his species 
was not expanded apically, and so A . rhachipora should be easily recognized. 



AFRICALEURODES Dozier, 1934 

Type-species : Africaleurodes coffeacola Dozier, 1934. 

The genus Africaleurodes includes at present species in which the dorsal disc is 
distinctly separated from the sub-margin by an almost complete furrow. The 
transverse and longitudinal moulting sutures only reach to this furrow and there is a 
series of minute setae associated with the margin. It is thus closely related to 
Aleurolobus, from which it differs in the absence of dark pigmentation and the more 
complete occlusion of abdominal segment seven in the mid-line. The three species 
which are included may be separated on the following characters : 

1 Vasiform orifice elongate-triangular ....... A. coffeacola 

- Vasiform orifice sub-cordate .......... 2 

2 Thoracic tracheal pore area a true pore . . . .A. loganiaceae 

- Thoracic tracheal pore area a comb of marginal teeth . . . .A. ochnaceae 

Africaleurodes coffeacola Dozier, 1934 
(Text-figs. 2 and 3) 

Pupal case : White or very slightly brown, quite flat with no wax. Sub-circular in shape, 
widest across transverse moulting suture. Margin occasionally prominent in region of thoracic 
tracheal pores. Not infrequently on upper surface of leaves as well as lower. Female pupal 
cases probably larger than those of male. Length 1-0-1-5 mm. Breadth 0-9-1-25 mm. 

Margin : Smoothly crenulate with faint anastomosing lines extending across sub-margin. 
Tracheal pores indicated by thickening, occasionally pigmentation, of six to eight marginal 
crenulations. Paired anterior and posterior marginal setae present (25 fx long). Very close to 
margin fourteen pairs of minute setae (10-15 ft long), seven pairs on both cephalothorax and 
abdomen including caudal setae. These setae frequently lost in mounting and staining. Sub- 
margin with irregular row of simple pores, these vary in diameter from 3 to 10 jx but are usually 
small. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 







Figs. 1-5. 1. Acaudaleyrodes africana — vasiform orifice. 2-5. Africaleurodes spp. 2. A. 
coffeacola — pupal case. 3. A. coffeacola — vasiform orifice. 4. A. ochnaceae — thoracic 
tracheal pore. 5. A. loganiaceae — thoracic tracheal pore. 

4§ 



122 L. A. MOUND 

Dorsal disc : Separated from wide sub-margin by distinct furrow, only interrupted at caudal 
ridges. First abdominal segment apparently without setae, cephalic setae minute, those on 
eighth abdominal segment a little larger (5 /x) very close to orifice. Abdominal segments four to 
six with a pair of sub-dorsal setae, rarely as long as 10 n , frequently appear to be absent. Three 
paired rows of segmental pores on both abdomen and cephalothorax ; on rhachis, subdorsum, 
and close to sub-marginal fold. Transverse moulting suture reaches sub-marginal fold, abdominal 
segmentation clear. Anterior margin of segment eight almost confluent with posterior margin 
of segment six. Abdominal segment seven thus often quite occluded in midline although well 
developed laterally. Subdorsal area sometimes reticulate. Caudal ridges well developed. 
Vasiform orifice elongate triangular (o-io x 0-06 mm.) slightly constricted medially, posterior- 
lateral margins toothed, posterior narrowly open to caudal furrow. Lingula tip exposed, 
pyriform, with two tubercles proximally. Operculum subcordate, filling wide part of orifice. 

Ventral surface : Posterior spiracles large with pair of long fine setae just anterior, anterior 
abdominal spiracles well developed. Tracheal folds clearly defined by many minute tubercles. 
Antennae do not extend beyond base of first leg in either sex. Meso- and metathoracic legs with 
minute basal seta. 

Material examined : Syntypes ; two pupal cases, Congo : Lodja, on Coffea 
robusta, iii.1928 (J. Ghesquiere). Also about eighty pupal cases as follows: 
Cameroons : Bamenda, on Coffee and Cola, xi.1959 (F. A. Squire); Nigeria: 
Ibadan, upper leaf surface of Combretum brachteatum and Maesobotrya barteri, 
vi. 1956 (V. F. E.) ; Umudike, on Alhphylus africanus, xi-1960 (M. 0. E.). Sierra 
Leone : Freetown, on ? Rubiaceae, vii.1957 (V. F. E.). Sudan : Yei, on Coffee, 
iv . 1962, (F. A . Mitwalli) ; Wad Medani, on Zizyphusspina-christi, xii . 1962 (L. A . M.) . 
Seychelles : Aldabra Island, on unknown host, 1916 (P. R. Dupont). 

Africaleurodes loganiaceae Dozier, 1934 
(Text-fig. 5) 

Dozier distinguished this species from its congeners on account of its reddish- 
orange dorsal disc. There are three syntypes in the British Museum, collected by 
J. Ghesquiere from Sankuru, Congo Republic, January, 1928, on a Loganiaceous 
plant. Fifteen specimens from Microdesmis pulcrula, at Ibadan, Nigeria, collected 
by E. O. James in January, 1961 may possibly be this species, although this material 
is colourless and the specimens considerably smaller than the syntypes. It is possible 
that A . loganiaceae can vary in structure in the same way that A . coffeacola has been 
shown to above. A definition of the species must therefore await the collection of 
further material. The syntype material, however, is fairly distinctive in that although 
the species is very similar to A . coffeacola in general appearance, the tracheal pores 
have two outer teeth converging around two shorter inner teeth, and the vasiform 
orifice is sub-cordate. 

Africaleurodes ochnaceae Dozier, 1934 
(Text-fig. 4) 

This species is even less well defined than A . loganiaceae. Syntype material in the 
British Museum consists of two and two half pupal cases from Ochna, at Kole, Congo 
Republic, collected by J. Ghesquiere in January, 1928. The vasiform orifice is short 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



123 




Figs. 6-8. 6. Aleurolobus onitshae — pupal case (? male). 7. A. onitshae — vasiform orifice and 
caudal margin. 8. Aleurocanthus regis — pupal case and detail of seta. 



I2 4 L - A - MOUND 

and subcordate as in the previous species, but the tracheal pores are apparently 
represented by a comb of short teeth. This, however, is by no means certain, as the 
specimens are very poorly mounted. 

Africaleurodes vrijdaghii (Ghesquiere, 1934) 

Aleurolobus vrijdaghii Ghesquiere, 1934. 
Africaleurodes vrijdaghii (Ghesquiere) Russell, 1962. 

The only descriptive details given for this species are that the larva is " translucid 
and scarcely visible ", and in the accompanying photograph the vasiform orifice is 
almost completely obscured. The species was recorded as damaging coffee in the 
Congo. 

ALEUROCANTHUS Quaintance & Baker, 1914 

Type-species : Aleyrodes spiniferus Quaintance, 1903. 

The species included in the genus Aleurocanthus all bear on the dorsal surface of 
their pupal cases a number of long setae which are usually pointed. The two species 
described here as new are unusual in that in the first the setae have coronate tips, 
whilst in the second the sides of the setae are minutely spiny. Ghesquiere (1934) 
records A. woglumi from Bomba in the Congo on Citrus, but there is some doubt about 
this record. It seems possible that the species actually found was A. spiniferus 
{A. citricola Newstead). He also describes as new Aleurocanthus palmae, but this is 
regarded by Risbec (1954) as a synonym of Cerataphis lataniae. 

Aleurocanthus regis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 8) 

Pupal case : i-o x o-8 mm. to i-i x 0-9 mm. Large, intensely black, on the lower surface of 
leaves. Has the appearance of a crown ; with a white waxy marginal fringe, a marginal ring of 
black setae each with a drop of golden fluid at its tip, and the centre of the dorsum occupied by 
rather greyish wax bearing the empty larval skins of earlier instars. 

Margin : In mounted specimens apparently with two rows of crenulations. This is probably 
due to the dorsum being crushed down in the mounting procedure. In life the margin is vertical, 
elevating the dorsum from the ventral surface as in Tetraleurodes spp., and bearing vertical 
ridges. Twelve crenulations in 0-25 mm., each with a large pore. Anterior-marginal setae not 
seen, but posterior-marginals present. Thoracic tracheal pores not developed, but posterior 
pore indicated. 

Dorsal surface : Flat, segmental sutures ill-defined. Seventh abdominal segment as long as 
fifth and sixth, eighth a little longer. Transverse moulting suture bends anteriorly, to meso- 
thorax, not reaching margin. Caudal and cephalic setae finely pointed, similar setae on abdominal 
segments one and eight, these setae on distinct tubercles. Paired hollow setae with open 
coronate tips, apparently secretory, on abdominal segments seven and eight. Six pairs of similar 
setae on sub-margin of both abdomen and cephalothorax. All setae mounted on distinct tuber- 
cles. Four small papillae each with a wax gland, between each sub-marginal setal base. Vasi- 
form orifice rather close to caudal margin, elongate rectangular, an internal projection at posterior 
margin. Operculum fills orifice, conceals broad spatulate lingula. Caudal furrow not developed. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 125 

Ventral surface : Anterior and posterior abdominal spiracles well developed, apparently 
connected with each other and with thoracic tracheal folds by a channel. Apparently two pairs 
of thoracic folds, opposite the two pairs of thoracic spiracles respectively. Posterior fold very 
short. All these folds indicated by many fine tubercles. Paired setae mesad of, and anterior to, 
posterior spiracles, also a minute seta at base of each meso and metathoracic leg. Antennae 
reach to first spiracle. 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria : Ibadan, Moor Plantation, on Combretum sp., 
i.1961 (L. A.M.). 

Paratypes, thirty- three pupal cases collected with the holotype. 

Due to the extreme density of the black pigment this whitefly proved very difficult 
to mount and examine. However, the ring of sub-marginal coronate setae, and the 
absence of large setae from the dorsal disc are quite distinctive. Similar coronate setae 
had been described from the folio wing species of Aleurocanthus ; A . banksiae (Maskell) ; 
A. hirsutus (Maskell) ; A.rugosa Singh ; A.serratus Qu. & B. ; A. spinosus (Kuwana). 
In life, the crown-like appearance is quite remarkable, with a drop of sparkling fluid 
at the tip of each long seta, and the white surrounding fringe of wax on the leaf. 

Aleurocanthus trispina sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 9 and 10) 

Pupal case : 0-7 x 0-4 mm. to i-o x 0-7 mm. On the lower surface of leaves, white or pale 
brown, with very long pale brown setae. Oval in shape, broadest across second abdominal 
segment, slightly keeled in mid-line. 

Margin : With ten long teeth in o-i mm. Anterior and posterior marginal setae minute, on 
about the twelfth marginal tooth from mid-line. Tracheal pore areas not differentiated. 

Dorsal surface : With thirty-four pairs of setae including long fine caudal setae which are sub- 
marginal. Abdomen with nineteen pairs of setae in three rows : on rhachis of segments one to six 
and eight ; on sub-margin of segments two to eight, also caudal setae ; an intermediate irregular 
row on segments three to six. Fifteen pairs of cephalo-thoracic setae arranged rather similarly : 
on sub-margin of pro- and mesothorax, with three in cephalic region ; medially on meso- and 
metathorax, and two pairs on cephalic segment ; an intermediate row on pro- meso, and m eta- 
thorax with a group of three setae on cephalic region. The long setae all bear minute lateral 
spines. Segmental sutures weakly defined, transverse moulting suture deeply recurved around 
first abdominal segment, does not reach margin. Mesothoracic suture very clear, transverse. 
Seventh abdominal segment about as long as five and six. Vasiform orifice slightly elevated, 
elongate rectangular, with an internal posterior projection. Operculum cordate, nearly fills 
orifice concealing broadly spatulate lingula. 

Ventral surface : Sub-margin with about four rows of rectangular markings, absent only at 
tracheal folds. Mesad of these markings are many raised dots, although the central part of the 
ventral surface is unsculptured. No setae associated with legs. Antennae bluntly pointed, 
reaching just posterior to first spiracle, rather longer and more slender than is usual. 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria : Ibadan, Moor Plantation, on Combretum 
micranthum, xi.1959 (E. A. J.). 

Paratypes ; five pupal cases with the same data as holotype ; also by the same 
collector at the same site, six pupal cases on an undetermined host, hi. i960, and four 
pupal cases on PaulUnia pinnata, xi.1959. 



126 L. A. MOUND 

This new species, with its very long barbed setae, is distinguished from all the 
others previously described in Aleurocanthus by the presence of a group of three pairs 
of long setae on the cephalic region close to the longitudinal moulting suture. Other 
species sometimes have a group of two pairs of setae on this position. It resembles 
A. hansfordi Corbett in the presence of sub-marginal ventral markings, but differs 
from that species in the above character and in the shape of the vasiform orifice. 
However, one of its host plants, Paullinia pinnata is recorded as the type-host of 
A. hansfordi. 

ALEUROLOBUS Quaintance & Baker, 1914 

Type-species : Aleyrodes marlatti Qu., 1903. 

The generic name refers to the trilobed figure formed by the eighth abdominal 
segment around the vasiform orifice. The orifice is usually cordate and completely 
filled by the operculum. The dorsal disc is separated from the sub-margin by a 
suture-like fold, and the sub-margin usually bears a series of setae. 

Aleurolobus hargreavesi Dozier, 1934 
(Text-fig. 11) 

This species differs from other described species of Aleurolobus in that the operculum 
is not pointed at the posterior margin, and the orifice itself is rather small. Although 
widespread it is not recognizable from the original description. 

Pupal case : Females 1 -8 x i-omm. Males 1-2 x 0-7 mm. Black with a white waxy fringe, 
elongate oval in shape, broadest across first abdominal segment. On leaves of Graminaeae, 
parallel to leaf veins. 

Margin : Crenulate with fine sutures across sub-margin. Tracheal pore areas not differentia- 
ted. Anterior and posterior marginal setae present. Sub-margin broad, one-quarter of overall 
width, separated from dorsal disc by suture-like fold. Sub-margin with fifteen pairs of setae, 
seven on cephalo thorax and eight on abdomen. Setae vary in size and position, particularly in 
cephalic region where two pairs are frequently not apparent. Sub-margin with a series of simple 
pores. 

Dorsal disc : Cephalic, first and eighth abdominal setae present. Mesothoracic suture marked, 
extending into subdorsal region, almost meeting transverse moulting suture which curves for- 
ward. Thoracico-abdominal suture bends posteriorly to meet short first abdominal segmental 
suture. Second abdominal suture curved to anterior, third and fourth sutures transverse. 
Seventh abdominal segment not very short medially, as is common in this genus, as long as 
segment two, three-quarters as long as six which equals eight. Paired submedian depressions 
present on each abdominal segment. Eighth abdominal segment not so clearly trilobed as in 
most members of this genus. Operculum cordate with transverse posterior margin, almost filling 
orifice. Lingula usually concealed, broadly spatulate with terminal pair of setae. Breadth of 
caudal furrow one-third its length, with transverse markings. 

Ventral surface : Male antennae long, reaching to third leg, female antennae to second leg. 
Four pairs of spiracles well developed. Paired setae anterior to both rostrum and posterior 
abdominal spiracles. Meso- and metathoracic legs with a basal seta. These ventral setae rather 
long and fine. 

Adult : (unexpanded specimens from Nigerian pupal cases) . Darkly pigmented, wing span 
about 4 mm. Upper and lower parts of each eye not separated, joined by a narrow neck com- 
posed of two facets. Eye facets not different in size. Male abdominal glandular areas small, 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



127 



11 




Figs. 9-1 i. 



9. Aleurocanthus trispina — pupal case and detail of seta. 10. A . trispina — vasiform 
orifice. 11. Aleurolobus hargreavesi — vasiform orifice and caudal fold. 



128 L. A. MOUND 

less than half length or width of their respective segments. Claspers with strong apical tooth, 
rounded medial lobe occupies one-quarter of inner length of clasper. Third antennal segment 
with large sub-apical rhinarium, seventh segment of female with conical rhinarium. Antennae 
long, seventh segment of male longer than that of female. 

Material examined : Seven pupal cases (syntypes) and twenty recently mounted 
specimens from the original material, Uganda : Kampala, on Hyparrhenia sp. (a 
grass), ii.1928 (H. Hargreaves). Nigeria : Minna, on sugar cane, viii.1910 (J. W. 
Scott-Macfie), many specimens including two adult males and seven adult females ; 
Samaru, on grass, x.1956 (V. F. E.), six pupal cases ; Enugu, i.1957 (V. F. E.), 
twelve pupal cases. 

Aleurolobus onitshae sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 6 and 7) 

Pupal case : On lower surface of leaves, dark brown, with little wax. Oval in shape, broadest 
across second abdominal segment. 

Margin : Crenulate, grooves run across sub-margin from broad and shallow crenulations. Paired 
anterior and posterior marginal setae present . Caudal setae on dorsal subterminal tubercles, small, 
barely extending beyond margin. Thoracic tracheal pore areas barely differentiated from margin, 
posterior pore with two teeth. Sub-margin with ring of small pores one-third of its width from 
margin, about one pore to every two or three crenulations. Dorsal disc separated from sub-margin 
by suture-like fold typical of this genus. Close to fold in sub-margin are ten pairs of small setae : 
on abdominal segments one and four to eight, on pro- and mesothorax and anteriorly and laterally 
in cephalic region. In one specimen, the fourth abdominal seta of one side is situated in the 
dorsal disc in the subdorsal region. 

Dorsal disc : Abdomen with paired segmental pores, on rhachis, subdorsum and near sub- 
marginal fold. Similar pores on cephalothorax. Second abdominal suture bends sharply to 
anterior and meets first suture. Transverse moulting suture reaches sub-marginal fold, 
thoracico-abdominal fold not clear. Eighth abdominal segment forms trilobed figure typical of 
genus. Segment seven short, two-thirds of six, segment eight almost twice length of six. Small 
cephalic tubercles developed, lateral to these are so-called eyespots. Small paired setae on 
cephalic, first and eighth abdominal segments. Vasiform orifice typical of genus, triangular with 
floor dissected by ridges. Operculum pointed to posterior, nearly filling orifice, concealing 
knobbed lingula. Caudal furrow rather narrow. 

Ventral surface : Thoracic tracheal folds defined by ridges and minute tubercles close to meso- 
thoracic leg, but not near margin. Posterior fold defined by rows of elongate tubercles. Paired 
setae antero-mesad of posterior abdominal spiracles, also anterior to rostrum. A minute seta at 
base of each meso and metathoracic leg. Female antennae reach to anterior spiracle, male 
antennae stouter and extend beyond this. Adhesive sacs not heavily sclerotised. 

Adult : Body darkly pigmented, wings with black markings. Third antennal segment with 
large rhinarium distally. Female antenna with segment seven shorter than total length of 
segments three, four, five and six. Male antenna with segment seven annulated and longer than 
total length of segments three, four, five and six. Dorsal and ventral portions of eyes almost 
completely separated by chitinous area bearing very many fine setae. Eye facets equal in size. 
Lingula only just exceeds vasiform orifice which is half filled by operculum. Male claspers simple 
with terminal tooth and sub-terminal fleshy lobe. 

Holotype $ pupal case. Nigeria : Onitsha, on Phyllanthus floribundus, i . 1957, 
(V.F.E.). 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



129 




12 



13 



*S 



Y"Y~V^i 



MA/W 





15 




Figs. 12-17. 12. Aleuromarginatus tephrosiae — vasiform orifice. 13. A. tephrosiae — 
caudal margin and seta. 14. Aleurolonga cassiae — pupal case. 15. A. cassiae — vasiform 
orifice. 16. Aleuroplatus andropogoni — pupal case. 17. A. andropogoni — vasiform 
orifice. 

4§§ 



i 3 o L. A. MOUND 

Paratypes, fifteen female and six male pupal cases, with the same data as the holo- 
type, together with two female and three male adults dissected from these specimens. 
Also nine female and two male pupal cases, Nigeria : Ibadan, on Flueggea virosa, 
i.1961 (L. A.M.). 

This species is rather similar to A . niloticus Pr. & H., but differs from that and other 
described members of Aleurolobus in the absence of a well denned tracheal pore. 

It is of some interest that the adults of these two species of Aleurolobus should 
both have sexually dimorphic antennae. This is also known to occur in the adults of 
the following members of the genus, A. barodensis (Maskell), niloticus Pr. & H., 
olivinus (Silvestri), philippinensis Qu. & B., and simulus (Peal). Many whitefly 
species have three sensoria at the distal end of the third antennal segment. In the 
adults of A . barodensis, hargreavesi, niloticus and onitshae, the only species available 
to the author, the least distal sensorium is developed into a large clear sensory plate 
which is reminiscent of the rhinaria of certain aphids. 

ALEUROLONGA gen. n. 

Type-species, Aleurolonga cassiae sp. n. 

The structure of A . cassiae, the new species described below, is quite unlike that of 
any other previously described whitefly. The elongate shape itself is not particularly 
unusual, this is found in several other genera such as Aleurocybotus and Dialeurolonga. 
However the dorsal ridges and the prolongation of the antero- and postero-lateral 
margins are unique. For this reason a new genus is here defined to contain this single 
species. 

Pupal case : Very elongate, breadth about one-third of length, anterior and posterior lateral 
margins prolonged making outline rather rectangular. These corners each bear a seta. Anterior 
and posterior marginal setae present. Dorsal disc elevated by two parallel ridges which connect 
anterior and posterior corners. A series of small setae in sub-dorsum associated with the ridges. 
No long dorsal setae. Abdominal segment seven much shorter than six or eight, which are sub- 
equal. Tracheal folds faintly indicated, tracheal pore areas poorly defined from margin. 
Vasiform orifice cordate, lingula tip expanded, partially exposed. Caudal furrow distinct. 

Aleurolonga cassiae sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 14 and 15) 

Pupal case : i*6 x 0-5 mm. to 2-0 x 0-7 mm. On the lower surface of leaves, usually parallel 
to margin or midrib. White, with little wax. 

Margin : Finely crenulate, tracheal pore areas indicated by faint thickening of marginal 
crenulations, occasionally accompanied by some markings on dorsal sub-margin. Anterior and 
posterior marginal setae present, also four pairs of marginal setae on well developed bases, two at 
anterior and two at posterior corners. Sub-margin with many transverse lines, two rows of 
small pores, one close to margin one close to longitudinal ridge. 

Dorsal disc : Elevated from sub-margin by two longitudinal ridges which connect anterior and 
posterior corners, with reticulate markings medially. Small paired setae on cephalic, first and 
eighth abdominal segments, the latter very close to orifice. Similar setae close to, occasionally 
on, submarginal ridges ; six pairs on cephalothorax, five pairs on abdomen on segments two, four, 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 131 

five, seven and eight respectively. A row of pores just mesad of longitudinal ridges. Trans- 
verse moulting suture reaches margin. Abdominal sutures not heavily defined, particularly in 
sub-dorsum. Vasiform orifice elongate-cordate, open at posterior, half filled by operculum which 
partially conceals expanded spatulate tip of lingula. Caudal furrow very distinct, o-i4~o-20 mm. 

Ventral surface : Thoracic tracheal folds weakly defined. Anterior abdominal spiracles 
small, posterior spiracles large with two setae antero-mesad. Antennae short and stout, barely 
exceeding first leg. A small seta on inner basal area of meso- and metathoracic legs, and a pair 
of minute setae anterior to rostrum. 

2nd instar : Submarginal longitudinal ridges and associated setae as in pupal case, anterior 
and posterior corners not developed, but the four pairs of marginal setae present. 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria : Moor Plantation, Ibadan, on Cassia siamea, 
i.1960, (L. A. M.). 

Paratypes ; seventeen pupal cases, collection data as for the holotype. 



ALEUROMARGINATUS Corbett, 1935 

Type-species : Aleuromarginatus tephrosiae Corbett, 1935. 

Three species are at present included in this genus. However the characters given 
by Singh (1940) in his description of A. indica do not separate this species from the 
type-species, whilst on the other hand examination of type material of A . serdangensis 
Takahashi, 1955, in the British Museum indicates that this species bears little 
relationship to the type-species. 

Aleuromarginatus tephrosiae Corbett, 1935 

(Text-figs. 12 and 13) 

Material examined : Fourteen pupal cases (syntypes), Sierra Leone : Newton, 
on Tephrosia Candida, xi.1932 (E. Hargreaves) ; four pupal cases, Freetown, on 
" Leguminous plant," ix.1924 (E. Hargreaves). Six pupal cases, Nigeria : Ibadan, 
Moor Plantation on Cassia siamea, July, i960 (L. A. M.). 

The material listed above is only tentatively identified as being conspecific with the 
syntypes. None of the original specimens appear to be fully mature pupal cases; 
moreover, most of them have been parasitized and all of them have clearly been 
treated with caustic potash. Until more material becomes available, from which the 
variation in pigmentation and number of small dorsal setae can be estimated, an 
adequate description of this species cannot be given. The available specimens are 
quite distinctive however. They are about one millimetre in length, almost colour- 
less, with a strongly toothed margin and a pore at the base of each tooth. The 
transverse moulting suture almost reaches the margin, and the lingula is exposed 
within the broadly cordate vasiform orifice. The large marginal pores, referred to by 
Corbett as a second row of marginal teeth, are probably associated with the broad flat 
waxy fringe which surrounds these insects in life. 



i 3 2 L. A. MOUND 

ALEUROPLATUS Quaintance & Baker, 1917 

Type-species : Aleurodes quercus-aquaiicae Qu., 1900. 

This genus is not at present well defined. Russell (1958) refers to a few characters 
which the species to be included do not possess, whilst defining the genus Orchamo- 
piatus ; sub-marginal wax glands absent ; tracheal pore areas not sharply delimited 
from the rest of the margin ; setae absent from the first abdominal segment. How- 
ever the genus is used in a broad sense to contain a number of forms, the relationships 
of which are far from clear. Three such species included in the genus here may be 
separated by the following key. 

1 Pupal case black .......... A. andropogoni 

- Pupal case colourless or lightly pigmented ........ 2 

2 Large pore close to each marginal crenulation . . . . A. periplocae 

- No large marginal pores .......... A. fimbriae 

Aleuroplatus andropogoni Dozier, 1934 
(Text-figs. 16 and 17) 

Pupal case : Black, slightly pointed anteriorly but broadly round at posterior. Broadest 
across first abdominal segment, slightly constricted at tracheal folds . Length 1 • 1 o mm . Breadth 
0-95 mm. 

Margin : Strongly crenulate, vertical, elevating dorsal disc from ventral surface, with a pore 
associated with each crenulation. Tracheal folds not developed, no marginal setae seen. 

Dorsal disc : Flat, segmental sutures indicated weakly, abdominal segment eight rather shorter 
than segments seven or six. Transverse moulting suture bends sharply to anterior, just failing 
to reach margin. A single pair of short thick setae on meso thorax. Eighth abdominal setae 
longer than orifice, colourless, arising close to orifice and about one third of its length from its 
anterior margin. Vasiform orifice very slightly elevated, filled by operculum which obscures 
lingula. Internally with distinctive sculpture consisting of three teeth with basally a row of 
pores. 

Ventral surface : Tracheal folds narrow, bearing medially many minute tubercles. Abdominal 
spiracles large. Adhesive organ not very large. A small seta at base of meso- and metathoracic 
leg. 

Material examined : Two syntypes, Congo : Lodja, on Andropogon sp., x.1929 
(/. Ghesquiere). 

No illustration was given of this species in the original publication, and it is not 
recognizable from the description. A very similar insect has been collected by 
V. F. E. and L. A. M. on Coconut and Oil Palm Trees at Ibadan, and near Benin, in 
Southern Nigeria. The form from Palms differs from the syntypes of A . andropogoni 
in the internal sculpturation of the vasiform orifice. This may represent a specific 
difference, although no other differences have been observed between the two forms. 
Closely associated with the large black pupal cases on Palm Trees are smaller black 
oval specimens, the two forms being very similar in the structure of both the vasiform 
orifice and the margin. It is possible that these smaller pupal cases belong to the 
males of the species, a suggestion to which some support is lent, by the presence on 
the same slide as the syntypes of A . andropogoni of the ventral surface of a small, oval, 
black, whitefly pupal case. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



133 




Figs. 18-21. 18. A leuroplaius fimbriae — pupal case and detail of margin. 19. A. fimbriae — 
vasiform orifice. 20. Aleuroplatus periplocae — pupal case and detail of margin. 21. 
A . periplocae — vasiform orifice. 



134 L - A - MOUND 

Aleuroplatus fimbriae sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 18 and 19) 

Pupal case : 070 x 0-50 mm. to i*oo x 0-75 mm. Males probably smaller than females. 
Markedly widest across first abdominal segment, anterior and posterior margins rather trans- 
verse. On lower surface of leaves, with little wax, white or frequently with brown or black 
markings. 

Margin : With a fringe of distinctive teeth (8-10 in 0-08 mm.), each tooth twice as long as 
broad. Paired anterior and posterior marginal setae present. Tracheal pore area barely 
indicated. 

Dorsal surface : Cephalic region with a pair of large tubercles, a ridge from each of these to 
margin. Similar paired ridges on metathorax. Similar tubercles on second, third and seventh 
abdominal segments, these tubercles with a pore. A pair of similar pores near cephalic setae, but 
on much smaller tubercles. Ridges, tubercles and rhachis, variously pigmented, occasionally 
quite black. Dorsal pores and porettes in three rows, in sub-margin, sub-dorsum and bordering 
rhachis respectively. Cephalic and eighth abdominal segments with a pair of fine setae. Caudal 
setae usually small, dorsal, sub-marginal in position. Sub-margin with seven pairs of setae 
(S/u) two pairs on cephalic segment, one pair on prothorax, mesothorax and abdominal seg- 
ments four, six and seven. Metathoracic suture very strong, transverse. Transverse moulting 
suture deeply recurved. Vasiform orifice sub-circular, elongate rectangular operculum three- 
quarters fills orifice concealing (cylindrical?) lingula. Caudal furrow developed, occasionally 
with irregular tubercles near posterior margin. 

Ventral surface : Sub-margin usually with many rectangular markings, interrupted only at 
tracheal folds. Mesad of these many raised dots. Ventral abdominal setae barely mesad of 
posterior spiracles. No setae seen at base of legs. 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria : Moor Plantation, Ibadan, on Cassia siamea 
ii.1961 (L.A.M.). 

Paratypes ; Many pupal cases with the same host and locality data on various 
occasions i-vi.1961 (E. A. J. & L. A. M.). A single third instar nymph was also 
taken on Tecoma starts, Ghana : Tafo, v. 1957 (V. F. E.). 

This species has remarkable marginal teeth which distinguish it from most other 
whitefly. The dorsal pores on tubercules are also unusual in appearance, and the 
variable pigmentation associated with them and the rhachis can be rather confusing 
in a short series of specimens. 

Aleuroplatus periplocae (Dozier, 1934) comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 20 and 21) 
Aleyrodes periplocae Dozier, 1934. 

Pupal case : Length 0-75 to 0-95 mm. Breadth 0-5 to 07 mm. Males probably smaller 
than females. Colourless, flat, broadest across second abdominal segment, rectangular at 
posterior. On leaf, with broad waxy fringe one-quarter of the width of the dorsum. 

Margin : Crenulate (16 in o-i mm.), a large wax-secreting pore at base of each crenulation — 
referred to by Dozier as a second row of teeth. No tracheal pore differentiated. Anterior and 
posterior marginal setae present, caudal setae sub-marginal in position. 

Dorsal surface : Sub-margin not separated. A pair of setae on cephalic, metathoracic, and 
eighth abdominal segments. Transverse moulting suture does not reach margin. Abdominal 
sutures very ill-defined, segment seven about two-thirds the length of segments six or eight. 
Vasiform orifice subcordate, almost filled by rectangular operculum. Lingula tip expanded, 
protrudes from posterior of orifice. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 135 

Material examined : Syntypes ; ten pupal cases poorly mounted on one slide, and 
six specimens on leaves, Congo : Barambu, on Peripioca nigrescens, viii . 1925 (/. 
Ghesquiere). 

This species is most distinctive when seen on the host plant, due to the broad waxy 
fringe. When mounted for study however, the pupal cases are most undistinguished. 
The margin recalls that of Aleuromarginatus, although the extruded knobbed lingula 
is like that of Aleurotulus. The species agrees with Aleuropiatus in the absence of 
setae on the first abdominal segment, the lack of the thoracic tracheal pores, and the 
absence of sub-marginal pores. 

ALEUROPTERIDIS Mound, 1961 

Type-species : A. douglasi Mound, 1961, here regarded as being synonymous with 
Aleyrodes filicicola Newstead, 1911, syn. n. 

This genus, similar to Tetralicia in that the true margin is recurved ventrally, was 
described for four species all collected on ferns. Both dark and light species are 
included and these can be separated by the following key : — 



Five pairs of sub-marginal setae anterior to thoracic tracheal pore 
Four pairs of sub-marginal setae anterior to thoracic tracheal pore 
Dorsal setae reach margin ........ 

Dorsal setae small, not reaching margin . 

Dark brown to black ........ 

Lightly pigmented ......... 



. A. eastopi 

2 

A. hargreavesi 

3 

A.jamesi 

A. filicicola 



Aleuropteridis filicicola (Newstead, 1911) comb. n. 

Aleyrodes filicicola Newstead, 1911. 
Aleuropteridis douglasi Mound, 1961. syn. n. 

This species is not recognizable from its description, but type material on leaves 
was obtained from the Zoological Museum, Humboldt University, Berlin. These 
specimens have the dorsal disc almost entirely pigmented, with a pale margin, and 
no wax is present. The type specimens of A . douglasi have the pigment restricted to 
the mid-line, and there is a small marginal waxy palisade. No further differences 
could be found between the two groups of specimens, and they are here considered 
to be conspecific. 

Material examined : Syntypes on leaves, and five pupal cases subsequently stained 
and mounted. Tanganyika: Sigithal near Amani, on ferns, viii. 1902 (Zimmer- 
mann), Zoological Museum, Berlin, and British Museum (Natural History). 

Holotype and paratypes of A. douglasi. England : Kew Gardens, Greenhouse, 
on Pteris togoensis, and Cyclosorus dentatus, 1891 (/. W. Douglas). 

Aleuropteridis eastopi Mound, 1961 

Material examined : Holotype and eight paratypes, also four pupal cases on a slide 
bearing the same data as the type series but only recently found in the British 
Museum collection ; Ghana: Tafo, on Ferns, 12. v. 1957 (V. F. E.). 



136 L. A. MOUND 

Aleuropteridis hargreavesi Mound, 1961 

Material examined : Holotype and three paratypes ; Sierra Leone : Freetown, 
on Bush Fern, ix.1924 (E. Hargreaves). 

Aleuropteridis jamesi Mound, 1961 

Material examined : Holotype and five slides bearing paratypes, also abundant 
mounted and unmounted material from the same locality ; Nigeria : Moor Plan- 
tation, Ibadan, on Pteris togoensis, near a stream on various dates from 1957 to 1961 
(E.A.J.). 

ALEUROTUBERCULATUS Takahashi, 1932 

Type-species : Aleurotuberculatus gordoniae Tak., 1932. 

This is a fairly well defined genus of about fifty species, described mainly by Taka- 
hashi or Corbett from the Far East. The margin bears a series of tubercles, the 
vasiform orifice is open posteriorly to a wide caudal furrow, and each thoracic tracheal 
pore is a small circular pore usually difficult to see as it faces laterally. 

Aleurotuberculatus nigeriae sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 22 and 23) 

Pupal case: 0-7 x 0-5 mm. to o-8 x o-6mm. On the lower surf ace of leaves, white, with little 
wax. A little brown pigment sometimes on first abdominal segment and metathoracic tubercles. 
Broadest across metathorax, deeply emarginate at posterior. 

Margin : Finely and regularly crenulate (40 in ci mm.). Paired anterior and posterior 
marginal setae present. Caudal setae on dorsal sub-marginal papillae. Tracheal pores like 
those of other members of the genus, smooth, shallow emarginations, posterior pore set in a deep 
cleft. 

Dorsal surface : Sub-margin with about forty-seven tubercles on each side, varying consider- 
ably in degree of development, frequently ill-defined in region of thoracic tracheal pore. Pudges 
sometimes run from tubercles toward margin, particularly in cephalic region. Longitudinal 
moulting suture with apparently scalloped edge due to row of small papillae. Similar papillae 
define head of developing adult, and occur as transverse rows on posterior margin of each seg- 
ment from prothorax to seventh abdominal segment. Two pairs of large tubercles on sub- 
dorsum of prothorax and metathorax, a single pair of similar tubercles on mesothorax and first 
abdominal segment. Smaller tubercles may occur sub-medially on each abdominal segment. 
Sub-dorsum granular. Median abdominal tubercles usually trilobed. Paired cephalic setae 
sometimes extend to margin of pupal case on antero-lateral margins of cephalic tubercles. 
When minute, these setae are situated on postero-lateral margins of cephalic tubercles. Eighth 
abdominal setae minute. Vasiform orifice sub-circular, emarginate at posterior. Operculum 
similar in shape nearly fills orifice, conceals cylindrical lingula. Caudal furrow very distinct, 
0*04 to 0-06 mm. 

Ventral surface : Tracheal folds indistinct. Anterior abdominal spiracles clearly visible, a 
pair of setae antero-mesad of posterior spiracles. No setae observed at base of legs. 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria : Moor Plantation, Ibadan, on Psidium guajava, 
xii.1960 (M. 0. E.). 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



137 




Figs. 22-25. 22. Aleurotuberculatus nigeriae — pupal case and detail of thoracic tracheal 
pore. 23. A. nigeriae — vasiform orifice and caudal margin. 24. Aleurotuberculatus 
kusheriki — pupal case and detail of thoracic tracheal pore. 25. A. kusheriki — vasiform 
orifice and caudal margin. 



138 L. A. MOUND 

Paratypes ; twenty-six pupal cases collected with holotype. Six pupal cases 
Nigeria: Ibadan, on Ficus asperifolia, i.1960 (M. 0. E.) ; seven pupal cases, 
Ibadan, on Diospyros monbuttensis x.1959 (E. A. J.). 

This species was also collected commonly by V. F. Eastop on Guava at Ibadan, 
ii-iv,xi.i956, and this collector also found one pupal case on Tecoma sp., Ghana : 
Tafo, v.1957. Six pupal cases collected from an unknown plant, Nigeria : Bida, 
ix.1960 (L. A. M.) are probably the same species. 

The sculpturation of the dorsal surface is rather variable in this species. In some 
specimens the sub-dorsal abdominal tubercles are absent, and the sub-marginal 
tubercles and transverse rows of papillae are much reduced. This species differs from 
others described in the genus by the combination of its segmental transverse rows of 
papillae and elongate shape. It differs from A. kusheriki, described below, in the 
position of the cephalic setae anterior or lateral to the cephalic tubercles. 

Aleurotuberculatus kusheriki sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 24 and 25) 

Pupal case : o-6 xo'j mm. to 0-9 X o-6 mm. On the lower surface of leaves, white, broadest 
across first abdominal segment. Constricted at tracheal folds and at seventh abdominal segment. 
Slightly emarginate at posterior fold. 

Margin : Finely but irregularly crenulate (30 in o-i mm.). Paired anterior and posterior 
marginal setae very small. Caudal setae minute on dorsal sub-terminal tubercles. Thoracic 
tracheal pores typical of genus but the emarginations may be very shallow or absent, the pore 
only distinguishable in such cases as a smooth portion of the crenulate margin. Posterior 
emargination smaller than in A . nigeriae. 

Dorsal surface : Sub-marginal tubercles imperfectly developed, except in caudal and cephalic 
regions, probably up to fifty on each side. Longitudinal moulting suture bordered by delicate 
sculpturation. This lace-like sculpturation is typical of the larger tubercles of this species, head 
region of developing adult defined by similar markings. Two pairs of large tubercles occur on 
the pro- and metathorax, and one pair on the mesothorax and first abdominal segment. Similar 
tubercles indicated on each succeeding abdominal segment, most strongly developed on eighth 
segment. Median abdominal tubercles similar in structure to thoracic tubercles. Sub-dorsal 
region with many papillae. Transverse rows of papillae on pro- and mesothoracic sutures. 
Paired cephalic setae small, mesad of cephalic tubercles, between these and prothoracic tubercles. 
Eighth abdominal setae minute, anterior to orifice. Sixth and seventh segments subequal in 
length, two thirds of eight. Vasiform orifice wider than long, rounded laterally. Operculum 
nearly fills orifice, concealing lingula. Caudal furrow distinct, 0-05 to 0-08 mm. 

Ventral surface : As in previous species. 

Holotype pupal case. North Nigeria : Kusheriki, on undetermined plant, 
ix.1960 {L. A. M.). 

Paratypes ; seven pupal cases collected with the holotype. 

This species is characterized by the lace-like sculpturation of the dorsal tubercles, 
and the small papillae on the sub-dorsum. It is similar to A. lithocarpi Tak. from 
which it differs in the size and disposition of the dorsal setae. It is close to Aleuroclava 
complex Singh, but differs in the deeper posterior tracheal cleft and the presence of 
thoracic tracheal pores. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



139 




0- . 



'.v.-'. : tc '-\i^a 



■• , :;:::V:^-/rT 
•:.•/ i//o :t^t 



\7- :^0;.«/.* 





Figs. 26-28. Bemisia hancocki. 26. Pupal case. 27. Pupal case from hairy leaf. 
28. Parasitized pupal case. 



i 4 o L. A. MOUND 

BEMISIA Quaintance & Baker, 1914 

Type-species : Aleyrodes inconspicua Qu., 1900, a synonym of Bemisia tabaci 
(Gennadius, 1889) Russell, 1958. 

The species included in this genus have an elongate-triangular vasiform orifice, 
with a spatulate lingula. In view of the synonymies given by Russell (1958) there are 
now only two recognizable species from West Africa. These can be separated by the 
following characters. 

A Caudal setae less than half length of caudal furrow ; transverse markings in caudal 

furrow ........... B. hancocki 

B Caudal setae more than half length of caudal furrow ; no transverse markings in 

caudal furrow ........... B. tabaci 

Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) 
(Text-fig. 31) 

The host range of this species is very great, and the structure of the pupal cases 
varies depending on the host plant upon which it has developed (Mound, 1962 & 1963). 
Included here as synonyms are B. goldingi and B. nigeriensis, described by Corbett 
(1935) from Ibadan, Nigeria, on Cotton and Cassava respectively, also B. gossypiperda 
Misra & Lamba, recorded from the Congo by Ghesquiere (1934) as variety mosaici- 
vectura nov. The adults of this species act as the vectors of leaf curl viruses on 
Cassava, Cotton, Tobacco, and Peppers in West Africa. 

Bemisia hancocki Corbett, 1936 
(Text-figs. 26 to 30) 

Pupal case: 0-98 x 0-72 mm. to 0-67 x 0-45 mm. Males probably smaller than females. On 
the lower surface of leaves, white with very little wax. Oval in shape, broadest across meta- 
thorax, slightly tapered to posterior. 

Margin : Smooth to finely but irregularly crenulate (18 in 01 mm.), with faint lines extending 
across sub-margin. Anterior and posterior marginal setae present. Thoracic pores usually 
indicated by slight thickening, and sometimes pigmentation, of up to ten marginal crenulations ; 
occasionally not evident at all. Thoracic and posterior pore regions slightly emarginate. 

Dorsal surface : Original description refers to "a ring of minute sub-marginal spines ". 
These are not present in the specimens from the type series at the British Museum, and the 
" spines " referred to are apparently small tubercles. Sub-dorsal area typically very granular, 
delimited from median area by twenty-two large paired tubercles. These sub-dorsal tubercles 
on abdomen as follows ; one on second, and two on third to seventh segments, the first and the 
last two of the series being small, the remaining pairs each of one large and one small tubercle. 
Three pairs of similar sub-dorsal tubercles on both meso- and metathorax, two on prothorax, and 
three in cephalic region. A pair of similar but smaller tubercles sometimes medially on pro- and 
mesothorax. Median tubercles usually present on first five abdominal segments. All these 
tubercles occasionally reduced, apparently absent. Sub-dorsal setae on cephalic region, pro-, 
meso- and metathorax, and abdominal segments four to eight ; those on prothorax and abdominal 
segments five to eight often closer to margin than to sub-dorsal tubercles, usually less than 3 /x 
in length. Remaining sub-dorsal setae closer to tubercles than to margin, occasionally elongate, 
extending beyond body margin. Three pairs of sub-marginal setae occasionally seen in cephalic 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



141 





r-t~ 




Figs. 29-31. 29 & 30. Bemisia hancocki — vasiform orifice. 31. B. tabaci — vasiform orifice. 



region, 3 pi in length. Dorsal setae on cephalic, first, and eighth abdominal segments, the former 
two pairs occasionally elongate. Caudal setae not elongate, 40 pi, on small tubercles. Trans- 
verse moulting suture not reaching margin, anterior margin of segment eight confluent with 
posterior margin of segment six, only seven segments visible in mid-line. Three paired longi- 
tudinal rows of dorsal pores, often difficult to see, in sub-margin, sub-dorsum, and close to rhachis. 
Vasiform orifice elongate-triangular, slightly constricted behind anterior half, posterior-lateral 
margins with about four internally projecting ridges, widely open at posterior, length 0-07 to 
o-ii mm., breadth 0-05 to 0-07 mm. Operculum sub-cordate, filling about half of orifice. 
Lingula-tip highly variable, conical to elongate-triangular, or spatulate and barely separated from 
lingula neck. Caudal furrow well defined, 0-05 to 0-09 mm., with one or more transverse ridges 
anteriorly. Caudal ridges with transverse markings. 

Ventral surface : Tracheal folds rather narrow, defined by many minute tubercles, occasionally 
not apparent. Posterior abdominal spiracles well developed, with a pair of fine setae. Anterior 
abdominal spiracles visible. A minute seta at the base of meso- and metathoracic legs. Antennae 
short with acute tip, barely reaching mesothoracic leg. 

Material examined : One pupal case, Pparatype, the only remaining specimen from 
the type host, Uganda : Eastern Province, on Cotton, 1934 (G. L. R. Hancock). 
Two pupal cases with the same Museum Collection Number as the type, on Vigna 
catjang, 6.viii.i934 (G. L. R. Hancock). Four pupal cases, Kiyunga, on Cotton, 
ii.1924 (H. Hargreaves), three pupal cases, Serere, on Groundnut, vi.1962 (/. C. 
Dames). 

This species has been taken on Cassava at the following places ; Sierra Leone : 
Njala and Newton, i960 (P. Rushton) ; Nigeria: Bida, x.1960 (L. A. M.) ; 
Cameroons ; Bamenda, xi.1959 (C. P. Hoyt) ; Sudan : Yambio, iv.1962 (-F. A. 
Mitwalli) . Other recorded hosts are Cassia siamea, Cassia petersiana, Zizyphus spina- 



i 4 2 L. A. MOUND 

christi, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Chaetacme aristata, Urena lobata, and Bridelia sp. 
Specimens have been seen from the following places ; Natal : Durban ; Malawi : 
Boer River ; Kenya : Nairobi ; Sudan : Yambio, Dilling, Wad Medani ; Congo : 
Stanleyville ; Madagascar : Nossi Be. 

The variation shown by B. hancocki is very great, almost equal to that of B. tabaci. 
As in the latter species, the most variable characters are the overall size and shape, 
and the number and definition of the tubercles. This redescription gives the maxi- 
mum number of tubercles, but within an otherwise typical population, specimens 
may be found with no dorsal tubercles visible, i.e., with an almost smooth dorsum. 
The dorsal setae are only rarely elongate, but the microsetae can be very difficult to 
demonstrate due to their minute size. The shape of the vasiform orifice, with its 
internal sculpturing and transverse markings at the posterior end, is typical of the 
species. However the shape of the lingula is highly variable. 

A further cause of variation is the presence of Aphelinid parasites in certain speci- 
mens. Such parasitized pupal cases, recognizable by the round parasite emergence 
hole, usually have a smooth margin with a darkly staining sub-marginal line. The 
parasite pupal case and meconium are not always retained within the host. Parasites 
from Sierra Leone were identified by B. D. Burks of the United States National 
Museum as Prospaltella sublutea Silv., and Eretmoceros Imasii Silv. 

The relative status of the two species B. tabaci and B. hancocki is of considerable 
interest. B. tabaci has been recorded from Cassava in most parts of Africa, and it is 
usually found on the plants as a pure infestation. At the following places it was 
found however in association with B. hancocki ; Njala, Sierra Leone ; Bida, Nigeria ; 
Bamenda, Cameroons ; Yambio, Sudan ; Stanleyville, Congo. At four of these 
sites B. tabaci constituted the major part of the total whitefly population, but at 
Njala this species was virtually replaced by B. hancocki. This situation may be 
correlated with the absence from Njala in i960 of Cassava Mosaic Virus, of which 
disease B. tabaci is the vector. Samples of leaves from the coastal region of Sierra 
Leone were found however not only to bear B. tabaci pupal cases in fair numbers, 
they also showed typical virus disease symptoms. 

A possible explanation of these observations is that B. hancocki is not a vector of 
the mosaic virus, particularly as the disease is almost ubiquitous on Cassava in the 
high rainfall areas of the West African coast. This virus is known to have spread 
across Nigeria from East to West between 1930 and 1940 (unpublished records of the 
Federal Department of Agricultural Research, Nigeria). Moreover, Pearson (1949) 
suggests that another whitefly-borne virus, cotton leaf-curl disease, spread from West 
Africa to Sudan between 1920 and 1930. It seems possible that these sudden move- 
ments of virus diseases reflect earlier movements of insect populations. B. hancocki 
may be indigenous to Africa. B. tabaci is possibly of more recent introduction, from 
India through East Africa where Cassava Mosaic was first recorded, and has gradually 
replaced the original species. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 143 

CORBET TI A Dozier, 1934 

Type-species : Corbettia milletiacola Doz., 1934. 

This genus has recently been revised by Russell (i960) from whom the following 
abbreviated key is adapted. The pupal cases all have a paired longitudinal row of 
papillae in the sub-dorsum, and sixteen pairs of sub-marginal setae, including the 
caudal setae. The only species not listed here, C. tamarindi Tak., comes from 
Madagascar. 

1 Pro-mesothoracic suture extending to body margin .... C. grandis 

- Pro-mesothoracic suture not reaching margin ....... 2 

2 Bases of elongate setae nearer sub-dorsal papillae than to margin . . C. indentata 

- Bases of elongate setae nearer margin than to sub-dorsal papillae, or no elongate 

setae .............. 3 

3 Eleven long setae on one sub-margin, not all the corresponding setae on opposite side 

elongate ........... C. graminis 

- Six pairs of sub-marginal setae elongate ...... C. milletiacola 

- Two, three, or four pairs of elongate sub-marginal setae . . . . C. baphiae 

- Only one pair of elongate sub-marginal setae, the caudal setae . . C. tamarindi 

Corbettia milletiacola Dozier, 1934 

The collection data for the lectotype and one other specimen from the type series 
in the British Museum are as follows : — Belgian Congo : Kole (Sankuru), on 
Milletia versicola Welw., 22.1.1928 (/. Ghesquiere). However Russell (i960: 129) 
gives reasons for doubting the accuracy of this data. 

New records. Nigeria : Moor Plantation, Ibadan, on Lonchocarpus sericeus and 
Desmodium lasiocarpus, iv-vii.1956 (V. F. E.), also Olokemeji, near Ibadan, on 
Mucuna sp., v. 1956 (E. A. J.). 

Corbettia baphiae Russell, i960 

No type material is available at the British Museum, but two pupal cases deter- 
mined as this species from the description were removed from plants in the Museum 
herbarium; Tanganyika: Morogoro, on Cassia auriculata, v. 1933. The species 
was described from Baphia sp., Congo : Eala, v. 1935, and vii.1936. 

Corbettia indentata Russell, i960 

No material is available at the British Museum. The species was described from 
Milletia and Tephrosia sp., Congo : Sankuru, Elizabethville, and Eala. 

Corbettia grandis Russell, i960 

No material is available at the British Museum. The species was described from 
Milletia sp., Congo : Eala, ix.1936. 



i 4 4 L - A - MOUND 

Corbettia graminis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 32) 

Pupal case : PFemale i-6o x 0-85 mm. PMale i-io x 0-55 mm. Elliptical in outline, but 
distinctly bilaterally asymmetrical. Lightly but variously pigmented. Sub-dorsal papillae, 
bases of sub-marginal setae, and abdominal segment two usually brown. Segments seven and 
eight with or without pigment. 

Margin : Smooth or with broad shallow crenulations (7 in o-i mm.). Tracheal pore area not 
indicated. Posterior marginal setae present, more than 10 //, in length. Anterior marginal 
setae not seen. Sub-margin with sixteen pairs of setae, including caudal setae, eight pairs on 
both cephalothorax and abdomen. Eleven pairs including caudal setae elongate (100 /*), on 
large bases, close to margin ; five pairs, second, fifth, and seventh cephalothoracic, and first and 
seventh abdominal small (25 //,), on small tubercles mesad of large setae. Setae of one side 
always reduced in size. Sub-marginal setae on following segments ; cephalic segment four 
pairs, prothorax one pair, mesothorax two pairs, metathorax one pair, abdominal segments two, 
three, four, six, and seven each with one pair, segment eight two pairs. Sub-dorsum with 
radiating anastomosing lines and rows of small tubercles. Sub-medial area demarcated by two 
longitudinal rows of about seventy-five papillae, each with a minute apical pore. The rows tend 
to bifurcate close to vasiform orifice. Rhachis with faint transverse rows of small tubercles 
across abdominal segments, a small pore on either side of each segment, and a pair of setae on 
cephalic, meso- and metathoracic segments, and abdominal segments one and eight. Segment 
seven less than half length of six. Orifice sub-circular, length 58 ft, breadth 60 n, anterior rim 
8 fi long. Orifice three times its length from hind margin of body, a large tooth on posterior 
median border, internal margin rugose. Operculum transversely rectangular, half filling orifice, 
with rugose posterior margin. Spatulate lingula exposed, included. Caudal furrow not clearly 
developed. 

Ventral surface : Thoracic tracheal folds not apparent, posterior fold weak. Anterior 
abdominal spiracles well developed, underlying second abdominal suture. Paired abdominal 
setae near posterior spiracles. Antennae rather elongate, transversely striate with minute 
tubercles, in female reaching just posterior to first spiracle, in male almost to second spiracle. 

Holotype, ?$ pupal case. Nigeria: Onitsha, at base of grass, 13. i. 1957 
{V. F. E.). 

Paratypes, five ?$ and five ?$ pupal cases collected at the same time as the holo- 
type. 

This species is quite closely related to C. milletiacola, but differs from that species 
in its much larger size and in the possession of a larger number of elongate sub- 
marginal setae. The bilateral assymetry of the available specimens is probably the 
result of restricted space for growth at the base of the grass on which they were taken. 
The host record is particularly interesting as all the other species in the genus have 
been taken on leguminous plants. 



DIALEURODES Cockerell, 1902 

Type-species : Aleyrodes citri Ashmead, 1885. 

Species in this genus have well developed pores, usually with internal teeth, the 
tracheal folds are indicated by many fine tubercles, and the small vasiform orifice 
often has a row of teeth within its posterior margin. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



M5 




Figs. 32-35. 32. Corbettia graminis — pupal case (? male), n.b. The dorsal sub-marginal 
setae also drawn in ventral view. 33-35. Dialeurolonga emarginata. 33. Pupal case. 
34. Thoracic tracheal pore. 35. Vasiform orifice. 



146 L. A. MOUND 

Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky, 1907) 

This species was described from Jasmine in Honolulu, and an account of its distri- 
bution and host range has recently been published by Russell (1964). There are 
specimens in the British Museum (Natural History) from Allamanda neriifolia, 
Ghana : Aburi, iii.1922 (W. H. Patterson). The pupal case is slightly constricted 
behind the thoracic tracheal pores, and the vasiform orifice has an anterior rim more 
than half the length of the operculum. The eighth abdominal setae are lateral to the 
orifice. 

DIALEUROLONGA Dozier, 1928 

Type-species : Dialeurodes (Dialeurolonga) elongata Dozier, 1928. 

This genus was redefined by Takahashi (1951) as a full genus, although not all the 
species included are closely related. It is separated from Dialeurodes by the charac- 
ters listed in the key, although any one or more of these characters may be absent in a 
given species. Of the three species here described as new, D. hoyti and D. akureensis 
seem to be related to D. angustata and D. bambusae in the absence of a large spine at 
the base of the legs and the presence of the caudal setae near the hind margin. 
D. emarginata however is less closely related to the group in the complete reduction 
of abdominal segment seven, and the anterior extension of the transverse moulting 
suture. The four species referred to here may be separated by the following key. 

1 Pupal case twice as long as broad ......... 2 

- Pupal case not so long ........... 3 

2 Tracheal pores indicated by strengthened marginal crenulations . . D. akureensis 

- Tracheal pores are true pores enclosing an internal tooth . . . . D. hoyti 

3 Pupal case deeply emarginate ; transverse moulting suture bends to anterior and 

meets in mid-line D. emarginata 

- Pupal case smoothly elliptical ; transverse moulting suture extends nearly to lateral 

margin D. africana 

Dialeurolonga africana (Newstead, 1921) 

Aleurodes africana Newstead, 1921. 

Dialeurolonga africana (Newstead) Takahashi, 1955 : 393. 

The pupal cases of this species were described as the food of the larvae of Eublemma 
scitula, a noctuid moth. The original record was Nigeria : Ibadan, Moor Plan- 
tation, on Salacia sp., v.1917 (C. 0. Farquharson) . Type material is not available 
at the British Museum (Natural History), and the host plant, which was determined 
at Kew Herbarium, has not been preserved. 

Dialeurolonga hoyti sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 38 and 39) 

Pupal case : 1-2 x o-6 mm. On the lower surface of leaves, usually alongside a vein. White 
with little wax. Elongate triangular in shape, asymmetric, broadest across first abdominal seg- 
ment. Anterior border transverse, posterior acute. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



147 




Figs. 36-39. ^6.Dialeurolongaakureensis — pupal case. 37. D. akureensis — vasiform orifice. 
38. Dialeurolonga hoyti — pupal case and detail of thoracic tracheal pore. 39. D. hoyti — 
vasiform orifice. 



148 L. A. MOUND 

Margin : Finely crenulate, the crenulations small and regular (36 in o-i mm.) with fine lines 
extending for a short distance medially across sub-margin. Paired anterior and posterior 
marginal setae present. Caudal setae on dorsal sub-terminal tubercles. Tracheal pores distinct 
as pores, appearing triangular in mounted specimens with apex to exterior. Thoracic pores with 
a single tooth on inner dorsal margin, posterior pore with two such teeth. 

Dorsal surface : Sub-margin usually with a series of about one hundred triangular papillae. 
Five similar papillae in a row on each side in cephalic sub-dorsum. Two paired rows of seg- 
mental pores, in sub-dorsum and close to rhachis respectively. A pair of large tubercles dorsal 
to anterior spiracles. Mesothoracic suture distinct, moulting suture almost transverse, reaching 
margin. Small paired setae on cephalic, first and eighth abdominal segments. Segment seven 
about two-thirds length of six or eight. Vasiform orifice sub-cordate, postero-lateral margins 
rugose, with a large tooth medially. Operculum half fills orifice, exposing D-shaped lingula 
knob. Caudal furrow very distinct, 0-19-0-20 mm. 

Ventral surface : Sub-marginal region delimited by a suture-like fold interrupted only at 
tracheal folds. Tracheal folds clearly defined and bearing transverse rows of fine tubercles. A 
pair of setae mesad of the posterior abdominal spiracles, one or more very small setae near bases 
of meso- and metathoracic legs. Antennae slender, reaching mesothoracic leg, not sexually 
dimorphic. The chitin bears the imprint of the stomata and epidermal cells of the host plant. 

Adult female : Paronychium with a long angular tip. Terminal antennal segment long and 
finely tapered. 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria : Agege near Lagos, on Coffee, xi . 1959 (C. P. 
Hoyt). 

Paratypes ; eight pupal cases and two adult females collected with the holotype. 

This species resembles the type-species in its elongate shape, but differs from it in 
the transverse anterior margin and the absence of a large pore anterior to the orifice. 
The elongate terminal antennal segment of the adult is similar to that figured by 
Singh (1931) for D. elongata. 

Dialeurolonga akureensis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 36 and 37) 

Pupal case : 1-4 x o-8 mm. to i-8 x i-i mm. Elongate triangular in shape, broadest across 
first abdominal suture. Anterior border rather transverse, posterior acute. 

Margin : Finely crenulate, lines extending medially across the sub-margin. Paired anterior 
and posterior marginal setae present. Caudal setae on tubercles antero-laterad of tracheal pore. 
Tracheal pores distinguished by about six heavily sclerotized marginal crenulations. 

Dorsal surface : Sub-margin with a series of tuberculate pores, similar pores scattered through- 
out dorsum. Mesothoracic suture very clear, straight, extending to sub-margin. Transverse 
moulting suture does not reach margin. Small paired setae present as follows ; four pairs in 
cephalic sub-dorsum ; one pair each on cephalic and prothoracic dorsum ; two pairs on meso- 
thorax and one pair on metathorax in sub-dorsum ; a single pair on sub-dorsum of second ab- 
dominal segment and dorsum of remaining abdominal segments. Vasiform orifice cordate, 
several ridges extend from rugose postero-lateral border over inner surface. Operculum rect- 
angular, more than half filling orifice. Lingula tip exposed, included, broadly pyriform. 
Caudal furrow very distinct, 0-27-0-36 mm. 

Ventral surface : Thoracic tracheal folds with few tubercles, but posterior tracheal fold well 
defined by many transverse rows of fine tubercles. Antennae short with a terminal hook. A 
pair of fine setae mesad of posterior spiracles. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 149 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria: Akure, on leaves of unidentified tree, i.1957 
{V. F. E.). 

Paratypes ; eight pupal cases collected with the holotype. 

Although this resembles other members of the genus in the presence of a sub- 
marginal row of pores and the shape of the orifice, it differs from these species in that 
the tracheal pore area is composed of a row of teeth and does not form a true pore. 
Both this and the preceding species, D. hoyti, are apparently related to D. angustata 
and D. bambusae described by Takahashi from Madagascar. 

Dialeurolonga emarginata sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 33-35) 

Pupal case : 0-75 x o-6o mm. to o-8o x 0-75 mm. White, but sometimes with an internal 
bright orange area medially. Broadest across mesothorax, deeply emarginate at thoracic and 
posterior tracheal folds, acute anteriorly. 

Margin : Smoothly crenulate (22 in o-i mm.), with faint radial lines across sub-margin. 
Anterior and posterior marginal setae 30 fi in length, on stout bases. Tracheal pores covered by 
a smooth rounded lobe 15 ft in length. Caudal setae minute, close to margin. 

Dorsal surface : Sub-margin with about forty pores on small tubercles. Three paired rows 
of similar pores, in sub-dorsum, sub-medially, and bordering rhachis. Sub-median pores on 
segments six, seven, and eight are raised on large tubercles. Transverse moulting suture does 
not reach margin, bends forward and meets near anterior end of pupal case, thus forming a 
triangular emergence hole. Prothoracic suture reaches this moulting suture. Both transverse 
moulting suture and prothoracic suture are apparently extended to margin. Second abdominal 
suture bends to anterior. Pockets of eighth abdominal segment confluent with sixth abdominal 
suture, thus seventh segment apparently occluded in mid-line. Small cephalic setae dorso- 
lateral to rostrum, similar setae on first abdominal segment. Setae of eighth abdominal segment 
minute, close to orifice and midway along its length. Cephalo-thorax with seven pairs of setae 
in sub-dorsum, close to moulting suture. Sub-dorsal setae on abdominal segments two, and 
four to eight. Vasiform orifice cordate, 0-03 mm. long, inner postero-lateral margins toothed. 
Operculum almost semicircular, three-quarters fills orifice. Expanded tip of lingula exposed, 
included. Caudal furrow o-i mm. 

Ventral surface : Tracheal folds broad, with many small tubercles. Anterior abdominal 
spiracles small. Paired fine setae anterior to rostrum and posterior spiracles. A small seta at 
base of meso- and metathoracic legs. Antennae thin, reaching to first spiracle. 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria : Olokomeji near Ibadan, on Cola cordifolia, 
iii.1961 (E. A. J.). 

Paratypes ; five pupal cases collected with the holotype, and nine pupal cases at 
the same site on Acanthocleista vogelii, iii.1961 (E. A. J.). 

This new species is put in the genus in view of the sub-marginal pores. It differs 
in shape from all other species described in Dialeurolonga. In general appearance 
it shows similarities to Dialeurodes shoreae Corbett from Malaya, but that species has 
a series of setae in the sub-margin, not in the sub-dorsum. 

NEOMASKELLIA Quaintance & Baker, 1913 
Type-species : Aleyrodes comata Maskell, 1896. 

The transversely oval vasiform orifice of species included in this genus is quite 
distinctive. The lingula is broader than long, exposed by the very short operculum. 



i 5 o L. A. MOUND 

Neomaskellia bergii (Signoret, 1868) 

A pest of sugar cane in the tropics from Mauritius to the Pacific, this species is 
also to be found on other members of the Gramineae. It has been recorded from the 
upper reaches of the River Niger in West Africa by Mimeur (1946), and material in 
the British Museum has come from the following African territories ; Gambia, 
Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Cameroons, Principe, Sao Thome, Sudan, Uganda, Tanganyika, 
Malawi, and South Africa. In most cases the host is referred to as a grass, but 
material from Eastern Nigeria was collected on leaves of Raffia Palm. 

At Ibadan, Nigeria, colonies of both nymphs and adults were observed on Pennisetum 
purpureum leaves protected by Crematogaster sjostedti. The ants had built tunnels 
of earth and plant fragments about one centimetre high and up to ten centimetres 
long over the colonies of whitefly, which they were apparently soliciting for honeydew. 
When the ants were prevented from reaching the whitefly, the honeydew accumulated 
on the leaves and these rapidly became covered by a black sooty mould. 

PEALIUS Quaintance & Baker, 1914 

Type-species : Aleyrodes maskellii Bemis, 1904. 

Species included in this genus have the floor of the vasiform orifice dissected by 
many ridges and the lingula exposed, usually with a D-shaped tip. The type- 
species P. maskellii has a series of fine sub-marginal setae and a crenulate margin from 
which the tracheal pore areas are not greatly differentiated. The two species des- 
cribed here may be separated as follows : 

A. Orifice and eighth adominal setae in a cordate depression . . . P. ezeigwi. 

B. Orifice and setae not so situated ........ P. fici. 

Pealius fici sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 46-48) 

Pupal case : White, with a waxy palisade on leaf. Oval, rather tapered to posterior, widest 
across transverse moulting suture. Length o-6o to 0-62 mm. Breadth 0*30 to 0-32 mm. 

Margin : Smoothly crenulate, on hairy leaves extended vertically and deeply emarginate due 
to the proximity of leaf hairs during development. Thoracic tracheal pore areas indicated by 
slightly strengthened crenulations with a small lobe 5 fi long dorsally. Minute anterior and 
posterior marginal setae present. 

Dorsal surface : Eight pairs of sub-marginal setae on both cephalothorax and abdomen. 
Fifth and seventh pair from anterior small, 5 /*, on hairy leaves first abdominal also small. 
Remaining setae up to 50 /x long, but on glabrous leaves only about 25 ja. On glabrous leaves 
sub-marginal setae in a single row, on hairy leaves (includes holotype) sixth and eighth from 
anterior often more or less on sub-dorsum, giving appearance of dorsal setae. All the setae on 
distinct tubercles. Paired dorsal setae on cephalic and eighth abdominal segments, the latter 
very small. Transverse moulting suture reaches margin, second abdominal suture bends to 
anterior. Anterior border of segment eight confluent with posterior border of segment six, 
apparently only seven segments in mid-line. Segmental tubercles weakly developed in sub- 
dorsal region. Paired sub-median depressions on anterior margin of meso- and metathorax, and 
abdominal segments one to six. Five similar depressions in cephalic region. Vasiform orifice 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 151 

almost semi-circular but widely open at posterior. Inner surface of orifice and caudal furrow 
dissected by anastomosing ridges. Operculum sub-rectangular, postero-lateral corners slightly 
elevated. Lingula exposed, D-shaped tip bears two proximal lobes. 

Ventral surface : Thoracic tracheal folds not defined, anterior abdominal spiracles clear. No 
setae seen at base of legs. Antennae short with a narrow hooked tip. 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria : Ibadan, Moor Plantation, Ficus asperifolia, 
13.vii.1960 (M. 0. E.). 

Paratypes ; four pupal cases collected with the holotype ; twenty-eight pupal cases 
on Ficus sp., Nigeria : Ibadan, 16.V.1956 (V. F. E.) ; four pupal cases on Ficus 
asperifolia, Agege near Lagos, viii.1960 (M. 0. E.) ; fourteen pupal cases on Ficus 
asperifolia, Samaru near Zaria, x.1960 (M. 0. E.). 

The leaves of Ficus asperifolia are very hirsute, whereas the leaves of the plant 
recorded above as Ficus sp. are described in the collector's note-book as being com- 
pletely smooth. At first sight the pupal cases from these two sources are quite 
different, but they are here considered to be conspecific for two reasons. Firstly 
because not all the specimens from hairy leaves have the sixth and eighth sub-marginal 
setae on the dorsum, and secondly because this type of variation of pupal cases, 
depending on the nature of the host plant, is quite widespread in the Aleyrodidae. 

This species is closely related to Pealius longspinus Takahashi (1932) described from 
Ficus beechyana in Taipeh. This latter species differs in having several additional 
pairs of elongate sub-marginal setae; on the cephalo-thorax, one, three, six, and eight, 
and on the abdomen, two, three, six, seven and eight. In the paratypes of P. 
longispinus examined by the present author the eighth sub-marginal setae of the 
cephalo-thorax were not always as far dorsal in position as is indicated by the original 
figure. Corbettella artocarpi (Corbett, 19356) is closely similar to the form of P. fici 
from glabrous leaves, but unfortunately the material referred to in that publication 
is not available. 

Pealius ezeigwi sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 40-41) 

Pupal case : 0-70 x 0-50 mm. On the lower surface of leaves, white, with a little wax. Oval 
in shape, rather transverse at anterior and posterior, broadest across transverse moulting suture, 
barely constricted at thoracic pore. 

Margin : Crenulate, but not regularly so (20 in o-i mm.). Anterior and posterior marginal 
setae present. Cephalo-thoracic sub-margin with eight pairs of setae on large setal bases, and 
abdomen with eight pairs including caudal setae. Thoracic tracheal pores indicated by slight 
constriction of pupal case and differentiation of marginal crenulations. 

Dorsal surface : Flat, with no large setae, but with small cephalic and eighth abdominal setae. 
Sub-median area weakly defined by a series of segmentally arranged indistinct papillae. Seg- 
mental sutures extend into sub-dorsum. Transverse moulting suture reaches margin, dividing 
dorsum into equal anterior and posterior halves. Second abdominal suture bends to anterior 
almost meeting transverse moulting suture. Segment seven occluded in mid-line as anterior 
border of eight is confluent with posterior border of six. Vasiform orifice included within a 
cordate depression which also includes eighth abdominal setae. Depression longer than distance 
of orifice from posterior margin of body. Orifice roughly triangular, inner surface clearly dissec- 



152 



L. A. MOUND 




Figs. 40-43. 40. Pealius ezeigwi — pupal case and detail of thoracic tracheal pore. 41. 
P. ezeigwi — vasiform orifice. 42. Tetraleurodes ghesquierei — pupal case and detail of 
margin. 43. T. ghesquierei — vasiform orifice. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 



153 



ted into small areas by ridges. Operculum rectangular, broader than long, postero -lateral corners 
pronounced, two pilose lobes on posterior border. Lingula short but exposed, D-shaped tip 
with two proximal papillae. Caudal furrow 0-04 mm. 

Ventral surface : Thoracic tracheal folds indicated by minute dots. Anterior and posterior 
abdominal spiracles well developed. Small paired setae anterior to rostrum and posterior 
spiracles. 

Holotype pupal case. Nigeria : Ibadan, Bora Farm, Moor Plantation, on 
undetermined plant, vii.1960 (M. 0. E.). 

Paratypes ; five pupal cases, Nigeria : Moor Plantation, Ibadan, on Maesobotrya 
barteri and Alchornia cordifolia, v, vi.1956 (E. A. J.). 

This species shows similarities to P. kelloggi (Bemis) in its vasiform orifice, marginal 
setae, and long transverse moulting suture, but differs from that species in that the 
lingula is not narrowed to the tip. It differs from P. misrae Singh in the absence of 
dorsal setae on the thorax, and in the vasiform orifice being set in a depression. 




Figs. 44-45. 44. Pogonaleyrodes zimmermanni — pupal case and detail of thoracic pore. 
45. P. zimmermanni — vasiform orifice. 



i 5 4 L - A - MOUND 

POGONALEYRODES Takahashi, 1955 

Type-species: Pogonaleyrodes fastuosaTak., 1955. 

This was erected by Takahashi as a monotypic genus. The dorsal surface of the 
pupal case bears numerous tubercles arranged into a pattern of circles on the inter- 
segmental sutures. The thoracic tracheal pores are rather ill-defined circular pores, 
and there is a well developed caudal furrow. 

Pogonaleyrodes zimmermanni (Newstead, 1911) comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 44-45) 
A ley r odes zimmermanni Newstead, 191 1. 

Pupal case : 0-7 x 0-5 mm. to 0-9 x o-6 mm. May occur on both lower and upper surfaces 
of leaves, occasionally on petioles. White, with a small waxy palisade. Oval to broadly oval in 
shape, widest across second abdominal segment. Slightly constricted at thoracic tracheal pores, 
rather more emarginate at posterior pore. Margin slightly thickened, appearing convex. 

Margin : Vertical and palisade-like, appearing very finely irregular in mounted specimens. 
Paired anterior and posterior marginal setae small, ventral in mounted specimens and difficult to 
demonstrate. Cephalo-thoracic margin with six pairs of setae, abdomen with eight pairs, each 
mounted on a tubercle. These setae are hooked in mounted pupal cases, but may not be truly 
chitinous. Between each of the setal bases there are from four to eight similar but smaller 
tubercles. Typical caudal setae absent. Thoracic tracheal pores present as rather ill-defined 
circular pores. 

Dorsal surface : With many papillae, forming distinctive pattern of circles on intersegmental 
sutures. About five papillae in posterior part of each circle, four in anterior part. A row of 
papillae along sixth and seventh abdominal sutures, and along anterior portion of longitudinal 
moulting suture. Similar papillae sometimes scattered throughout subdorsum. Simple pores 
on abdomen in four pairs of longitudinal rows. Small paired setae on cephalic, first, and eighth 
abdominal segments. Transverse moulting suture reaches margin, second abdominal suture 
curves forward. Seventh abdominal segment scarcely two-thirds length of six or eight which are 
sub-equal. Vasiform orifice cordate, the posterior lateral margins with a few teeth. Operculum 
broadly rectangular, rather more than half filling the orifice. Triangular knob of lingula exposed, 
included. Caudal furrow distinct, 0-05-0-08 mm. 

Ventral surface : Tracheal folds not indicated. Anterior abdominal spiracle visible, no setae 
at base of legs. Fine paired setae antero-mesad of posterior abdominal spiracles. Antennae 
short and thin, with an elongate acute tip. Legs rather stout. 

Material examined : Syntype series on leaves loaned from Humboldt University, 
Berlin. Two specimens were mounted and retained at the British Museum. Collec- 
tion data ; Tanganyika : Amani, on species of Acanthacae, ix. 1902 (A . Zimmer- 
mann) . 

Also collected in Tanganyika : South Highlands Province, on Coffea arabica at 
Tukuyu and Rungwe, xii. 1957 (R. G. Tapley). Nigeria; Moor Plantation, Ibadan, 
on unknown plant, xi. 1959 and vii. i960 (E. A. J. & M. 0. E.). 

This species was described in the genus Aleyrodes but was not recognizable from its 
description. It resembles Takahashi's figure of the type of Pogonaleyrodes from 
Madagascar in the form of the dorsal markings, the thoracic pores and the caudal 
furrow, but it differs in the absence of many small dorsal spines and the operculum 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 155 

not filling the orifice. Each pupal case of the type material is surrounded on the 
leaf by a number of eggs, but otherwise shows no differences from the other specimens 
listed above. The specimens from Coffee at Rungwe are remarkable in that some 
pupal cases were found living on the petioles of the leaves. 

TETRALEURODES Cockerell, 1902 

Type-species : Aleyrodes (Tetraleurodes) perileuca Cockerell, 1902. 

Pupal cases of species included in this genus have a strongly toothed margin 
with a vertical sculptured sub-margin elevating the dorsum. Marginal pores are 
well developed and the species are black in colour. 

Tetraleurodes ghesquierei Dozier, 1934 

(Text-fig. 42) 

Pupal case : Black, broadest across transverse moulting suture, dorsum elevated by vertical 
sub-margin. 

Margin : Each marginal tooth expanded and rugose at tip with a large pore behind in sub- 
margin. Sub-margin vertical, strongly sculptured. Tracheal pore areas not differentiated, 
anterior and posterior marginal setae not seen. 

Dorsal disc : Separated from sub-margin by fold, apparently flat. Transverse moulting 
suture almost meets first abdominal suture, then bends anteriorly to mesothorax. Meso- 
thoracic suture with a row of broad teeth on both anterior and posterior borders. Longitudinal 
moulting suture not bordered by sculpturing. Prothoracic and cephalic segmental sutures clear, 
no cephalic tubercles. Abdominal sutures clear into sub-dorsum, segment six three times length 
of seven, and twice length of eight. Rhachis defined by two pairs of laterally directed teeth on 
abdominal segments two to six. Two rows of paired segmental pores, near rhachis and in sub- 
dorsum respectively. Large setal bases on cephalic, meso- and metathoracic segments bear short, 
colourless setae with expanded apices. Similar setal bases on eighth segment bear longer acutely 
tipped setae. Caudal setae very small, close together at edge of disc. Vasiform orifice sub- 
circular with a median internal projection at posterior margin, postero-lateral borders rugose 
internally. Operculum almost quadrate, lingula obscured. Short, broad, caudal furrow 
indicated. 

Ventral surface : Obscured. 

Material examined : Syntype ; one pupal case, Congo : Barambu, on Periploca 
nigrescens, viii.1925 (/. Ghesquiere). 

Five pupal cases, Nigeria : Ibadan, on unknown plant, ii.1960 (E. A. J.). 

This species is distinguished by the almost trumpet-shaped dorsal setae, and the 
absence of cephalic tubercles. 

TRIALEURODES Cockerell, 1902 

Type-species: Aleurodes pergandei Quaintance, 1900. 

The North American species of this genus have been revised by Russell (1948), 
but African and Oriental Trialeurodes species are very poorly known. The ventral 
surface of the mature pupa is usually swollen, elevating the dorsal surface from the 
leaf, and there is a vertical waxy palisade. Generally colourless and fragile, the most 



'56 



L. A. MOUND 




Figs. 46-50. 46. Pealius fici — -pupal case from glabrous leaf. 47. P. fid — pupal case from 
hairy leaf. 48. P. fici — vasiform orifice and caudal margin. 49. Trialeurodes desmodii — 
vasiform orifice and sixth abdominal suture. 50. T. desmodii — mesothoracic leg, spiracle, 
and associated setae. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 157 

conspicuous characters are the sub-marginal papillae with wax secreting pores, and 
the trilobed lingula in the cordate orifice. The three species recorded from West 
Africa may be separated as follows: 

A Sub-marginal papillae all equal in size ....... T. ricini 

B Sub-marginal papillae not all equal in size ...... T. desmodii 

C No true sub-marginal papillae, sub-margin with circular groups of pores . T. hargreavesi 

Trialeurodes desmodii Corbett, 1935 
(Text-figs. 49-50) 
Trialeurodes lubia El Khider & Khalifer, 1962. syn. n. 

Pupal case : 0-50 x 0-30 mm. to 0-70 x 0-45 mm. Smaller specimens probably males, but 
small specimens also found on hairy leaves. White, with wax palisade and long marginal wax 
filaments. Elliptical in shape, occasionally on upper surface of leaves. 

Margin : Irregularly crenulate (28 in o-i mm.). Posterior marginal setae almost 20 /j, long, 
anterior marginal setae minute, 5 /x long. Thoracic tracheal pore area barely indicated, posterior 
pore composed of four or five strong crenulations. 

Dorsal surface : Sub-margin with more than sixty papillae, usually between 68 and 72. On 
glabrous leaves papillae arranged in a single row, none on dorsum. On hairy leaves papillae 
apparently in two rows, also a pair of papillae on dorsum of cephalic, prothoracic and second 
abdominal segments. Sub-marginal disc pores mesad of papillae, caudal setae long, their bases 
distal to papillae. Transverse moulting suture ends almost opposite its midpoint. Anterior 
margin of abdominal segment eight confluent or almost confluent with posterior margin of 
segment six, segment seven thus occluded in mid-line. Paired short setae on cephalic, first and 
eighth abdominal segments, the latter rather more than half width of orifice in length, arising 
postero-laterally to anterior margin of operculum. Vasiform orifice cordate, length and breadth 
about equal, 50 ft, anterior rim 10 /u long. Orifice emarginate at posterior, margins curve to 
anterior to meet an internal tooth. Internal lateral margins with fine teeth. Operculum fills 
two-thirds of orifice exposing tip and one pair of sub-apical lobes of lingula. Caudal furrow 
particularly developed on pupal cases from hairy leaves, 50 // to 60 fi. 

Ventral surface : Meso- and metathoracic legs with two stout setae at base, one large (5 /u) and 
one small, on a more heavily sclerotized area, just mesad of this a minute fine seta. Prothoracic 
leg with one stout seta. Anterior abdominal spiracles not seen. 

Material examined : Syntypes ; two pupal cases, Sierra Leone : Njala, on 
Desmodium lasiocarpum, 13.xii.1932 (E. Hargreaves). Three paratypes of T. lubia 
with about fifty pupal cases from the type series of that species all bearing the same 
data, Sudan : Shembat-Khartoum, on Dolichos lablab and various hosts, ix.1959 
{El Khidir). Nigeria : Ibadan, Moor Plantation, many specimens on Desmodium 
lasiocarpum, Euphorbia heterophylla, and Cor chorus sp., iv-vi.1956 (V. F. E. & 
E. A. J.), also at the same site on Dolichos, vi.1929 (F. D. Golding). 

This species does not fit into any of the North American species groups of Trialeu- 
rodes denned by Russell (1948). It was not recognizable from its original description 
and a relationship to T. vaporariorum had been tentatively suggested. It differs 
from that species in several important respects, notably the large setae at the base 
of the legs, the anterior rim of the orifice, and the relatively long operculum. The 
strong setae at the base of the legs are mentioned in the description of T. lubia, but 



i 5 8 L. A. MOUND 

the anterior rim around the vasiform orifice is confused in the figure of that species 
with the pockets of the eighth abdominal segment, and the internal opening of the 
orifice is apparently labelled as the operculum. The position of the sub-marginal 
disc pores relative to the sub-marginal papillae, a very useful character pointed out by 
Russell, was not indicated in the description of either species. T. desmodii is clearly 
widely distributed across Africa and the present author has recently received material 
apparently of this species from Bangalore, India. It seems possible that T. rara 
Singh (1931) may eventually be found to be an older name for this insect, but the 
Indian Collection is not available. 

Trialeurodes hargreavesi Corbett, 1935 

Material examined : Two pupal cases, the paratypes ; Sierra Leone : Njala, on 
Lindernia diffusa, 19.xii.1932 (E. Hargreaves). 

The paratypes of this species are too poor to attempt a redescription without 
additional material. The original figure does not agree completely with these two 
specimens, in particular the sub-marginal pores are arranged in quite distinct circular 
clusters involving from five to fifteen pores. The number varies in the two speci- 
mens, but more particularly, as Corbett figured, from anterior to posterior in the 
same specimen. Moreover the lingula tip is more rounded than the figure indicates 
and extends beyond the posterior margin of the orifice. The species is by no means a 
typical Trialeurodes, but is possibly related to the Indian species T. breyniae Singh 
(1931).* 

Trialeurodes ricini (Misra, 1924) 

Material examined : One pupal case, Nigeria : Ibadan, Moor Plantation, on 
ipomoea batata, xii.1960 (M. 0. E.) ; one pupal case, Akure, on a Labiate species, 
vii.1956 (V. F. E.). 

The identity of this species is not known for certain as the Indian collection of 
Singh is not available. The two specimens referred to above are provisionally 
identified as T. ricini as they have a uniform row of equal sized sub-marginal papillae, 
each with a pore at its base. Apart from this they are clearly very closely related to 
T. desmodii, with which species they have many characters in common. 

REFERENCES 

(**not seen by author) 

**Ashmead, W. H. 1885. Florida Dispatch, ns. 11. (ex Quaintance and Baker 1917). 

Bemis, F. E. 1904. The Aleyrodids, or mealy -winged flies of California, with reference to other 

American species. Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 27 : 471-537, Pis. 26-37. 
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1902. Classification of Aleyrodidae. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 

54 : 279-283, pi. 15. 
Corbett, G. H. 1935 (August). On New Aleurodidae (Hem.). Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 

16 : 240-252, 7 figs. 

*A recent examination of the type material of Lipaleyrodes phyllanthi Takahashi, 1962, from 
Madagascar, has confirmed that T. hargreavesi should be placed in the genus Lipaleyrodes. 



ALEYRODIDAE OF WESTERN AFRICA 159 

Corbett, G: H. 1935 (November). Malayan Aleurodidae. J.F.M.S.Mus. 17: 722-852, 105 figs. 

1936. New Aleurodidae (Hem.). Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 5 : 18-22, 6 figs. 

Dozier, H. L. 1928. Two new Aleyrodid (Citrus) pests from India and the South Pacific. 

J. agric. Res. 36 : 1001-1005, 5 figs. 

1934- Descriptions of new genera and species of African Aleyrodidae. Ann. Mag. nat. 

Hist. (10) 14 : 184-192, 2 pis., 2 figs. 

El Khidir, I. & Khalifer, A. 1962. A new Aleyrodid from the Sudan. Proc. R. ent. Soc. 

Lond. (B) 31 : 47-51, 6 figs. 
Gennadius, P. 1889. Ellenike Georgia (Greek Agriculture) (Athens), pp. (i)-3- 
Ghesquiere, J., in Mayne, R. & Ghesquiere, J. 1934. H6mipteres nuisables aux veg6taux 

du Congo Beige. Ann. Gembl. 40 : 41 pp, 10 pis, 11 figs. 
Hussey, N. W. & Gurney, B. 1957. Trialeurodes sonchi Kotinsky a synonym of T. vapora- 

riorum Westwood (Hem., Aleyrodidae). Ent. Mon. Mag. 93 : 254. 
Kotinsky, J. 1907. Aleyrodidae of Hawaii and Fiji with descriptions of new species. Bull. 

Div. Ent. Hawaii. 2 : 93-103, pi. 1. 
Maskell, W. M. 1896. Contributions towards a monograph of the Aleurodidae, a family of 

Hemiptera-Homoptera. Trans. N.Z. Inst. 28 : 411-449. 
Mimeur, J. M. 1946. Neomaskellia bergii Signoret (Hemiptere-Aleurodidae) en A.O.F. 

Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. Maroc. 24 : 89. 
Misra, C. 1924. The citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri, in India and its parasites, together with 

the life history of Aleyrodes ricini n. sp. Proc. 5//1 ent. Mtg. Pusa (1923) : 129-135. 
Mound, L. A. 1961. A new genus and four new species of whitefly from ferns (Homoptera, 

Aleyrodidae). Rev. Zool. Bot. afr. 64 : 127-132. 
1962. Studies on the olfaction and colour sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homop- 
tera, Aleyrodidae). Ent. exp. &• appl. 5 : 99-104. 
1963. Host correlated variation in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). 

Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 38 : 171-180, 17 figs. 
Newstead, R. 191 1. On a collection of Coccidae and Aleurodidae, chiefly African, in the 

collection of the Berlin Zoological Museum. Mitt. zool. Mtis. Berl. 5 : 153-174. 
1921. A new Southern Nigerian Aleurodes (Aleurodidae). Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 1921 : 

528-529. 
Pearson, E. O., in Hutchinson, J. B. & Knight, R. L. 1950. Response of cotton to leaf curl 

disease (Appendix on distribution of cotton virus and Bemisia in Africa). J. Genet. 50 : 

IOO-III. 

Priesner, H. & Hosny, M. 1934. Contributions to a knowledge of the whiteflies (Aleurodidae) 
of Egypt (III). Bull. Minist. Agric. Egypt. No. 145 : 11 pp., 9 pis. 1 fig. 

Quaintance, A. L. 1900. Contributions toward a monograph of the American Aleurodidae. 
Bull. U.S. Bur. Ent. 8 : 1-43, pis. 1-8. 

1903- New Oriental Aleurodidae. Canad. Ent. 35 : 61-64. 

Quaintance, A. L. & Baker, A. C. 1913. Classification of the Aleyrodidae. Pt. I. Bull. 

U.S. Bur. Ent. 27 : 1-93, 34 pis. 
1914- Classification of the Aleyrodidae. Pt. II. Bull. U.S. Bur. Ent. 27 : 95-109, 

Pis. 34-35- 
I9 T 7- A contribution to our knowledge of the whiteflies of the sub-family Aleyrodinae 

(Aleyrodidae). Proc. U.S. not. Mus. 51 : 335-445, Pis. 32-37. 
Risbec, J., in Bouriquet, G. 1954. Le vanillier et la vanille dans le monde. Edition Paul 

Lechevalier, Paris. 
Russell, L. M. 1948. The North American species of whiteflies of the genus Trialeurodes. 

Misc. Publ. U.S. Dep. Agric. 635 : 85 pp, 34 figs. 

1958. Synonyms of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) . Bull. 

Brooklyn ent. Soc. 52 : 122-123. 

1960. A taxonomic study of the genus Corbettia Dozier. Rev. Zool. Bot. afr. 62 : 120-137, 

2 figs. 



!6o L. A. MOUND 

Russell, L. M. 1962. New name combinations and notes on some African and Asian species of 

Aleyrodidae (Homoptera). Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 57 : 63-65. 
Signoret, V. 1868. Essai monographique sur les Aleurodes. Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 8 : 369-402. 
Singh, K. 1931. A contribution to our knowledge of the Aleyrodidae (whiteflies) of India. 

Mem. Dep. Agric. India. Ent. 12 : 98 pp, 37 pis. 

1940. Notes on Aleurodidae (Rhynchota) from India. II. Rec. Indian Mus. 42 : 453- 

456. 
Takahashi, R. 1932. Aleyrodidae of Formosa I. Rept. Dept. Agric. Formosa 59 : 57 pp, 

34 figs. 

1 95 1. Some species of Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) from Madagascar with a species from 

Mauritius. Mem. Inst. sci. Madagascar 6A : 353-385, 19 figs. 

1955- Some species of Aleyrodidae from Madagascar III. (Homoptera). Mem. Inst. sci. 

Madagascar 6E : 375-441, 42 figs. 




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CICADELLINE TYPES ^ui 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY) 
(HOMOPTERA : CICADELLIDAE) 



D. A. YOUNG 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 4 

LONDON: 1965 



CICADELLINE TYPES 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

HOMOPTERA : CICADELLIDAE 




BY 

D. A. YOUN 



North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.tt., U.S.A 



'-fJ 

igh, N.<^U. 



Pp. 161-I99 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 4 

LONDON: 1965 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(natural history), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 17, No. 4 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1965 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 21 September, 1965 Price Thirteen Shillings 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

(HOMOPTERA : CICADELLIDAE) 1 

By D. A. YOUNG 2 

SYNOPSIS 
This is written to stabilize the identities of a number of taxa of the subfamily Cicadellinae 
(until recently referred to as Tettigellinae) in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). This is done in 
preparation for a revision of the genera of the subfamily now in preparation by the author. 

This work was made possible by a leave of absence for research from North Carolina 
State University in Raleigh, and financial support from that institution and the 
National Science Foundation. I am indebted to Dr. W. E. China, Mr. R. J. Izzard 
and to Mr. J. P. Doncaster of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) for their assistance in 
every way possible during my visit to their institution. 

There follows a list of taxa arranged alphabetically by specific names. A specimen 
in each of these taxa has been labeled as holotype or lectotype, in the B.M. (N.H.), 
by the writer. The name of each taxon is followed by a comma (,) and a coded 
reference to the original description of the taxon. The code is the same as that used 
in Metcalf's Bibliography of the Homoptera or in his Bibliography of the Cicadelloidea 
(see " Literature Cited ", below), which may be consulted for full bibliographic 
citations. The coded reference is followed by a colon (:), after which is cited the 
page number of the original description. This is followed by a listing of the kind of 
type specimen at hand (unless otherwise indicated, lectotypes are those designated 
in the present publication). This is followed by a description of the label (s) borne 
by the specimen, each label being enclosed in quotation marks and the individual 
lines of the label (s) separated by a semicolon (;). 

Unless otherwise indicated, the types in the following list agree with the original 
description. Illustrations and/or notes of the diagnostic characters of the taxa 
have been made and will be published later in the larger paper. Additional speci- 
mens other than the types have been frequently mentioned, with the idea that authors 
who might wish to borrow specimens might know of their existence. No effort has 
been made to list the total number of specimens in each taxon. 

A very large percentage of the taxa described by Fowler in the Biologia Centrali- 
Americana bear a label which states : " B.C. A. Homopt. II " and the name of the 
taxon. In the interest of saving space, such labels are referred to hereinafter merely 
as " the B.C.A. label ". 

1 Contribution from the Entomology Department, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. Published with the approval of the Director of Research as Paper No. 1854 of 
the Journal Series. 

2 Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.A. 



i6 4 D. A. YOUNG 

It was possible, in the case of a number of species of Francis Walker, to label one 
of the specimens of the type series as " holotype " because of Walker's early practice 
(abandoned by him later) in which he cited his specimens " a,b, c " etc. in the original 
description. A description in which "a" alone appeared is regarded as sufficient 
grounds for designating a holotype, if the specimen can be located. 

Concerning the references, below, to the coloured illustrations of Signoret and 
Fowler, it should be stated that the method of colour printing was not adequate for 
uniform reproduction. The remarks apply to comparisons made with the copies 
available to the present writer — good reproductions in the case of Signoret 's work ; 
mediocre in the case of the Fowler species. 

acuta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 773. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" 103. Tettigonia acuta.". It agrees with the interpretation of Young and 
Davidson (1959a : 19). 

addita, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 737. Lectotype with abdomen and legs 
missing, with labels : " Type " and " 26. Tettigonia addita." and " Java ". 
This was the only specimen found, of the original four specimens. It agrees with 
the original description except that the black spot at the base of the face is obscure. 

admittens, Proconia Walker, 1858 : 227. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Proconia admittens." and " Mex.". The original description is very poor. 

aemilia, Aulacizes Distant, 1908b : 75. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Aulacizes ; aemilia ; type Dist." and " Bolivia. ; Toungas de la Paz. ; 1903- 
188.". This is the only specimen in the collection. 

aequa, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 265. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Tettigonia ; aequa. Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Cuernavaca, ; Morelos. ; June, 
H. H. S." and the B. C. A. label. The original description was not precise, and 
the original illustration less so. 

aestuans, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 750. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " 54. Tettigonia aestuans." and " W. Coast ; of ; America ". One of the 
fore wings is missing. It agrees fairly well with Signoret's illustration (1853b : plate 
8, fig. 9), except that the non-black portions of the crown and pronotum are burnt 
orange in colour. 

affinis, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 206. Lectotype with abdomen missing, 
with labels : " Type ; H. T." and " affinis ; type Dist." and " Assam ; Mar- 
gherita " and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". 

alalia, Aulacizes Distant, 1908b : 76. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Aulacizes ; alalia ; type Dist." and " Bolivia ; Toungas de la Paz. ; 1903-188.". 

albicans, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 214. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" albicans " and " Braz. ; Santarem " and " T. albicans ; TYPE Walk.". 

albiceps, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 265. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Tettigonia ; albiceps. Fowler ; TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; Cham- 
pion." and the B.C. A. label. This is the only specimen in the collection. The 
original illustration is not very good. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 165 

albida, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 767. Holotype with abdominal apex missing, 
with labels : " Type " and " 91. Tettigonia albida." and " Port Natal ". 

albida, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : yyy. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" 112. Tettigonia albida." and " Mexico ". 

albidicans, Tettigonia Walker, 1858a : 96. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " albidicans Walk " and " Sylhet " and " 68.4 ". This is the only specimen 
in the collection. 

albidipennis, Aulacizes Fowler, 1899a : 217. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Aulacizes ; albidipennis. Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Tierra Colorada ; 
Guerrero, 2,000 ft. ; Oct. H. H. Smith " and the B.C. A. label. The specimen 
is teneral. The markings of the anterior portion of the pronotum are smaller and 
more numerous than in the original illustration. 

albidonotata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 250. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; albidonotata Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; 
Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The portion of the original description con- 
cerning " minute white scales " is inaccurate. 

albidula, Tettigonia Walker, 1870b : 305. Lectotype g with labels : " Type " 
and " albidula " and "68.4 " and " N. Gui ; Wallace " and " N ". 

albigutta, Tettigonia W T alker, 1851b : 753. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " 61. Tettigonia albigutta.". Signoret's illustration (1853b, pi. 9, fig. 6) was 
fairly accurate. 

albofasciata, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 756. Holotype £ with labels : " Type " 
and " 89. Tettigonia albofasciata." and " S. americ ". This is the only specimen 
in the collection. 

albomaculata, Tettigonia Distant, 1879b : 62. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 
H. T." and " albomaculata ; type Dist." and " R. Susio. ; Costa Rica. ; H. 
Rogers." and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". The original description erroneously 
specified a transverse fascia at the apex of the fore wings. The fascia is actually 
at the base of the fore wings. 

alcmena, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 219. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type ; 
H. T." and " Tettigoniella ; alcmena ; type ; Dist." and " Margherita ; Assam " 
and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". The specimen had been damaged by mould. 

alpha, Oncometopia Fowler, 1899b : 232. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and "Oncometopia; alpha. Fowler.; TYPE." and " O. undata <$ ; var. or 
sp. n." and " Ciudad, Mex. ; 8100 ft. ; Forrer." and the B.C.A. label. 

amalda, Apulia Distant, 1908a : 527. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Apulia ; amalda ; type ; Dist." and " Kew ; Granada ". 

amalthea, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 212. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 
H. T." and " amalthea ; type Dist." and " Maskeliya, ; Ceylon. ; August." 
and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". 

amida, Amblydisca Distant, 1908b : 70. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 
" Amblydisca ; amida ; type Dist." and " Cachabe, ; low c, XI. 96. ; (Rosen- 
berg)." and " Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". There are three other specimens 
in the collection, a teneral <$ and two $. 

5§ 



166 D. A. YOUNG 

amoena, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 759. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and "73. Tettigonia amoena." and " Vene- ; zuela ". The original description 
is very poor in that the specimen (which is teneral) is not black and the markings 
of the crown are not united on the face. There is one additional teneral $ in the 
collection. 

amulae, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 252. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; amulae Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Amula, ; Guerrero, ; 6000 ft. ; 
Sept. H. H. Smith.". The specimen is teneral. It agrees with the original 
description except that there is no central line on the pronotum and the form is 
not robust. There are two additional teneral $ in the collection. 

anceps, Oncometopia Fowler, 1899c : 234. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Oncometopia ; anceps Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Las Mercedes, ; 3000 ft. ; 
Champion." and the B.C.A. label. There is an additional ^ in the collection. 

anceps, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 279. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 
" T. anceps ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft. ; Champion.". 
The lectotype is the specimen behind which I placed a red mark. It is glued to a 
card which bears three additional specimens. The original illustration is not 
very good. 

angularis, Tettigonia Walker, 1857b : 167. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " angularis Walk " and " Sar." and " Wallace " and "68.4." 

angulifera, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 771. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " 
and "99. Tettigonia angulifera." and " N-f-dland.". It agrees with Young and 
Davidson's recent interpretation (1959a : 7). 

angustula, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 291. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " T. angustula ; Fowler " and " Xucumanatlan, ; Guerrero. ; 7000 ft. ; July. 
H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. The lectotype, behind which I placed a red 
mark, is one of two $ on the same card. The lectotype is darker than originally 
illustrated. 

angustula var. immaculata, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 292. Lectotype $ with 
labels : " Type " and " T. angustula ; v. immaculata ; Fowler. TYPE." and 
" Amula, ; Guerrero, 6000 ft. ; Aug. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. Three 
£ are incorrectly associated with the lectotype. 

angustus, Rhaphirrhinus Walker, 1851b : 806. Holotype <$ with labels : 
" Type " and " 5. Raphirhinus angustus." and " Ent. Club. ; 44-12." 

anita, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 281. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Tettigonia ; anita Fowler ; TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; Champion." 
and the B.C.A. label. I placed a red mark behind the lectotype, one of two 
specimens glued to the same card. There is an additional <$ in the collection. 

annandalei, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 140. Lectotype $ with labels : 
" Type " and " Tettigoniella ; annandalei ; type Dist." and " Talum ; 19 [one 
digit obscured by pin-holes] 02 ". The specimen is teneral and the hind legs are 
missing. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 167 

annuligera, Proconia Walker, 1858b : 232. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Proconia annuligera." and " Petropolis ; Feby. 1857. ; J. Gray.". This is 
the only specimen in the collection. 

antica, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 771. Holotype $ with labels : '" Type " and 

" E. Doubleday. ; Trenton Falls, ; New York.". It agrees with the interpretation 

of Young and Davidson (1959a : 11). 
aphrophoroides, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 250. Lectotype $ with labels : 

" Type." and " Tettigonia ; aphrophoroides ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Xucu- 

manatlan, ; Guerrero, ; 7000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. 

It is the only one of the four (conspecific) specimens which agrees with the original 

illustration. 
apicalis, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 736. Lectotype <$ with labels : ' Type " 

and " 24. Tettigonia apicalis." and " China ". 
appropinquans, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 247. Lectotype <$ with labels : 

" Type " and " Tettigonia ; appropinquans ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Chil- 

pancingo ; Guerrero, 4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. 

The lectotype is one of a pair of specimens glued to the same card. The original 

description is poor. 
apulia, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 523. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; apulia ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". 

This is the only specimen in the collection. 
argentigutta, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 215. Holotype <j> with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia argentigutta." and " Constancia ; Jany 1857. ; J. Gray.". 
assamensis, Tettigonia Distant, 1880b : 203. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " assamensis ; (type) Dist " and " Assam " and " Distant Coll. ; 

1911-383.". There is an additional <$ in the collection. 

aterrima, Phera Fowler, 1899a : 224. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Phera ; aterrima. ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Tierra Colorada, ; Guerrero, ; 
2,000 ft. ; Oct. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. It is the only specimen in 
the collection. Except that the crown is bluntly rounded and that the pronotum 
is distinctly rugose, the specimen agrees with the original description. The wing 
apices have been broken off. 

atomaria, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 792. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and "5. Aulacizes atomaria." and " 88 ; a ". The original description is not 
very good. 

atra, Proconia W'alker, 1851b : 789. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and " 19. 
Proconia atra." and " Honduras ". This specimen had been studied by Dr. 
Heinz Schroder. 

atrata, Phera Fowler, 1899a : 222. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and " Phera 
atrata ; Fowler. TYPE " and " S. Geronimo, : Guatemala. ; Champion." and 
the B.C.A. label. The head is more produced and the colour is darker than in the 
original illustration. There is an additional <$ topotype in the collection. 



168 D. A. YOUNG 

atronotata, Kolla Distant, 1918b : 10. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 
" Kolla ; atronotata ; type Dist." and " Kodai Kanal ; S. India. Campbell." 
and " S. India ; E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60." and " 654 ". There are four additional 
specimens in the collection. 

attenuata, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 766. Holotype specimen without abdomen, 
with labels : " Type " and " Hong Kong " and " Tettigonia attenuata." 

aulaeata, Amblydisca Fowler, 1898a : 212. Lectotype $ with labels : "Type" and 
" Amblydisca ; auleata Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Chontales, ; Nicaragua. ; 
Janson." and the B.C.A. label. It agrees fairly well with the original illustration, 
but the markings of the crown are black, and the paler markings of the fore wings 
are flesh-colour. There is a teneral topotypic $ and another $ in the collection. 

auriculata, Kolla Distant, i92of : 470. Holotype $ with labels : " Type ; H. T." 
and " Kolla ; auriculata ; type Dist." and " U. Houadou R. ; New Caledonia ; 
4.8.14. P.D.M.". and " New Caledonia. ; P. D. Montague. ; 1917-87 ". It is 
the only specimen in the collection. 

aurigena, Proconia Walker, 1858b : 228. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Proconia aurigena." and " Vera Cruz ". 

auriplena, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 214. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia auriplena." and " Tejuca ; Jany 1857 '> J- Gray.". There is an 
additional <$ in the collection. 

aurolineata, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 283. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; aurolineata ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Chilpancingo, ; Guer- 
rero, 4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith.". The lectotype is adjacent to a red mark 
I placed on the card to which two $ were glued. The markings are orange ; not 
orange-red as stated in the original description. There is also a $ in the collection. 

avella, Onega Distant, 1908a : 528. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 
" Onega ; avella ; type Dist." and " Cotypes, Breddin. ; Purch. of Haensch. ; 
Tettigonia ; spec, nov." and " Baiza ; (Ecuad.) ; R. Haensch S." and " 129 " 
and " 1903-322.". This is the only specimen in the collection. It agrees fairly 
well with the original description except that both clavus and corium are reticulate- 
veined. 

azeka, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 523. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigoniella ; azeka ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906 ; 263.". 

badia, Proconia Walker, 1851a : 786. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
"12. Proconia badia.". 

baluensis, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 141. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigoniella ; baluensis ; type Dist." and " Kina Balu. ; 95-226.". It 
agrees fairly well with the original description, but the face is not flattened. 

basalis, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 795. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
"11. Aulacizes basalis." and " Vene- ; zuela ". It is the only specimen in the 
collection. All but one of the legs are missing. 

basimacula, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 746. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " 46. Tettigonia basimacula." and " Tejuca ; Jany. 1857. > J- Gray.". 
There is also a <$ in the collection. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 169 

batesi, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 62. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Oncometopia ; batesi Dist. ; type " and " Amaz " and " 68.4 ". It is the 

only specimen in the collection. 
bella, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 778. Holotype 9 with labels : " Type " and 

" 114. Tettigonia bella." and " N. ; India ". There is a series of additional 

specimens of both sexes. 
bellona, Tettigoniella Distant, ic)o8g : 212. Lectotype $ with labels : ' Type ; 

H. T." and " bellona ; type Dist." and " Ruby Mines ; (Doherty) " and " Distant 

Coll. ; 1911-383.". There is also a J in the collection. 
bifacies, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 213. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia bifacies." and " Tejuca ; Jany 1857. ; H. Clark.". It is the 

only specimen in the collection. 
bilineata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 257. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; bilineata ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Rincon, ; Guerrero, ; 

2800 ft. ; Oct. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. It disagrees with the original 

illustration in that the anterior margin of the head is not semi-circular. There 

are several additional specimens in the collection. 
biolleyi, Diestostemma Distant, 1908b : 81. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " Diestostemma ; biolleyi ; type Dist." and " Cervantes 174 ; (Atl.) 

1400 m. ; V 1906. ; P. Biolley ". There is an additional J in the collection. 
boliviano, Trichogonia Distant, 1908a : 515. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type " 

and " Trichogonia ; boliviana ; type Dist." and " Bolivia. ; Toungas de la Paz. ; 

1903-188.". 
brasiliensis, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 65. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; braziliensis ; type Dist." and " Braz." and " 68.4 ". 
brevifrons, Tettigonia W T alker, 1851b : 754. Holotype specimen without abdomen, 

with labels : " Type " and "63. Tettigonia brevifrons." and " Java ". 
brevis, Rhaphirrhinus Walker, 1851b : 807. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "7. Rhaphirhinus brevis." and " Venezu ". 
bugabensis, Amblydisca Fowler, 1898a : 210. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Amblydisca ; bugabensis ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 

ft. ; Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The specimen agrees with the original 

description and illustration but is smaller than indicated in the latter. There is 

an additional <$ in the collection. 
burmanica, Apphia Distant, 1918b : 5. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; H. T." 

and " Apphia ; burmanica ; type Dist." and " U. Burma ; Maymyo, 3500 ft. ; 

19-21 VIII 14 ; Fletcher coll " and " Pusa coll." and " Pusa coll. ; 1915-164.". 

It is the only specimen in the collection. 
butleri, Faenius Distant, 1918b : 15. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Faenius ; butleri ; type Dist." and " Kodai Kanal. ; S. India. ; T. V. Campbell." 

and " 539 " and " S. India. ; E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60.". There is one additional 

specimen in the collection. 



i 7 o D. A. YOUNG 

cachabensis, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 517. Lectotype $ with labels : 
" Type " and " Amblyscarta cachabensis ; type Dist." and " Cachabe, ; low a, 
XI. 96. ; (Rosenberg)." and " Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". There is an 
additional $ in the collection. 

caicus, Tettigonia Walker, 1862a : 318. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; caicus ; type Walk " and " Ciccus ; sp. ig." and " Rio " 
and " Miss Pascoe. ; 69-41.". It is the only specimen with typical data in the 
collection. 

Candida, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 195. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Tettigonia Candida." and " Mex." 

candidipes, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 219. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia candidipes." and " N. China. ; 54.8.". This is the only specimen 
in the collection. 

canidia, Kolla Distant, i9o8g : 226. Holotype $ with labels : " Type ; H. T." 
and " Kolla ; canidia ; type Dist." and " Sikkim " and " Distant Coll. ; 1911- 
383.". This is the only specimen in the collection. 

capito, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 66. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Oncometopia ; capito ; type ; Dist." and " Theresopolis ; 88-137.". 

cara, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 755. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Java ; 46 108 ". The abdomen is compressed and distorted. The pronotum 
is perforated by a pin hole and the head is partly detached from the pronotum. 

carissima, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 280. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia carissima ; Fowl. TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; Cham- 
pion." and the B.C. A. label. The lectotype is one of two specimens glued to the 
same card, and is adjacent to the red mark I placed on the card. There are no 
additional specimens in the collection. 

caudata, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 749. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " 51. Tettigonia caudata." and " Bolivia ; E. Doubleday ". This is the 
only specimen in the collection. 

cephalotes, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 759. Holotype specimen without abdo- 
men, with labels : " Tettigonia cephalotes " and " B. Guiana " and " Type ". 

cervina, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 250. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; cervina. Fowler. TYPE." and " Cerro Zunil ; 4000 ft. ; 
Champion.". The lectotype is one of a pair of specimens glued to the same card 
and adjacent to the red mark I placed on the card. 

chiriquensis, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 237. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; chiriquensis. ; Fowler. TYPE." and " V. de Chiriqui, ; 
2-3000 ft. ; Champion." and the B.C.A. label. The head is more strongly 
produced than in the original illustration. 

cinctipes, Ciccus Walker, 1851b : 803. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 
" 13. Ciccus cinctipes." and " Brazil ". 

cirta, Amblydisca Distant, 1908b : 70. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Amblydisca ; cirta ; type Dist." and " Cuenca ". 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 171 

civilis, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 272. Lectotype 9 with labels : "' Type " and 
' Tettigonia ; civilis Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Omilteme, ; Guerrero, 8000 ft. ; 

July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. The original illustration is not very 

accurate for the fine shades of colour of this specimen. 
clarior, Proconia Walker, 1851b : 784. Lectotype <$ with labels : "' Type " and 

" 9. Proconia clarior.". This specimen had been studied by Dr. Heinz Schroder. 
cleasa, Aulacizes Distant, 1908b : 75. Lectotype 9 with labels : ' Type " and 

" Aulacizes ; cleasa ; type Dist." and " Bolivia. ; J. Steinbach. ; 1904-311.". 
cleora, Diedrocephala Distant, 1908b : 59. Lectotype <$ with labels : ' Type " 

and " Diedrocephala ; cleora ; type Dist." and " Cachabe ; low c, XI. 96. ; 

(Rosenberg)." and " Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". 
clepsydra, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 270. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; clepsydra ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Cerro Zunil, ; 4-5000 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. 
coccinea, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 263. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " 

and " Atoyac, ; Vera Cruz. ; May. H. H. S." and " Tettigonia ; coccinea ; 

Fowler. TYPE ". There are two additional $ in the collection. 
coeruleovittata var. delineata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 277. Lectotype 9 

with labels : " Type " and " Tettigonia ; coeruleovittata ; var. delineata ; 

Fowler TYPE " and " Chilpancingo, ; Guerrero,; 4600 ft.; Sept. H.H.Smith." 

and the B.C.A. label. The lectotype, one of two 9 glued to the same card, is 

adjacent to the red mark I placed on the card. 
collata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 261. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " and 

" T. collata ; Fowler. Type." and "V. de Chiriqui, ; 25-4000 ft. ; Champion." 

and the B.C.A. label. There are four additional 9 in the collection. 
completa, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 268. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; completa ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Chilpancingo, ; Guerrero, 

4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith." 
composita, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 277. Holotype $ with labels " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; composita ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Cerro Zunil, ; 4-5000 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. The original description is poor. 
compressa, Propetes Walker, 1851b : 797. Holotype 9 with labels : " Type " and 

" 1. Propetes compressa." and " Para " and " 294 ". 
compta, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 271. Lectotype <$ with labels : ' Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; compta Fowler ; TYPE " and " Cuernavaca, ; Morelos. ; 

June H. H. S." and the B.C.A. label. The lectotype, one of two $ specimens 

glued to the same card, is adjacent to the red mark I placed on the card. 
concinna, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 755. Holotype 9 with labels : " Type " 

and "65. Tettigonia concinna." and an illegible label consisting of two characters. 

Both fore wings are missing. 
concinnula, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 287. Lectotype ^ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; concinnula ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Omilteme. ; Guerrero, 

8000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. 



i 7 2 D. A. YOUNG 

configurata, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 216. Lectotype specimen without abdo- 
men, with labels : " Type " and " Tettigonia configurata." and " Para ". The 

original description of the fore wings is poor. 
confinis, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 745. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " 44. Tettigonia confinis." and " 161 " and " 376 ". 
confinis, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 736. Lectotype $ with labels : ' Type " 

and "25. Tettigonia confinis." and " Canton ". 
congruens, Tettigonia Fowler, 18996 : 252. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; congruens ; Fowler, TYPE." and " V. de Chiriqui ; 4000-6000 

ft. ; Champion." and the B.C. A. label. There is one additional <$ in the collection. 
consistens, Proconia Walker, 1858b : 226. Holotype <J with labels : " Type " 

and " Proconia consistens." and " Mex." 
consobrina, Tettigonia Fowler, i89gd : 245. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; consobrina ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Cerro Zunil ; 4000 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The lectotype is the $ of a pair of specimens 

glued to the same card and is adjacent to a red mark I placed on the card. 
consors, Ujna Distant, i9o8g : 240. Holotype <$ with labels " Type ; H. T." and 

" Ujna ; consors ; type Dist." and " Myitta ; Doherty " and " Distant Coll. ; 

1911-383." 
conspersa, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 792. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "6. Aulacizes conspersa." and " 613 " and " not ; Aulacizes ". The 

specimen is teneral. 
conspissata, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 241. Lectotype $ with labels " Type " 

and "T. conspissata ; Fowler" : and "Senahu, ; Vera Paz. ; Champion." and the 

B.C. A. label. The marking near the anterior margin of the head is darker than 

in the original illustration. 
constans, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 198. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia constans." It is the only specimen in the collection. 
corixoides, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 240. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; corixoides. Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The original illustration is poor. There is 

one additional specimen in the collection. 
cornelia, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 521. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; cornelia ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263 ". 
cornelia, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 209. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " Cornelia. ; type Dist." and " Myitta ; Doherty " and " Distant 

Coll.; 1911-383." 
costaricensis, Tettigonia Distant, 1879b : 63. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " costaricen- ; sis Dist. ; (type) " and " Costa Rica. ; R. Suslo. ; 

H. Rogers." and " Distant Coll. ; 191 1-383.". 
crassa, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 762. Lectotype specimen without abdomen, 

with labels : " Type " and "79. Tettigonia crassa." and " Colum- ; bia ". It 

agrees with the original description, except that Walker apparently twice described 

a pair of spots on the crown of the head. There are three spots on the crown. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 173 

cumatilis, Tettigoniella Distant, i()o8f : 138. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; cumatilis ; type Dist." and " Kinta Valley, ; S. Perak. ; 

Sept.-Oct. ; H. N. Ridley. ; 1900-81.". 
cyanescens, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 760. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " 76. Tettigonia cyanescens." and " Vene ; zuela ". 
daeta, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 522. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; daeta ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". 

This is the only specimen in the collection. 
decora, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 744. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

"41. Tettigonia decora." and " Ega, Brazil ". 
decor at a, Tettigonia Walker. 1851b : 761. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " yy. Tettigonia decorata." and " 46 ; 62 ". The original description is 

not accurate for the clypellus (" epistoma ") nor for the fore wings. There is an 

additional $ in the collection. 
delicata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 269. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; delicata. Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Chilpancingo, ; Guerrero ; 

4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The lectotype is adjacent 

to the red mark I placed on a card bearing two 9 of this species. The lines on 

the wings are maroon. 
delicatula, Ujna Distant, i9o8g : 239. Holotype $ with labels : " Type ; H. T." 

and " Ujna ; delicatula ; type Dist." and " Peradeniya ; Ceylon, 4-05 " and 

" Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". It is more slender than in the original illustration. 
detrahens, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 196. Holotype specimen without abdomen, 

with labels : " Type " and " Tettigonia detrahens. " and " Mexico ". It agrees 

with the original description except for the thorax which is quite clearly marked. 
dilecta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 747. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 

" 48. Tettigonia dilecta." and " Ega ; Brazil ". The original description is 

very poor. There is a large red spot astride the jugal fold in its basal half. 
detracta, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 258. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; detracta. Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. 
diaphana, Kolla Distant, 1918b : 9. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Kolla ; diaphana ; type Dist." and " Kodai Kanal ; S. India. Campbell." 

and " 684 " and " S. India. ; E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60." and " =teneral spec ; 

of ganessa.". It is teneral, and the only specimen in the collection. 
diducta, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 274. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; diducta. Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Amula, ; Guerrero, 6000 ft.; 

Aug. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. It agrees with the original description 

but not with the original illustration, which is poor. 
diminutus, Ciccus Walker, 1861b : 801. Holotype J with labels : " Type " and 

" 9. Ciccus diminutus." and " 609 " and " Brazil ". The holotype does not agree 

very well with the original description. 
discrepans, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 212. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia discrepans." and " Constancia ; Jany. 1857. '> J- Gray.". 

5§§ 



174 D. A. YOUNG 

dispar, Oncometopia Fowler, 1899b : 229. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; dispar. Fowler ; TYPE <$ " and " Sabo, ; Vera Paz. ; 

Champion " and the B.C. A. label. The spots of the fore wing are purplish, as in 

the original illustration, not as in the original description. 
distinguenda, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 257. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; distinguenda Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Panama ; Boucard." 

and the B.C. A. label. This is the only specimen in the collection. 
dives, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 791. Holotype <j$ with labels : " Type " and " 3. 

Aulacizes dives.". 
dorsicrista, Germaria Walker, 1858a : 97. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " dorsicrista Walk " and " Amaz " and " 68.4 ". The spots of the thorax 

are not connected as stated in the original description. 
dorsivitta, Ciccus Walker, 1851b : 802. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" 10. Ciccus dorsivitta." and " Para ". 
drusilla, Abana Distant, 1908b : 73. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Abana ; drusilla ; type Dist." and " Cachabe, low c. I. 97. ; (Rosenberg)." 

and " Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". The specimen is teneral. 
dunsiriensis, Tettigoniella Distant, i908g : 214. Lectotype $ with labels : 

" Type ; H. T." and " dunsiriensis ; type Dist." and " Dunsiri Valley ; Major 

S-A " and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". The original description is not very good. 

The fore wings are missing from the lectotype, the only specimen in the collection. 
duplicaria, Tettigonia Distant, i89id : 120, and 1893a : 96. Lectotype <$ with 

labels : " Type ; H. T." and " duplicaria ; Dist." and " Machachi, ; Ecuador. ; 

9-10,000 feet. ; Ed Whymper." and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383." There are 

several additional specimens in the collection. 
eburnea, Tettigonia Walker, 1857b : 168. Lectotype J with labels : " Type " 

and " eburnea Walk " and " SAR " and " Wallace ". 
eliyana, Kolla Distant, 1918b : 10. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Kolla ; eliyana ; type Dist." and " Nuwara Eliya, ; Ceylon, HI-1911 " and 

" Ceylon. ; T. B. Fletcher. 1909-80." 
elongata, Tettigonia Walker, 1857b : 167. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " elongata Walk " and " SAR." and " Wallace " and " 68.4 ". 
elvina, Tettigonia Butler, 1874c : 673. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 

" T. elvira ; Butl." and " Amazon ; St. Paul ". This specimen is teneral and 

is the only specimen in the collection. 
eresia, Mareba Distant, 1908b : yy. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 

" Mareba ; eresia ; type Dist." and " Cachabe ; low c. XI. 96. ; (Rosenberg)." 

and " Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". This is the only specimen in the 

collection. 
erichsoni, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 137. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; ericsoni ; Dist." and " Sumatra. ; Ericson. ; 98-222.". 

The bluish and bluish gray of the head and thorax is a pruinosity. The "anal 

segment " of the original description is actually the pygofer. The collector 's 

name is mis-spelt on the locality and determination labels. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 175 

erumpens, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 256. Lectotype $ with labels : " Cerro 
Zunil ; 4-5000 ft. ; Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The original description 
omitted the pustules which occur on the fore wings, and the colours are not true 
in the original illustration. 
espriella, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 524. Holotype specimen without abdo- 
men, with labels : " Type " and " Tettigoniella ; espriella ; type ; Dist." and 
" Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". It agrees with the original description 
except that the transverse marking of the crown is yellow and the clavus is burnt 
orange. There is an additional specimen also without abdomen. 

estella, Diedrocephala Distant, 1908b : 59. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Diedrocephala ; estella ; type Dist." and " Cachabe ; low c, XII, 96. ; 
(Rosenberg)." and " Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". 

excelsa, Apulia Distant, 1908a : 525. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Apulia ; excelsa ; type Dist.". There are two additional $ in the collection. 

excludens, Proconia Walker, 1858a : 98. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " excludens Walk " and " Venez " and " 68.4 ". The specimen is moulded. 
The original description is poor. 

extricans, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 216. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia extricans." and " 52 ; 96 ; Brazil ; Santarem ". It is the only 
specimen in the collection. 

ezba, Amblydisca Distant, 1908b : 69. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Amblydisca ; ezba Dist. ; type " and " Cachabe, ; low c, I. 97. ; (Rosenberg)." 
and " Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". This is the only specimen in the collec- 
tion. The paler markings of the original description are obsolescent. 

jausta, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 198. Holotype $ with labels : "' Type " and 
" Tettigonia fausta." and " St. Dom. ; 551.". 

fetalis, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 254. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Tettigonia ; feralis. Fowler. ; $ TYPE." and " V. de Chiriqui, ; 2-3000 ft. ; 
Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The <$ mentioned in the original description 
is probably correctly associated. 

fervens, Dilobopterus Walker, 1851b : 809. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and "8. Dilobopterus fervens " and " Para ". 

figurata, Aulacizes Fowler, 1898a : 216. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Aulacizes ; figurata Fowler ; TYPE." and " Cuernavaca, ; Morelos. ; 
June. H. H. S." and the B.C.A. label. 

flaccida, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 278. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " T. flaccida ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Mexico. ; Salle Coll." and the B.C.A. 
label. 

flammeicolor, Pherodes Fowler, 1899b : 226. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Pherodes ; flammeicolor. ; Fowler TYPE." and " Teapa. ; Tabasco. ; 
H. H. S." and the B.C.A. label. The specimen is very teneral. 

flavidipes, Ujna Distant, 1917a : 313. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type ; H. T." 
and " Ujna ; flavidipes ; type Dist." and " Mahe '08-9 ; Seychelles Exp." and 
" Seychelle Islands, ; Percy Sladen Trust ; Expedition. ; 1913-170.". 



176 D. A. YOUNG 

flavivitta, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 271. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; flavivitta. ; Fowler, TYPE." and " Chilpancingo, ; Guerrero, 
4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. Of the two <J glued to the 
same card the lectotype is adjacent to a red mark I placed on the card. 

flora, Apulia Distant, 1908a : 526. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Apulia ; flora ; type Dist." and " Paramba, ; 3500'. IV. 97. ; Dry season. ; 
(Rosenberg)." There is an additional short series of specimens. The right 
fore wing is missing from the lectotype. 

fluctuosa, Amblydisca Fowler, 1898a : 211. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Amblydisca ; fluctuosa. Fowler ; TYPE " and " Caldera, ; 1200 ft. ; 
Champion." and the B.C.A. label. The lectotype is one of two 9 glued to the 
same card and is adjacent to a red mark I placed on the card. The original 
English description is poor, the Latin better. The specimen agrees fairly well 
with the original illustration. 

fowleri, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 67. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Oncometopia ; fowleri ; type Dist." and " Oncometopia ; speculifera. 
Wlk." and " Teapa, ; Tabasco. ; March. H. H. S." and the B.C.A. label. 

fractilinea, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 255. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; fractilinea Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; 
Champion." and the B.C.A. label. 

fusca, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 741. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
"35. Tettigonia fusca." and " 47 ; 25 ". The abdomen had been glued to the 
thorax (and inverted) . There are two additional $ from Paraguay (published type 
locality : " Columbia ") which are not conspecific with the holotype. 

fuscipennis, Oncometopia Fowler, 1899b : 230. Lectotype <$ with labels : 
" Chilpancingo, ; Guerrero. ; 4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith." and " O. fusci- 
pennis ; Fowler." and the B.C.A. label. There was an additional specimen, 
without head, labeled " Type ". 

fuscolineella, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 290. Lectotype the <$ of a pair of speci- 
mens glued to the same card. Labels : " Type " and " Atoyac, ; Vera Cruz. ; 
Schumann." and " Tettigonia ; fuscolineella ; Fowler. TYPE." and the B.C.A. 
label. 

fusiformis, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 752. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia fusiformis.". The specimen is moulded and one wing is missing. 

ganesa, Kolla Distant, 1918b : 8. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and " Kolla ; 
ganesa ; type Dist." and " Kodai Kanal. ; S. India ; T. V. Campbell," and " 684 " 
and " S. India. ; E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60.". The lectotype is one of two $ glued 
to the same card and is adjacent to a red mark I placed on the card. 

garialis, Namsangia Distant, i9o8g : 259. Lectotype <J with labels: " Type " 
and " Namsangia ; garialis ; type Dist " and " Margharita ; (Doherty) " and 
" Distant Coll. ; 1911-383 ". The legend under the original illustration of this 
species belongs to Vangama steneosaura and vice versa. There are several additional 
specimens in the collection. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 177 

gaudens, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 743. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" 40. Tettigonia gaudens." and " Ega ". 
gelida, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 751. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "55. Tettigonia gelida." and " Java ". The bluish white bloom of the 

original description is sparse. Walker over-emphasized the flattening of the face. 
gemina, Tettigoniella Distant, 1918b : 2. Holotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " Tettigoniella ; gemina ; type Dist." and " 569 " and " S. India. ; 

E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60.". The original description is poor. There are no paired 

discal spots on the crown and there is no median carina on the pronotum. The 

holotype is the only specimen in the collection. 
germana, Tettigonia Fowler, i89gd : 242. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; germana. Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Xucumanatlan ; Guer- 
rero, ; 7000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The original 

illustration is not very good. 
gigas, Amblydisca Fowler, 1898a : 212. Lectotype $ with labels : "' Type " and 

" Amblydisca ; gigas. Fowler ; TYPE " and " Costa Rica. ; Salle." and the 

B.C. A. label. There is an additional $ in the collection. 
grandis, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 745. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " 43. Tettigonia grandis." and " Constancia ; Jany, 1857. H. Clark.". 
granulata, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 195. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia granulata." and " Mex ". 
gregalis, Kolla Distant, i9o8g : 226. Lectotype $ with labels : ' Type ; H. T." 

and " Kolla ; gregalis ; type Dist." and " Assam " and " Distant Coll. ; 

1911-383.". There were two additional $ in the collection. 
guerreroensis, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 246. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; guerreroensis ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Xucumanatlan ; 

Guerrero, ; 7000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The abdomen 

is glued separately to the card which bears the lectotype. 
guttivitta, Tettigonia Walker, 1870b : 301. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " 

and "guttivitta" and "Celeb; Wallace" and "68.4." It agrees with the 

original description except that there are only three ramified lines on the crown. 
habilis, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 218. Lectotype <$ with labels : " habilis, 

type Dist." and " Type ; H. T." and " Nilgiri ; (Hampson) ". It is the only 

specimen in the collection. 
hamleti, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 63. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; hamleti ; type Dist." and " Constancia ; Jany. 1857. i 

H. Clark.". 
hastata, Ciccus Walker, 1858b : 245. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 

" Ciccus hastatus." and " Santarem ; Brazil ". The " foliaceous appendages " 

of the abdomen of the original description are merely the pygofer. This is the 

only specimen in the collection. 
Helena, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 210. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and "helena ; type Dist." : and " Kandy, ; Ceylon, 7-02 " and " 1162 " 

and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". It is the only specimen in the collection. 



178 D. A. YOUNG 

herbida, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 769. Lectotype $ with labels : ' Type " 
and "95. Tettigonia herbida." and " 836.". The original description is poor. 

hopinensis, Tettigoniella Distant, 1918b : 3. Holotype J with labels : " Type ; 
H.T." and " Tettigoniella ; hopinensis ; type Dist." and " U. Burma ; Hopin ; 
28-30.8 14 ; Fletcher Coll " and " Pusa Coll. ; 1915-164." and " Pusa Coll.". 

horsefieldi, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 141. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigoniella ; horsefieldi ; type Dist." and " 60-15 ; E. [ ] C." and " 71 " 
and " Java, ; (Horsefield.) ". There is no keel on the crown, otherwise the 
original description is accurate except for the wings, which agree with the original 
illustration. 

hyala, Apulia Distant, 1908a : 526. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " and 
" Apulia ; hyala ; type Dist." and " Bolivia. ; Toungas de la Paz. ; 1903-188.". 

hydra, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 520. Lectotype J with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigoniella ; hydra ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". 
There are seven additional specimens in the collection. 

idonea, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 276. Lectotype <J with labels : " Type " and 
" Tettigonia ; idonea. Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Cerro Zunil ; 4000 ft. ; Cham- 
pion." and the B.C. A. label. There is a $ glued to the same card. The original 
illustration is not very accurate. 

igniceps, Tettigonia Walker, 1870b : 304. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " igniceps " and " F." and " Flores ; Wallace ". 

ignifer, Ciccus Walker, 1861b : 804. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" 14. Ciccus ignifer." and " Colombia ". 

ignobilis, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 248. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; ignobilis Fowler ; TYPE." and " Omilteme, ; Guerrero, 
8000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. The colours are not accurate 
in the original illustration. The lectotype is the specimen adjacent to the red 
mark I placed on the card to which two $ are glued. 

ignota, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 766. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" 89. Tettigonia ignota." This specimen is damaged, and the only specimen in 
the collection. 

illustris, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 204. Lectotype specimen without abdo- 
men with labels : " Type ; H. T." and " illustris ; type Dist." and " Assam " 
and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". The original description stated that the 
abdomen was mutilated. There are four other specimens in the collection. 

immaculata, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 740. Holotype $ with labels.: " Type " 
and "34. Tettigonia immaculata." and " 62 ". 

inca, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 517. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Amblyscarta ; inca ; type Dist." and " Cachabe ; low c. XII. 96. ; 
(Rosenberg)." and " Ecuador ; Rosenberg, ; 99-104.". The specimen had been 
repaired and was stylopized. 

inconspicua, Tettigonia Walker, 1870b : 303. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Waig." and " Wallace " and " inconspicua ". The facial keel described 
originally involves only the clypellus. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 179 

indefinita, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 223. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and "Tettigonia indefinita." and "Java". It is the only specimen in the 
collection. It differs from the original description in that the red markings have 
faded to tan and that there are six yellow spots on each fore wing : 3 each in clavus 
and corium. 

indiga, Tettigoniella Distant, io,o8g : 217. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 
H. T." and " Tettigoniella ; indiga ; type Dist." and " Nilgiri ; (Hampson) " 
and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383." 

induta, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 270. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; induta Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Orizaba ; H. S. & F. D. G. ; 
Dec. 1887.". It agrees with the original description except for the description of 
the fore wings : " with a broad black line at shoulders meeting another on the 
sternum ", but this appears to be an absurdity. Other specimens in the collection 
are coloured quite differently or are teneral. 

infecta, Tettigoniella Distant, igo8g : 210. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 
H. T." and " Tettigoniella ; infecta ; type Dist." and " Cal " and " Distant Coll. ; 
1911-383.". 

inflammata, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 215. Lectotype $ with labels : 
" Type ; H. T." and " inflammata ; type Dist." and " Margherita ; (Doherty) " 
and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". 

infulata, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 282. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; infulata. ; Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Chilpancingo, Guerrero, 
4600 ft. ; June, H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The type is one of two $ 
glued to the same card and is adjacent to a red mark I placed on the card. 

innervis, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 274. Lectotype specimen without abdomen, 
with labels : " Type " and " Tettigonia ; innervis ; Fowler. TYPE " and 
" Amula, ; Guerrero, ; 6000 ft. ; Sept. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The 
other specimen eligible as lectotype was teneral. 

innotata, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 770. Holotype specimen with head, left 
fore wing and abdomen missing. Labels : " Type " and "98. Tettigonia 
innotata." and " Brazil " and " included by Fowler ; & Van Duzee in ; mollipes 
Say.". The fragments agree with the original description. 

insignior, Aulacizes Fowler, 1899a : 220. Holotype specimen without abdomen, 
with labels : " Type " and " Aulacizes ; insignior Fowler ; TYPE " and 
" Panama. ; Boucard." and the B.C. A. label. The red markings are not as bright 
as in the original illustration. This is the only specimen in the collection. 

insignior, Tettigoniella Distant, 1918b : 1. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 
H. T." and " Tettigoniella ; insignior ; type Dist." and " Kodai Kanal. ; S. 
India. ; T. V. Campbell." and " S. India. ; E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60." and " 414 ". 
Except that the face is not flattened and the clypellus not keeled, the specimen 
agrees with the original description. 

insignis, Bharata Distant, 1918b : 12. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 
" Bharata ; insignis ; type Dist." and " Upper Burma ; (Thomas) " and " Distant 
Coll. ; 1911-383.". It is the only specimen in the collection. 



180 D. A. YOUNG 

insignis, Kolla Distant, ic)o8g : 223. Lectotype $ with labels : "' Type ; H. T." 

and " Kolla ; insignis ; type ; Dist." and " Kurseong ; 3094 ; 12 " and " Distant 

Coll. 1911-383 ". 
insignis, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 63. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; insignis.; type Dist." and " Rio Grande ; do Sul ; 94.16". 

This is the only specimen in the collection. 
insistans, Proconia Walker, 1858b : 232. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Proconia insistans." and " Rio Janeiro ; Deer. 1856. ; J. Gray.". 
insolita, Proconia Walker, 1858b : 227. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Proconia insolita." and " Mex." 
instrata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 237. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; instrata. Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Cerro Zunil, ; 4000 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The lectotype is glued beside a $ on the same 

card. 
intacta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 746. Lectotype <J with labels : " 45. Tetti- 
gonia intacta." and " Colombia ". There is another specimen also eligible as 

type in the collection. It bore no type label. 
intensa, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 767. Holotype $ with labels: "Type"" 

and " 90. Tettigonia intensa." and " Jamaica ". This is the only specimen in 

the collection. 
inter jecta, Oncometopia Fowler, 1899b : 228. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; interjecta Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. 
intermedins, Ciccus Walker, 1851b : 803. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "12. Ciccus intermedius." and two labels : " 44 ". 
invidenda, Aulacizes Fowler, 1898a : 216. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Aulacizes ; invidenda. Fowler ; TYPE." and " Teleman, ; Vera Paz. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. 
iocasta, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 213. Holotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " iocasta ; type Dist." and " N. Annandale ; Calcutta ; 5-VIII-6 " 

and " Distant Coll.; 1911-383.". It is the only specimen in the collection. 
isabellina, Aulacizes Fowler, 1899a : 217. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Aulacizes ; isabellina. Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Cerro Zunil, ; 4000 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label and " not Aulacizes ; syn. of spectralis Fowl. ; 

probably JTM ". It is the only specimen in the collection. 
ithra, Kolla Distant, 1908a : 530. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and " Kolla ; 

ithra ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". This is the only 

specimen in the collection. 
jemima, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 519. Lectotype <£ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; jemima ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". 
jocosa, Tettigonia Walker, 1857a : 97. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " and 

" jocosa Walk " and " Wallace " and " 68.4 " and " Mt. Ophir ". The original 

description is poor. It is the only specimen in the collection. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 181 

kharavela, Tettigoniella Distant, 1918b : 4. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; kharavela ; type Dist." and " Kodai Kanal ; S. India. 

Campbell." and " 424 " and " S. India ; E. A. Butler ; 1915-60.". It is the only 

specimen in the collection. 
klossi, Bhooria Distant, I9i4d : 360. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type ; H. T." 

and " Bhooria klossi ; type Dist." and " Dutch ; New Guinea ; C. Boden Kloss. ; 

1914-173." and " Launch Camp ; Setakwa ; Utakwa Exped. ; Oct. 1912.". 

There is an additional specimen in the collection. 
kodaikana, Kolla Distant, 1918b : 9. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Kolla ; kodaikana ; type Dist." and " Kodai Kanal. ; S. India, ; T. V. 

Campbell." and " S. India. ; E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60." and " 609 ". There are 

three additional topotypes in the collection. 
kotagiriensis, Tettigoniella Distant, I9p8g : 205. Lectotype $ with labels : 

" Type " and " Tettigoniella ; kotagiriensis ; type Dist." and " Kotagiri " and 

" Atkinson. ; Coll.". There is a series of specimens in the collection, including 

a $, but the latter has different markings from the 2, which agrees with the original 

description. 
lacerta, Phera Fowler, 1899b : 225. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Phera lacerta ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Chilpancingo. ; Guerrero, ; 4,600 ft. ; 

Oct. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The pronotum is not as long as in the 

original illustration. 
laeta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 748. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Ega ; Brazil " and "49. Tettigonia laeta.". There is an associated <$ in the 

collection. 
larvata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 238. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Tettigonia ; larvata. Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. The markings are darker than in the original 

illustration. There is an additional $ in the collection. 
latifascia, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 796. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " 13. Aulacizes latifascia." and " Vene ; zuela ". There is an associated <$ 

in the collection. 
latipennis, Scaris Walker, 1851b : 833. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

"3. Scaris latipennis." and " Colum- ; bia ". Except that the head is not 

punctate, the specimen agrees with the original description. This is the only 

specimen in the collection. 
lativittata, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 281. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; lativittata ; Fowler, Type " and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; 

Champion.". There are two $ on the same pin as the lectotype. 
latomarginata, Tettigoniella Distant, 1917c : 190. Lectotype £ with labels : 

" Type " and " Tettigoniella ; latomarginata ; type Dist." and " Queensland ; 

Upper North Pine ; 1900." and " 44D " and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". There 

are additional specimens in the collection. 



182 D. A. YOUNG 

lemniscata, Tettigonia Fowler, icjood : 283. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; lemniscata ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Xucumanatlan, ; 

Guerrero. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. 
lenea, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 520. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; lenea ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". 
leopardina, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 204. Holotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " leopardina ; type Dist." and " Tenass Vail ; Myitta ; (Doherty)." 

and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". 
lepidipennis, Tettigonia Walker, 1857b : 168. Lectotype <J with labels : " Type " 

and "lepidipennis Walk" and "Wallace" and " Sar." and "68.4". The 

original description is inadequate. The specimen is moulded. 
leucomelas, lassus Walker, 1858b : 272. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" lassus leucomelas.". The original description is poor. 
leucomelas, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 764. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "83. Tettigonia leucomelas." and " Brazil ". The original description is 

poor. 
linearis, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 791. Holotype £ with labels : " Type " 

and "4. Aulacizes linearis." and " B. Guiana ". This is the only specimen in 

the collection. Except that the body is robust, not linear, and that the " white 

down " on the abdomen is mould, the specimen agrees with the original description. 
lineatus, Kolla Distant, i9o8g : 224. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; H. T." 

and " lineatus ; type Dist." and " N. C. Prov. ; November " and " 1911-383.". 
I i two hit a, Tettigonia Walker, 1857b : 167. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " lineolata Walk " and " Wallace " and " Sar." 
lineosa, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 240. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; lineosa Fowler ; TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. There is an associated $ in the collection. 
longa, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 740. Holotype specimen with labels : " Type " 

and " 33. Tettigonia longa." and " Phil ; Isl.". The forewings have no dark 

markings. The specimen is badly damaged and without legs. 
longipes, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 748. Holotype $ with labels : ''' Type " 

and "50. Tettigonia longipes." and " Quito ". 
luculenta, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 284. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; luculenta, Fowler. ; Type." and " Omilteme. ; Guerrero, 

8000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. There is a pair of associated 

specimens, the £ doubtfully conspecific. 
lugubris, Amblydisca Fowler, 1898a : 211. Lectotype $ with labels: "Type" 

and " Amblydisca ; lugubris. Fowler. ; TYPE." and " V. de Chiriqui, ; 4000- 

6000 ft. ; Champion." and the B.C.A. label. The hind legs are missing. 
luridescens, Aulacizes Walker, 1858b : 240. Holotype $ with labels : "* Type " 

and " Aulacizes luridescens." and " Veneza. ; 55.89 ". The legs are missing and 

the wing apices have been broken off. This is the only specimen in the collection. 
lynchi, Faenius Distant, 1918b : 14. Lectotype $ with labels : " Co- ; type " 

and " Faenius ; lynchi ; type Dist." and " Ind. Mus. ; Darjiling ; District ; 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 183 

E. Himalayas ; Lynch C." and " 2504 ; 21 " and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". 

There is an additional $ in the collection. 
mactata, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 216. Holotype specimen without abdomen, 

with labels: "Type" and "Tettigonia mactata." and " Veneza. ; 55.89.". 

The original description is poor. This is the only specimen in the collection. 
maculata, Atkinsoniella Distant, i9o8g : 236. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " Atkinsoniella ; maculata ; type Dist." and " Assam ; Shillong ". 

There is an additional <$ in the collection. 
maculata, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 793. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " 7. Aulacizes maculata." and " 43.". 
maculatus, Ciccus Walker, 1851b : 801. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "8. Ciccus maculatus." 
maculicollis, Tettigonia Walker, 1870b : 302. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " maculicollis " and " N. Gui ; Wallace " and " S " and " 68.4 ". 
magna, Proconia Walker, 1851b : 787. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" 15. Proconia magna." and " Bz " and " 42 ; 6.". One fore wing is missing. 

There is an additional $ in the collection. 
magnifrons, Aulacizes Walker, 1858b : 238. Holotype $ with labels : "' Type " 

and " Aulacizes magnifrons." and " Petropolis ; Feby. 1857. '> J- Gray.". It 

agrees with the original description except that there are three spots on the 

anterior portion of the pronotum instead of two. The specimen is teneral. 
marcia, Stictoscarta Distant, 1908b : 68. Lectotype $ with labels : ' Type " 

and "Stictoscarta; marcia; type Dist." and " Amaz ; Nanta " and "58.77. 

Amazon. ; Nanta.". 
marginata, Proconia Walker, 1851b : 785. Holotype £ with labels : " Type " 

and " 11. Proconia marginata." and " E. Doubleday. ; St. John's Bluff, ; 

E. Florida.". 
marpessa, Tettigoniella, i9o8g : 215. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; H. T." 

and " marpessa ; type Dist." and " Myitta ; Doherty " and " Distant Coll. ; 

1911-383.". The dark line across the base of the face, of the original description, 

is merely one of the antennae stuck to the face. This is the only specimen in the 

collection. 
mazaria, Zyzzogeton Distant, 1908b : 84. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Zyzzogeton ; mazaria ; type Dist." and " R. Dagua. ; Colombia ; 96-68.". 
mediolineata, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 244. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; mediolineata ; Fowler, TYPE." and " Omilteme, ; Guerrero, ; 

8000 ft. ; Aug. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. 
medusa, Tettigonia Distant, 1893a : 95. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " medusa ; Dist." and " Machachi, ; Ecuador. ; 9-10,000 feet. ; 

Ed. Whymper." and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". It is teneral, and the only 

specimen in the collection. 
melancholica, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 240. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; melancholica ; Fowler, TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. It agrees with the original description except 



184 D. A. YOUNG 

that, in the description of the scutellum, after the word " testaceous ", the word 

" tegmina " appears to have been deleted. 
mimica, Kolla Distant, io,o8g : 225. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; H. T." 

and "mimica; type Dist." and "at light; Calcutta; 4-XI-06.N. A." and 

" Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". 
miniaticeps, Tettigonia Fowler, icjood : 285. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; miniaticeps ; Fowler, TYPE." and " Teapa ; Tabasco. ; 

April. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. The lectotype is one of a pair glued 

to the same card. 
miniatipennis, Oncometopia, 1899b : 231. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; miniatipennis. ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Milpas, Mex., ; 

5900 ft. ; Forrer." and the B.C.A. label. This is the only specimen in the collec- 
tion. The shape and colour of the head are not accurate in the original illustration. 
minor, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 772. Holotype J with labels : " Type " and 

" 101. Tettigonia minor.". It agrees with the interpretation of Young and 

Davidson, 1959a : 24. 
mitra, Diedrocephala Distant, 1908b : 60. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Diedrocephala ; mitra ; type Dist." and " Cachabe ; low c, XII. 96. ; 

(Rosenberg) " and " Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". There are also a $ and 

two specimens without abdomens in the collection. 
mitrata, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 140. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; mitrata ; type Dist." and " Humboldt Bay" and " Malay 

Archipelago. ; W. Doherty. ; 1903-31.". There is an additional series in the 

collection. 
modulata, Bhooria Distant, i9o8g : 256. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Bhooria ; modulata ; type Dist." and " Ruby Mines ; C. Doherty " and 

" Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". This is the only specimen in the collection. 
mollicella, Tettigonia Fowler, i90od : 289. Lectotype $ with labels : r< Type " 

and " T. mollicella ; Fowler, TYPE " and " Vera Cruz. ; May. H. H. S." and 

the B.C.A. label. 
mollicula, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 288. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; mollicula Fowler ; TYPE " and " Xucumanatlan ; Guerrero, 

7,000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. Of two $ glued to the same 

card, the lectotype is adjacent to a red mark I placed on the card. 
monticola, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 244. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; monticola ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Sierra de las ; Aguas 

Escondidas ; Guerrero, 9500 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. 

It is the only specimen in the collection. 
mouhoti, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 142. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; mouhoti ; type Dist." and " Siam ; Mouhot ". The original 

description specified a $, but there is no $ with correct data in the collection. The 

lectotype agrees otherwise with the original description except that the flattening 

of the face is negligible. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 185 

multicolor, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 760. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Para " and "75. Tettigonia multicolor.". This is the only specimen in 
the collection. 

multilineata, Tettigonia Fowler, i89gd : 241. Lectotype specimen with labels : 
" Type " and " Tettigonia ; multilineata ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Pinos Altos ; 
Chihuahua, ; Mexico. ; Buchan-Hepburn." and the B.C. A. label. 

munda, Oncometopia Fowler, 1899b : 232. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " 
and " Oncometopia ; munda. Fowler. ; TYPE. $ " and " Omilteme, ; Guer- 
rero. ; 8000 ft. ; Aug. H. H. Smith " and the B.C. A. label. This is the only 
specimen in the collection. The original description is not good. 

mungphuensis, Kolla Distant, i9o8g : 225. Holotype 9 with labels : " Type " 
and " Kolla ; mungphuensis ; type Dist." and " Mungphu ". This and several 
other specimens in the collection are teneral. 

n as ut a, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 291. Lectotype specimen without abdomen, 
with labels : " Type " and " Tettigonia ; nasuta. Fowler ; TYPE." and 
" Chiacaman, ; Vera Paz. ; Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The specimen is 
moulded and the apices of the fore wings are missing. It is the only specimen in 
the collection. 

neotropicalis, Teletusa Distant, 1908b : 79. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Teletusa ; neotropicalis ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg ; 1906- 
263.". Except that the fore wings are completely hyaline and that the anterior 
tibiae are only moderately dilated, this specimen, the only one in the collection, 
agrees with the original description. 

nigricans, Proconia Walker, 1851b : 783. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " 8. Proconia nigricans." and " E. Doubleday. ; St. John's Bluff, ; E. 
Florida.". 

nigrifascia, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 776. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " no. Tettigonia nigrifascia." and " Mexico ". It agrees with the original 
description but is teneral, which accounts for the concavities in the face and on 
the crown. 

nigrifrons, Tettigoniella Distant, 1917c : 190. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigoniella ; nigrifrons ; type Dist." and " Buar vii. 1914 ; Cameroons." 
and " 1917-89.". 

nigrilux, Ciccus Walker, 1858b : 246. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Ciccus nigrilux." and " Mex ". 

notanda, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 257. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; notanda ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Panama " and " Bo ward " 
and the B.C.A. label. It agrees well with the original description but the original 
illustration is poor. 

notaticeps, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 273. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tototonicapam, ; 85-10,500 ft. ; Champion." and " T. notaticeps. ; 
Fowler, TYPE." and the B.C.A. label. The original illustration is not good. This 
is the only specimen in the collection. 



186 D. A. YOUNG 

oaxacae, Oncometopia Fowler, 1899c : 234. Lectotype <J with labels : " Type " 

and " 58.135. Mex. ; (Oajaca.) " and " Proconia ; oajacae ; Fowler TYPE ". 

This is the only specimen in the collection. 
obliqua, Aulacizes Walker, 1858b : 239. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Aulacizes obliqua." and " Mex ". 
obliquus, Ciccus Walker, 1851b : 800. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type " and 

" 6. Ciccus obliquus." and " 42 " and " Bz ". 
obscura, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 738. Lectotype J with labels : " Type " 

and "28. Tettigonia obscura " and " E. Ind ". 
obscurior, Phera Fowler, 1899a : 224. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 

" Phera ; obscurior; Fowler. TYPE." and" San Isidro, ; 1600 ft. ; Champion.". 
obtusa, Aulacizes Walker, 1858b : 239. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Aulacizes obtusa." and " Rio Janeiro ; Deer. 1856. ; J. Gray.". The specimen 

is teneral. 
obtusifrons, Phera Fowler, 1899a : 223. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Phera ; obtusifrons ; Fowler. TYPE. <$ " and " Cerro Zunil, ; 4-5000 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The original illustration was made from a $. 
obtusior, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 278. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; obtusior. ; Fowler. TYPE." and " V. de Chiriqui, ; 25-4000 

ft. ; Champion." and the B.C. A. label. There is an additional $ in the collection. 
ochraceus, Ciccus Walker, 1858b : 244. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Mex." and " Ciccus ochraceus.". 
ofella, Amblydisca Distant, 1908b : 71. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Amblydisca ; ofella ; type $ Dist." and " Toungas de la Paz. ; 1903-188.". 

There is an additional topotypic <$. 
opponens, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 757. Holotype J with labels : " Type " 

and " 71. Tettigonia opponens." and " N. India ". 
opulenta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 747. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "47. Tettigonia opulenta." and " Veneza. ; 55.89.". The original des- 
cription is poor. There is an additional <$ in the collection. 
orbata, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 286. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; orbata Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Teapa, ; Tabasco. ; April. 

H. H. S." and the B.C.A. label. 
ostrina, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 257. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; ostrina Fowler. ; TYPE." and " V. de Chiriqui, ; 25-4000 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. 
pallescens, Pisacha Distant, i9o8g : 231. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " Pisacha ; pallescens. ; type Dist." and " Myitta ; Doherty " and 

" Distant Coll. ; 191 1-383.". 
pallida, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 776. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" in. Tettigonia pallida." and " Mexico ". 
pallipes, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 765. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " 86. Tettigonia pallipes." and " Brasil ". 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 187 

panamensis, Aulacizes Fowler, 1899a : 219. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Aulacizes ; panamensis ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; 800-1500 ft. ; 
Champion." and the B.C. A. label. The original illustration is poor. There is an 
additional <$ in the collection. 

Paraguay ensis, Teletusa Distant, 1908b : 78. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Teletusa ; paraguayensis ; type Dist." and " Paraguay. ; San Bernardino. ; 
K. Fiebrig. ; 1905-327.". This is the only specimen in the collection. 

parallela, Proconia Walker, 1851b : 788. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" 18. Proconia parallela." and " Vene ; zuela ". 

pardalina, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 238. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; pardalina Fowler. ; TYPE " and "V. de Chiriqui, ; 25-4000 
ft. ; Champion." and the B.C.A. label. Except that there is only one spot behind 
the transverse line on the fore wing, the specimen agrees with the original des- 
cription. 

paulula, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 219. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia paulula." and " Ceylon ". The specimen is badly damaged. 

pectoralis, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 285. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; pectoralis. ; Fowler. TYPE " and an illegible pencilled label 
and " Chilpancingo, ; Guerrero, ; 4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith." and the 
B.C.A. label. The wings and posterior half of the pronotum are deep green, and 
the black face is visible from above as a narrow black anterior margin to the crown. 
Otherwise, the specimen agrees with the original description. 

perakensis, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 141. Lectotype <$ with labels : 
" Type " ; H. T." and " perakensis ; type Dist." and " Perak, ; Doherty." and 
" Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". It is the only specimen in the collection. 

persistans, Proconia Walker, 1858b : 232. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Proconia persistans." and " Petropolis ; Feby. 1857. ; J. Gray.". The 
specimen is teneral. 

peruviensis, Teletusa Distant, 1908b : 79. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Teletusa ; peruviensis ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". 

peruviensis, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 67. Lectotype <$ with labels : 
" Type " and " Oncometopia ; peruviensis ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosen- 
berg ; 1906-263.". There is an additional <$ in the collection. 

phalaesia, Aulacizes Distant, 1908b : 74. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Aulacizes ; phalaesia ; type Dist." and " Bolivia. ; J. Steinbach. ; 1904- 
311.". There is an additional <$ in the collection. 

philippina, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 740. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and "32. Tettigonia Philippina." and " Phil ; Isl ". There are six additional 
$ in the collection. 

picta, Amblyscarta Distant, 1908a : 517. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Amblyscarta ; picta ; type Dist." and " Bolivia ; Toungas de la Paz ; 
1903-188.". 

picta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 758. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
"72. Tettigonia picta." and " 829 ". 



188 D. A. YOUNG 

pileata, Tettigonia Fowler, 19000! : 287. Lectotype $ with labels : " V. de Chiri- 

qui, ; 2-3000 ft. ; Champion." and the B.C. A. label. There are additional $ 

specimens in the collection. 
piperata, Aulacizes Fowler, 1898a : 215. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Aulacizes ; piperata. Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Xucumanatlan, Guerrero, ; 

7000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The original illustration is 

poor. There is an additional <$ in the collection. 
plagiata, Proconia Walker, 1851b : 788. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" 17. Proconia plagiata." and " 621 ". 
plumbea, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 754. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " 62. Tettigonia plumbea." and " 46 ; 62 ". There is an additional speci- 
men, without abdomen, in the collection. 
postfumata, Amblydisca Fowler, 1898a : 210. Lectotype J with labels : " Type " 

and " Amblydisca ; postfumata ; Fowler. TYPE." and "V. de Chiriqui, ; 

25-4000 ft. ; Champion." and the B.C.A. label. There is an additional <J in the 

collection. 
praestantior, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 254. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; praestantior ; Fowler TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; 800-1500 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. There is an additional <J in the collection. 
praeterita, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 243. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and" Tettigonia; praeterita; Fowler TYPE." and" Xucumanatlan, ; Guerrero, ; 

7000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. There is an additional $ 

in the collection. 
prasina, Tettigonia W T alker, 1851b : 768. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type " 

and "92. Tettigonia prasina." and " Hudson's Bay ". It agrees with Young 

and Davidson's (1959a : 9) interpretation of the species. 
primitiva, Pisacha Distant, i9o8g : 231. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " Pisacha ; primitiva ; type Dist." and " Ruby Mines ; (Doherty) " 

and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". It agrees with the original description, but 

there is nothing at all unusual about the spines of the hind tibiae. The original 

illustration is much more robust than the specimen. 
princeps, Baramapulana Distant, 1910c : 235. Holotype $ with labels : " Type ; 

H. T." and " Baramapulana ; princeps ; type ; Dist." and " Johannesburg ; 

6000 ft. 1899 ; J. P. Cregoe " and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". 
producta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 772. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " 102. Tettigonia producta." and " E. Doubleday. ; St. John's Bluff ; 

E. Florida.". The specimen agrees with the interpretation of Young and Davidson 

(1959a : 19.). 
prolixa, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 275. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; prolixa. Fowler ; TYPE " and " Atoyac, Vera Cruz. ; May. 

H. H. S." and the B.C.A. label. It is the specimen adjacent to a red mark I 

placed on the card bearing two $. 
pronotalis, Kolla Distant, 1918b : 8. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Kolla ; pronotalis ; type Dist. : and " 101.6 " and " Lovedale ; Nilgiri Hills. ; 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 189 

S. India. 7200 ft. ; T. V. Campbell." and " S. India. ; E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60.". 
Of the two $ on the same card, the lectotype is between two red marks I placed on 
the card. Distant twice described the lateral spots of the anterior margin of the 
head — once on the vertex and once on the face. He did not mention a yellow spot 
at the middle of the anterior margin of the pronotum. 

pruinosa, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 743. Holotype £ with labels: "Type" 
and "39- Tettigonia pruinosa." and " Colum- ; bia ". Except that the head is 
not semicircular, and that the face is scarcely flattened, the lectotype agrees with 
the original description. The specimen is somewhat teneral, heavily parasitized, 
and without hind legs. It is the only specimen in the collection. 

pruinosa, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 755. Holotype specimen without abdomen, 
with labels : " Type " and "64. Tettigonia pruinosa " and " 40 ; 56 ". 

psittacella, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 290. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; psitacella ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Teapa. ; Tabasco. ; 
H. H. S." and the B.C. A. label. It is one of a pair of specimens glued to the same 
card. 

ptolyca, Diestostemma Distant, 1908b : 82. Lectotype ^ with labels : " Type " 
and " Diestostemma ; ptolyca ; type Dist." and " Theresopolis ; 88-137." and 
one additional illegible label consisting only of numbers. The specimen is some- 
what teneral. There is one additional <$ in the collection. 

pumicata, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 246. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; pumicata ; Fowler. TYPE " and "V. de Chiriqui ; 4,000- 
6,000 ft. ; Champion " and the B.C.A. label. It agrees with the original des- 
cription and illustration. It is laterally compressed posteriorly, however, as a 
result of having been wet. The lectotype is the one of two $ specimens which is 
adjacent to a red mark I placed on the card to which they are glued. 

punctosus, Ciccus Walker, 1858b : 246. Holotype $ with labels : ' Type " and 
" Ciccus punctosus." and " Tejuca ; Jany. 1857. ; H. Clark.". There is an 
additional $ in the collection. 

pupula, Tettigonia Kirby, 1891a : 169. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Tettigonia ; pupula ; Kb type ; [one illegible word] " and " Pundaloya ; 
Ceylon " and " 100 ". It is the only specimen in the collection. 

purpurascens, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 259. Lectotype $ with labels : 
" Type " and "V. de Atitlan ; 25-3500 ft. ; Champion." and " Tettigonia ; 
purpurascens ; Fowler. TYPE." and the B.C.A. label. It is much less distinctly 
marked than in the original description. It is the only specimen in the collection. 

pythonis, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 207. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 
H. T." and " Tettigoniella ; pythonis ; type Dist." and " Tenass Vail ; Myitta 
(Doherty)." and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". This is the only specimen in the 
collection. 

quadrimacula, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 741. Holotype $ with labels : 
" Type " and " 36. Tettigonia quadrimacula." and " Colum ; bia ". 

quadrinotata, Oncometopia Fowler, 1899b : 230. Lectotype $ with labels : 
" Type " and " Oncometopia ; quadrinotata. ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Jalisco, 



igo D. A. YOUNG 

Mex. ; July. ; Schumann." and the B.C. A. label. The original illustration is not 

very good. Of the two $ specimens associated with the 9 by Fowler, one that is 

badly damaged appears to be conspecific with the $ ; the other not. 
quinquesignata, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 194. Lectotype specimen without 

abdomen, with labels : " Type " and " Tettigonia ; 5-signata." and " Mex ". 

It differs from the original description in that the scutellum is black basally and 

at the apex, only the disc being yellow. There is an additional <J specimen. 
raja, Kolla Distant, 1918b : 7. Lectotype $ with labels : " Co- ; type " and 

" Kolla ; raja; cotype Dist." and " Siliguri ; N. Bengal.; 18-20. VII. 07". 

The original description is poor. 
ramana, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 138. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; ramana ; type Dist." and " Sumatra, Erichson. ; 98-222.". 

The blue colour of the original description is a pruinosity. There is an additional 

$ in the collection. 
recta, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 264. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 

" Tettigonia ; recta Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Venta de Zopilote, ; Guerrero, 

2800 ft. ; Oct. H. H. Smith." and the B.C.A. label. 
redacta, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 276. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Pefia Blanca, ; 3000-4000 ft. ; Champion." and '" T. redacta ; Fowler 

TYPE.". 
reducta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 739. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and "30. Tettigonia reducta." and " Hong ; Kong ". 
redundans, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 251. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; redundans ; Fowler, TYPE " and " Cahabon ; Vera Paz. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. The original illustration is not very good. 

There are several additional specimens in the collection. 
reservata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 267. Lectotype 9 with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; reservata. ; Fowler ; TYPE." and " Atoyac, ; Vera Cruz. ; 

April. H. H. S." and the B.C.A. label. The specimen is the one of two 9, glued 

to the same card, which is adjacent to the red mark I placed on the card. The 

other $ has a missing wing. 
resimus, Catorthorrhinus Fowler, 1898a : 213. Lectotype <$ with labels : 

" Type " and " Catorthorhinus ; resimus, Fowler ; TYPE." and " V. de Chiriqui, ; 

25-4000 ft. ; Champion." and the B.C.A. label. The markings along the claval 

suture are brown instead of green as in the original illustration. 
resolubilis, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 236. Lectotype <J with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; resolubilis. ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Capetillo, ; Guatemala, ; 

G. C. Champion." and the B.C.A. label. 
reversa, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 215. Holotype 9 with labels : " Type " and 

" Tettigonia reversa." and " Petropolis ; Feby 1857. ; H. Clark.". This is the 

only specimen in the collection. 
richmondensis, Tettigoniella Distant, 1917c : 191. Lectotype 9 with labels : 
' Type " and " Tettigoniella ; richmondensis ; type Dist." and " 51 " and " 1911- 

190.". This is the only specimen in the collection. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 191 

robusta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : jyy. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" 113. Tettigonia robusta." and " 18.". Except that the head is broader than 

the thorax, that the face is not flat and the " epistoma " not keeled, the specimen 

agrees with the original description. 
robustula, Tettigonia Fowler, icjood : 288. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " T. robustula ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Sierra de las ; Aguas Escondidas, ; 

Guerrero, 9500 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The original 

description and illustration are not good. 
rosenbergi, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 518. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Amblyscarta ; rosenbergi ; type ; Dist." and " Cachabe ; Iowa, XI. 96. ; 

(Rosenberg)." and " Ecuador, ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". There are two additional 

$ in the collection. 
rubescens, Oncometopia Fowler, 1899c : 233. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; rubescens. Fowler. ; TYPE " and " David, ; Chiriqui. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. It agrees with the original illustration except 

that the anterolateral margins of the crown are convex and that the apex is not 

angulate. 
rubricollis, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 260. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; rubricollis. ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Omilteme ; Guerrero ; 

8000 ft. ; Aug. H. H. Smith " and the B.C.A. label. There are two additional 

specimens in the collection. 
rubriguttata, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 763. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "82. Tettigonia rubriguttata " and " W Coast ; of Am ". There is an 

additional $ in the collection. 
rufa, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 742. Lectotype <$ with labels : ' Type " and 

"37. Tettigonia rufa." and " Vene- ; zuela ". 
ruficaput, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 766. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " 87. Tettigonia ruficaput." and " Colum- ; bia ". It agrees with the origi- 
nal description except that the face is not flattened. 
ruficauda, Tettigonia W T alker, 1851b : 763. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "81. Tettigonia ruficauda." and "Brazil". The head is not concave on 

the anterior margin. Otherwise the specimen agrees with the original description. 
ruficeps, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 196. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ruficeps." and " Guatim ; ala ". It agrees with the original 

description except that the anterior band of the thorax is red, not white. There 

is an additional $ in the collection. 
ruficeps var. deficiens, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 236. Lectotype $ with labels : 

" Type " and " T. ruficeps ; v. deficiens. ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Cache. ; 

Costa Rica. ; H. Rogers." and the B.C.A. label. There is a topotypic <$ in the 

collection. 
ruficeps var. trilineata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c: 236. Lectotype $ with labels : 

" Type " and " Tett. ruficeps ; var trilineosa ; Fowler. TYPE." and " David, ; 

Chiriqui. ; Champion." and the B.C.A. label. There are twelve additional $ 

in the collection. 



192 D. A. YOUNG 

ruficosta, Tettigonia Walker, 1870b : 302. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " ruficosta " and " Wallace " and " 68.4 " and " Bac". Except that the 
head is wider than the pronotum, the specimen agrees with the original description. 
There is an additional specimen in the collection. 

rufifacies, Ciccus Walker, 1851b : 802. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" 11. Ciccus rufifacies." and " Bz " and " 40 ; 16 ". 

rufimargo, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 197. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia rufimargo." and " Mex.". There is an additional $ in the collec- 
tion. 

rufimargo var. propior, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 284. Lectotype $ with 
labels : " Type " and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; Champion." and " T. rufimargo 
Walk ; v. propior. Fowler. ; TYPE." and the B.C. A. label. There are several 
additional specimens in the collection. 

rufiventris, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 796. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and "12. Aulacizes rufiventris." and " E. Doubleday. ; St. John's Bluff, ; 
E. Florida.". 

rufoapicata, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 286. Lectotype <£ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; rufapicata ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft. ; 
Champion." and the B.C.A. label. The dark markings are much more pronounced 
than in the original illustration. 

rufofasciata, Tettigonia Distant, 1879b : 63. Lectotype $ with labels : " rufo- 
fasciata ; type Dist." and " Cache, ; Costa Rica. ; H. Rogers." and " Distant 
Coll. ; 1911-383.". There is an additional <£ in the collection. 

Sagittarius, Ciccus Walker, 1858b : 245. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Ciccus Sagittarius." and " Santar ; em ". It is very teneral, and the only 
specimen in the collection. 

salutaris, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 281. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; salutaris Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Bugaba, Panama. ; Cham- 
pion." and the B.C.A. label. There is a mixed series associated with the lectotype. 

salvini, Amblydisca Fowler, 1898a : 209. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Amblydisca ; salvini. Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; 800-1000 ft. ; 
Champion.". There is an additional <$ in the collection. 

sandaracata, Tettigoniella Distant, igo8g : 217. Lectotype $ with labels : 
" Type ; H. T." and " Tettigoniella ; sandaracata ; type Dist." and " Nilgiri ; 
(Hampson) " and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". There is an additional £ in the 
collection. 

sanguinans, Tettigonia Walker, 1858b : 212. Holotype £ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia sanguinans." and " Tejuca ; Jany 1857. I H. Clark.". 

sanguinosa, Scaris, 1858a : 101. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and " san- 
guinosa Walk " and " Col-1- ; grass " and " Bogota ; Santo [ ]unato " and 
"68.4". 

sarawakensis, Bhandara Distant, i9o8f : 143. Lectotype $ with labels : " Sara- 
wak. ; Shelford. ; 1900-117.". The original description specified a ?. The 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 193 

collection contains a teneral $ with a " type " label. There is another <$ in the 
collection. 
satelles, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 288. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " T. satelles ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Teapa, ; Tabasco. ; H. H. Smith." 
and the B.C. A. label. There is another topotypic $ without a head. 
schonlandi, Tettigoniella Distant, 1910c : 233. Lectotype $ with labels : 
" Type ; H. T." and " Tettigoniella ; schonlandi ; type Dist." and " Albany ; 
Museum ; Grahams ; Town." and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383." and " Natal ; 
June 12 ; Mr. Blake ; way.". It is the only specimen in the collection. The 
fore wing is missing. 
scita, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 753. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
"60. Tettigonia scita " and " Vene- ; zuela ". The head had been glued on. 
There is an additional <$ in the collection. 
scitipennis, Tettigonia Walker, 1857b : 168. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " scitipennis Walk " and " Sar. " and " Wallace " and "68 .4 ". The original 
description is poor. The head and pronotum are greatly distorted. This is the 
only specimen in the collection. 
scutellaris, Tettigonia Walker, 1870b : 303. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type " 
and "scutellaris " and " Wallace " and " Bac." and " 68.4 ". The specimen is 
somewhat teneral. The type locality is probably Bachian, Celebes. 
scutellata, Proconia Walker, 1851b : 786. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " 13. Proconia scutellata." and " 190 ". The original description, although 
not good, is believed to have been made from this specimen. Dr. Heinz Schroder 
had studied the specimen. 
scutellata, Tettigonia Distant, 1879b : 62. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; 
H. T." and " scutellata ; type Dist." and " Irazu, ; 6-7000 ft. ; H. Rogers." 
and " Distant Coll. ; 191 1-383.". There is also a <$ in the collection. 
semirasa, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 245. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; semirasa Fowler ; TYPE." and " Chilpancingo, ; Guerrero, 
4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. Of two $ glued to the 
same card, the lectotype is adjacent to the red mark I placed on the card. The 
lectotype is darker than the original illustration. 
semivitta, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 752. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " 58. Tettigonia semivitta." and " 622 ". This is the only specimen in the 
collection. 
separanda, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 249. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; separanda ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Omilteme, ; Guerrero, 
8000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith.". It is one of two $ glued to the same card and is 
adjacent to the red mark I placed on the card. 
septemguttata, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 104. Holotype 9 with labels : 
" Type " and " 104. Tettigonia 7-guttata." and " E. Doubleday. ; St. John's 
Bluff, ; E. Florida.". It agrees with Young and Davidson's (1959a : 13) interpre- 
tation. 



194 D - A - YOUNG 

signifera, Tettigonia Walker, 1857b : 168. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " signifera Walk " and " Sar." and " Wallace " and "68.4.". This is the 

only specimen in the collection. It is moulded. 
sikhimensis, Tettigoniella Distant, ic;o8g : 217. Lectotype $ with labels : 

" Type " and " Tettigonia ; sikhimensis ; type ; Dist." and " Sikkim.". The 

venter is moulded. There is an additional <$ in the collection. 
similis, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 769. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " 96. Tettigonia similis." and " 21." and " 21.". This is the only specimen 

in the collection. 
sistens, Tettigonia, 1858a : 95. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and " sistens 

Walk" and " M. Video; Bz " and "68.4". The specimen is very teneral, 

moulded and the wings are damaged. 
sociata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 262. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Tettigonia ; sociata Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; Champion." 

and the B.C. A. label. The lectotype is one of a pair of specimens glued to the 

same card. It agrees with the original illustration and with the original description 

of the banded form. The <$ is entirely black except for a pair of anteapical costal 

spots on each fore wing. 
sororia, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 272. Lectotype specimen without abdomen, 

with labels : " Type " and " Tettigonia ; sororia. Fowler. ; TYPE." and 

" Cuernavaca, ; Morelos. ; June. H. H. S." and the B.C. A. label. There is an 

additional <$ which is doubtfully conspecific. 
spectabilis, TettigoniellaDista.nt, 1908a : 519. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Amblyscarta ; spectabilis ; type Dist." and " Toungas de la Paz. ; 1903- 

188.". 
spectanda, Tettigonia Fowler, igood : 285. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; spectanda ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Cent. Amer." and the 

B.C.A. label. 
spectra, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 211. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " spectra ; Dist." and " Ind. Mus." and " Sara Ghat ; 29-30/6/06 " and 

" Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". 
spectralis, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 256. Lectotype £ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; spectralis. Fowler. ; TYPE " and " Cerro Zunil, ; 4-5000 ft. ; 

Champion." and the B.C.A. label. There is an additional series of specimens in the 

collection. 
speculifera, Proconia Walker, 1851b : 790. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " 21. Proconia speculifera.". This is the only specimen in the collection. 
Stella, Onega Distant, 1908a : 528. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 

" Tettigoniella ; stella ; type Dist." and" Cotypes, Breddin. ; Purch. of Haensch, ; 

Tettigonia ; spec, nov." and " Baiza ; (Ecuad.) ; R. Haensch S." and " 123 " 

and " 1903-322.". It agrees with the original description except that the fore 

wings are quite coriaceous. It is the only specimen in the collection. 
stellaris, Aulacizes Walker, 1858b : 238. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Aulacizes stellaris." and " Mex.". 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 195 

stesilea, Diestostemma Distant, 1908b : 83. Holotype <J with labels : " Type " 
and "Diestostemma; stesilea; type Dist." and " Graniplaya ; Bolivia". 

stipata, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 749. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" 52. Tettigonia stipata " and " Quito ". The shape of the anterior margin of 
the head is paraboloid, not semicircular as in the original description. The 
specimen is teneral. There is an additional specimen in the collection. 

subflava, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 762. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " 80. Tettigonia subflava." and " Vene ; zuela ". This is the only specimen 
in the collection. 

subsignata, Tettigonia Walker, 1858a : 96. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " subsignata ; Walk." and " inclinans ". In the original description, the 
black spots between the eyes are simply the ocelli (not black). This is the only 
specimen in the collection. It is probably from the Western Hemisphere. 

sulphurata, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8g : 216. Lectotype $ with labels : 
" Type ; H. T." and " Tettigoniella ; sulphurata ; type Dist." and " Ruby 
Mines ; (Doherty) " and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". There is no unusual 
ridging on the pronotum. There is an additional <$ in the collection. 

superfl.ua, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 248. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; superflua ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Omilteme, ; Guerrero ; 
8000 ft. ; July. H. H. Smith.". The lectotype is one of a pair of specimens glued 
to the same card and is adjacent to a red mark I placed on the card. There are 
additional specimens, some of which are not conspecific with the lectotype, in the 
collection. The original was a composite description including the latter. 

sylvanella, Tettigoniella Distant, 1918b : 3. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigoniella ; sylvanella ; type Dist." and " Kodai Kanal ; S. India ; 
W. V. Campbell " and " S. India ; E. A. Butler ; 1915-60.". The specimen is 
teneral. There is an additional $ in the collection. 

taeniata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 257. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; taeniata. Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Bugaba, ; Panama. ; 
Champion." and the B.C. A. label. There is also a teneral <$, used for the original 
illustration, in the collection. 

tamborensis, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 139. Lectotype $ with labels : 
" Type " and " Tettigoniella ; tamborensis ; type Dist." and " Tambora, Sam- 
bawa, ; Malay Archipelago. ; W. Doherty. ; 1903-31.". 

tapes, Amblydisca Fowler, 1898a : 210. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 
" Amblydisca ; tapes. Fowler ; TYPE." and " Sabo, ; Vera Paz. ; Champion." 
and the B.C. A. label. It is the only specimen in the collection. 

teliformis, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 764. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " 84. Tettigonia teliformis." and " E. Doubleday. ; Trenton Falls, ; New 
York.". It does not agree very well with the original description. 

tenebrosa, Proconia Walker, 1851b : 787. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " 16. Proconia tenebrosa " and " E. Doubleday. ; St. John's Bluff, E. 
Florida.". 



196 D. A. YOUNG 

tenella, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 770. Holotype J with labels : " Type " and 

" N. Amer." and " Ent. Club. ; 44.12." and "97. Tettigonia tenella.". It is 

the only specimen in the collection. 
teres, Tettigonia Fowler, ic;00d : 287. Lectotype $ with labels : " Chilpancingo, ; 

Guerrero. ; 4600 ft. ; June. H. H. Smith." and " Type " and " Tettigonia ; 

teres Fowler. ; TYPE." and the B.C. A. label. It is one of two $ glued to the 

same card, and is adjacent to the red mark I placed on the card. 
terminalis, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 793. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and "8. Aulacizes terminalis." and " Brazil ". 
terminalis, Diestostemma Walker, 1851b : 798. Holotype $ with labels : 

" Type " and " 2. Diestostemma terminalis." and " Brazil " and " 612 ". The 

specimen is teneral. 
terminalis, Proconia, 1851b : 787. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and " 14. 

Proconia terminalis.". 
testaceus, Ciccus Walker, 1851b : 800. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" 7. Ciccus testaceus.". The specimen is teneral. 
testudinaria, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 251. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; testudinaria ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Bugaba ; 800-1,500 

ft. ; Champion." and the B.C.A. label. The lectotype is one of three specimens 

glued to the same card and is opposite a red mark I placed on the card. The 

original illustration is poor. 
thalia, Tettigoniella Distant, 1918b : 2. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 

" Tettigoniella ; thalia ; type Dist." and " Ind. Mus. ; Kurseong ; 6,000 ft. ; 

E. Himalayas ; n-IX-09. ; D'Abreu " and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". It 

agrees with the non-parenthetical portions of the original description, but the face 

is not flattened. The type series is mixed. 
thea, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 520. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 

" Tettigoniella ; thea ; type Dist." and " Peru 263 ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". 

This is the only specimen in the collection. 
tigrina, Kolla Distant, 1918b : 9. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and " Kolla ; 

tigrina ; type Dist." and " Kodai Kanal ; S. India ; Campbell." and " 604 " 

and " S. India. ; E. A. Butler. ; 1915-60.". The lectotype is between two red 

marks on the card bearing it and two additional specimens. 
timorensis, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 139. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; timorensis ; type Dist." and " Wetter, near Timor, ; Malay 

Archipelago. ; W. Doherty. ; 1903-31.". There is an additional specimen, 

without abdomen, from Timor in the collection. 
tissa, Abana Distant, 1908b : 73. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and " Abana ; 

tissa ; type Dist." and " Cachabe ; low c, XII. 96.; (Rosenberg)." and 

" Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". There is also a topotypic <$ in the collection. 
tolosa, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 521. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; tolosa ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". 
tomentosa, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 67. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; tomentosa ; type Dist." and " Equador. ; Rosenberg. ; 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 197 

99-104." and " Chimbo, ; iooo'. VIII. 97. ; (Rosenberg)." and " Tretogonia 
JTM ". 

transfuga, Tettigonia Fowler, i899d : 247. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; transfuga. Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Omilteme, ; Guerrero, 
8000 ft. ; July, H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The scutellum is not black- 
margined as in the original description, but is as in the original illustration. There 
is an additional $ and a teneral <$ in the collection. 

tripars, Tettigonia Walker, 1857a : 97. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" tripars Walk " and " Malch " and " Wallace " and "68.4 ". 

triplaga, Aulacizes Walker, 1858a : 100. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " and 
" Para " and " triplaga Wlk.". 

tripuncta, Tettigonia Walker, 1870b : 303. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " tripunctata " and "Wallace" and " Cer." and "68.4.". The face and 
the genitalia are damaged. The specimen is teneral. 

trivirgata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900a : 259. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; trivirgata. ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft. ; 
Champion." and the B.C. A. label. Of two <$ glued to the same card, the lectotype 
is adjacent to a red mark I placed on the card. There is an additional <$ in the 
collection. 

tunicata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900b : 271. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " T. tunicata ; Fowler. TYPE." and " Chilpancingo, ; Guerrero, 4600 ft. ; 
June. H. H. Smith." and the B.C. A. label. The lectotype is one of two specimens 
on the same card and is adjacent to the red mark I placed on the card. The 
original description is poor, the original illustration worse. There is an additional 
<$ in the collection. 

typicus, Augulus Distant, 1918b : 99. Lectotype specimen without abdomen, 
with labels : " Type ; H. T." and " Augulus ; typicus ; type Dist." and " Mar- 
gherita ; Assam ; W. Doherty ". This is the only specimen in the collection. 

ulla, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 522. Lectotype <$ with labels : " Type " and 
" Tettigoniella ; ulla Dist. ; type " and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906-263.". 
This is the only specimen in the collection. 

undecimmaculata, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 254. Holotype $ with labels : 
" Type " and " Tettigonia ; undecimmaculata ; Fowler. TYPE " and "V. de 
Chiriqui, ; 2-3000 ft. ; Champion." and the B.C. A. label. This is the only speci- 
men in the collection. 

uniguttata, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 778. Holotype ? with labels : " Type " 
and " 115. Tettigonia uniguttata." and " Mexico ". The specimen is very 
teneral. 

vallonia, Tettigoniella Distant, 1908a : 522. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigoniella ; vallonia ; type Dist." and " Peru. ; Rosenberg. ; 1906- 
263.". 

velutina, Tettigonia Fowler, 1899c : 251. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 
and " Tettigonia ; velutina. ; Fowler. TYPE " and " Bugaba, ; 800-1,500 ft. ; 



198 D. A. YOUNG 

Champion.". The original description is composite, one of the three specimens in 

the type series not being conspecific. There is a conspecific $ in the collection. 
venosula, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 64. Holotype <$ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; venosula ; type Dist." and " Co types, Breddin. ; Purch. of 

Haensch. ; Oncometopia ; venosula ; M. S. Bredd." and " Archidona ; (Ecuad.) ; 

R. Haensch S." and " 1903-322." and " 93 ". 
vesta, Kolla Distant, i9o8g : 224. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type ; H. T." and 

" vesta ; type Dist." and " Kangra Valley ; 4500 ft. ; May 1899 ; Dudgeon." 

and " Distant Coll. ; 1911-383.". This is the only topotypic specimen in the 

collection. 
virescens, Oncometopia Distant, 1908b : 65. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Oncometopia ; virescens; type Dist." and " Peru ". There is an additional 

$, mentioned in the original description, which is doubtfully conspecific. 
virgaticeps, Tettigonia Fowler, 1900c : 275. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia ; virgaticeps Fowler. ; TYPE." and " Teapa ; Tabasco. ; 

April. H. H. S." and the B.C. A. label. There is an additional $ in the collection. 
viridescens, Tettigonia Walker, 1851b : 765. Holotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigonia viridescens." and " Vene ; zuela ". 
viridivittata, Aulacizes Walker, 1851b : 794. Holotype $ with labels " Type " 

and "9. Aulacizes viridivitta." and " Para ". 
vittifrons, Tettigonia Walker, 1870b : 302. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " vittifrons " and " N " and " N. Gui ; Wallace ". 
wallacei, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 143. Lectotype $ with labels : " Type " 

and " Tettigoniella ; wallacei ; type Dist." and " Mys. ; Wallace " and " M." 

and " 68.4 ". Except that the flattening of the face is negligible and that the 

facial muscle impressions are very weak, the specimen agrees with the original 

description. This is the only specimen in the collection. 
wetterensis, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 137. Lectotype $ with labels : 

" Type " and " Tettigoniella ; wetterensis ; type Dist." and " Wetter, near 

Timor, ; Malay Archipelago ; W. Doherty. ; 1903-31.". The abdominal sternum 

vii is somewhat distorted. The specimen is teneral. 
whiteheadi, Tettigoniella Distant, i9o8f : 142. Lectotype $ with labels : 

" Type " and " Tettigoniella ; whiteheadi ; type ; Dist." and " Philippine Is. ; 

Whitehead. ; 96-147.". 
willeyi, Tettigonia Kirkaldy, 1905b : 333. Lectotype $ with labels : " Tettigonia 

willeyi " and " Type [in blue] " and " New Britain ; A. Willey, D. Sc. ; Reg. 

Mar. 1. 1898 " and " Type [in red] " and " Brit. Mus. ; 1950-82 " and " Tetti- 
gonia willeyi ; Kirk. Type.". There is another specimen in the collection. 
zea, Diedrocephala Distant, 1908b : 60. Holotype specimen without abdomen, 

with labels : " Type " and " Diedrocephala ; zea ; type Dist." and " Cachabe ; 

low c, XII. 96. ; (Rosenberg)." and " Ecuador. ; Rosenberg. ; 99-104.". 

The abdomen, hind wings and metathorax are missing. This is the only specimen 

in the collection. 



CICADELLINE TYPES IN B.M. (N.H.) 



199 



REFERENCES 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1942. Bibliography of the Homoptera. North Carolina State College of 
Agriculture and Engineering of the University of North Carolina. Raleigh, N. C, 886 pp. 

1964. General Catalogue of the Homoptera, Fascicle VI Cicadelloidea, Bibliography of the 

Cicadelloidea. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washing- 
ton, D.C., 349 pp. 
Young, D. A. & Davidson, R. H. 1959a. A review of leafhoppers of the genus Draeculace- 
U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1198, 32 pp. 




PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 
BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED 
BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



d<? 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



BOMBYLIIDAE 

J. BOWDEN 

ASIATIC SPECIES OF THE GENUS 
STENOMICRA (ANTHOMYZIDAE) 

C. W. SABROSKY 

PSYCHODIDAE 

F. VAILLANT 

CELYPHIDAE 

P. VANSCHUYTBROECK 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 5 

LONDON: 1965 






DIPTERA FROM NEPAL W ..^' 



• 4 NOV 1965 



BOMBYLIIDAE 



BY 



T. BOW D EN 

j y 

Research Station, Long Ashton, Bristol 

ASIATIC SPECIES OF THE GENUS 
STENOMICRA (ANTHOMYZIDAE) 

BY 

C. W. SABROSKY 

Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Surv., 
U.S. Dept. Agric, Washington, D.C. 

PSYCHODIDAE 

BY 

F. VAILLANT 

University of Grenoble, France 

CELYPHIDAE 

BY 

P. VANSCHUYTBROECK 

Bruxelles 



Pp. 201-230 ; 59 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 5 

LONDON: 1965 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(natural history), instituted in 1949, *S 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 17, No. 5 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1965 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 29 October, 1965 PriceThirteen Shillings 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



BOMBYLIIDAE 

By J. BOWDEN 

SYNOPSIS 
From material collected on the British Museum East Nepal Expedition 1 961-1962, Cyrtosia 
amnicola and Hemipenthes melanus are described as new ; both represent first records of their 
genera from the area. -Cephenius mucronatus Enderlein and Cephenius sikkimensis Enderlein 
are redescribed. Ceratolaemus Hesse, erected as an aberrant subgenus of Platypygus Loew is 
synonymized with Cyrtosia Perris. 

Seven specimens of Bombyliidae collected by Mr. R. L. Coe while serving as entomo- 
logist on the British Museum East Nepal Expedition 1961-1962 comprise four species, 
belonging to three genera, each in a separate subfamily ; two of the species are new. 
The new species, a Hemipenthes and a Cyrtosia have strong Palaearctic affinities, 
while the other species, belonging to Cephenius, were both previously known from 
neighbouring Sikkim. 

Subfamily GYRTOSIINAE 
CYRTOSIA Perris 

Cyrtosia Perris, 1839, Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 8 : 55. 
Ceratolaemus Hesse, 1938 : 969 syn. n. 

Twenty-four species of this genus are listed by Engel (1937) from the Palaearctic 
region. Although Cyrtosia has not previously been recorded from the oriental region 
or from Asia other than Turkmen and Uzbek S.S.R., it is very likely that the genus 
will occur widely in Central Asia. 

Cyrtosia amnicola sp. n. 

Head: occiput shining brown-black to black, with short sparse black hair and strongly inflated, 
lower posterior angle strongly produced backwards into a sharp triangular projection ; ocelli 
prominent, red ; frons depressed, shining blackish, edges of frons, band above antennae, face, 
genae and buccal cavity yellow, buccal margin blackish brown to black ; antennae black, 
second segment with pale apical margin, third broadly oval pale pubescent on inner margin and 
with a broad apical style which is notably pubescent ; proboscis black, finely hairy, palps 
apparently absent. Thorax black, mesonotum shining ; humeri broadly, metapleurae and wing 
base areas pale yellowish, propleurae and a band across upper sternopleurae and hypopleurae 
also pale yellowish, pleurae thus appearing black with upper and median pale yellow stripes ; 
thoracic pubescence sparse, dark, notopleurae with 2-3 longish dark hairs, and 3 long, more 
bristly pre-alar hairs ; hair across anterior margin of mesonotum and on humeri pale ; notum 
and pleurae densely covered with minute rather iridescent scales. Abdomen black, shining, 
tergites with narrow pale yellow posterior margins, lateral intersegmental areas yellow at base of 

Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Entom. 17 (5), 1965. 
entom. 17, 5 6§ 



204 J. BOWDEN 

abdomen, venter black with yellowish hind margins to segments ; hypopygium black ; pubes- 
cence sparse, black. Legs almost entirely pale yellow, coxae slightly brownish basally, last three 
segments of each tarsus brownish black ; middle femora sometimes slightly brownish basally, 
hind legs sometimes with femora and tibiae brownish apically ; claws black, pulvilli white ; 
pubescence on legs apparently all pale. Wings iridescent ; venation typical, anal vein rather 
strongly irregular before margin ; veins brownish, microtrichiae pronounced, those along hind 
margin well developed ; alula absent ; halteres comparatively large, stalk flattened ; mainly 
yellowish, stalk and base of knob more or less infuscate. 

Length of body i -6-2-o mm. ; of wing 1-8-2-3 mm. ; of proboscis 0-7-1-0 mm. 

Holotype <$. East Nepal: Taplejung District, Dobhan, c. 3,500 ft, small pockets 
of plants on arid slopes above R. Maewa, 2. i. 1962 (R. L. Coe). Brit. Mus. (Nat. 
Hist.). 

Paratypes : 1 $, same date as holotype ; 2 <$, Taplejung District, Dobhan, c. 
3,500 ft, shady places on shrubby slope above R. Tamur, 21-27.1.1962 (R. L. 
Coe). Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) and author's collection. 

C. amnicola runs easily in Engel's key (1937 : 105) to C. nitens Loew, with which 
species it agrees in important characters such as the ventrally prolonged head and 
long proboscis, but is readily separated by differences in colour, such as black 
antennae, more extensively black buccal area, less extensive yellow mesonotal 
pattern, the distinctive median yellow pleural line, and paler pubescence on legs. 

It may be noted here that Hesse (1938 : 969) proposed a subgenus Ceratolaemus for 
a South African species xanthogrammus Hesse, which he considered belonged to the 
genus Platypygus Loew. Ceratolaemus was differentiated on the absence of a dis- 
coidal cell, present in all other species of Platypygus, and was separable, according 
to Hesse, from Cyrtosia by several characters, particularly the ventral prolongation 
of the head behind, longer proboscis, and well developed wing microtrichiae. In 
fact, none of these characters differentiate Ceratolaemus xanthogrammus from Cyrtosia 
as at present constituted, while the open discoidal cell, if this character be accepted as 
a generic distinction, precludes its allocation to Platypygus. P. xanthogrammus 
Hesse should therefore be known as Cyrtosia xanthogramma (Hesse) comb, n., and 
placed in the C. nitens group, which also includes C. amnicola and several Mediter- 
ranean species. Ceratolaemus Hesse drops into the synonymy of Cyrtosia Perris, 
at least until a comprehensive revision of the Cyrtosiinae has been carried out. 



Subfamily SYSTROPINAE 

CEPHENIUS Enderlein 

Cephenius Enderlein, 1926, Wien. ent. Ztg. 43 (2) : 70. 

With the exception of Systropus annulatus Engel, 1937, all the non-African Old 
World species of this subfamily are placed in the genus Cephenius Enderlein, type- 
species Systropus study i Enderlein from China. Cephenius was separated from 
Systropus on the grounds that the eyes are contiguous, not narrowly separated, in 
both sexes. This is not a generic character in the Systropinae and there are no other 
grounds for maintaining Cephenius separate from Systropus. Since the type-species 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 205 

of Systropus Wied., as well as those of most of the other genera erected by Enderlein 
(1926a) are African, the formal synonymy of Cephenius Enderlein and Systropus 
Wiedemann is best established in a treatment of the African fauna. This will be done 
in a subsequent contribution. Meanwhile the name Cephenius is retained for the two 
specimens considered here, each representing one of Enderlein's species and both 
previously known from Sikkim. As the original descriptions are rather less than 
adequate, the opportunity is taken to redescribe both. 



Cephenius mucronatus Enderlein 
Cephenius mucronatus Enderlein, 1926a : 82 ; Engel, 1937 : 9 2 - 

Head: occiput black, densely white-dusted, especially on lower edges, and clothed with pale 
yellowish to white hair ; ocellar tubercle brownish ; interocular stripe black ; frons, antennal 
tubercle, face, genae, buccal margin and cavity yellow, more or less densely silvery pollinose, 
facial hair longish, not dense, yellowish white ; antennae with first segment for most part brown, 
yellow at base, black at apex, second and third segments black, pubescence all black, antennal 
length about 5 mm., proportions 2-5 : 1 : app. 2-0 ; proboscis black, brownish basally, palps 
yellowish brown. Thorax with prominent black-and-yellow pattern ; mesonotum black, humeri 
and a broad oblique stripe extending well onto mesonotum, anterior half of teguliform lobe, post 
alar calli broadly, yellow, mesonotum slightly rugose ; pleurae with entire propleural region, 
most of hypopleurae and metapleurae and upper anterior sternopleurae, together with a broad 
median metasternal stripe yellow, rest of pleurae and sides of metasternum black, pubescence of 
thorax short, sparse, dark on black areas, pale, white to yellowish, on yellow areas, pteropleurae 
with weak tuft of shining yellowish hair ; scutellum black, extreme margin and apex beneath 
yellow, pubescence black but marginal fringe yellow, scutellar callosities clear yellow, foliate. 
Abdomen with petiole consisting of segments II-V, the latter broadening fairly sharply into club 
of VI onwards ; I black, II-V ochraceous yellow with broad blackish brown dorsal stripe and 
narrower ventrolateral brownish stripes ; club brownish yellow, hind margins of segments 
ochraceous yellow, last sternite entirely so ; pubescence generally black, short, rather sparse, 
white in ventro-lateral tufts of I, yellow to more or less gold on yellow parts of petiole and on apex 
at sides and below on margins of club ; posterior fringe of VIII long, fine, yellowish ; ovipositor 
shining black, semicircular with a median, prominent, sharply pointed, slightly upturned process 
which has a few prominent apical hairs. Legs apparently black-and-yellow banded ; anterior 
coxae and trochanters entirely yellow, other coxae and trochanters black, femora yellow, 
extensively brownish above basally, hind pair for most of their length, brownish areas with dense 
serially arranged black spicules giving appearance of black colour to femora above ; tibiae all 
yellow but basal halves of hind tibiae densely covered with black spicules, thus appearing black 
in colour ; tarsi yellow, apical two segments of each tarsus black and basal segment of hind tarsi 
also densely black spiculate, appearing black basally ; claws black, pulvilli yellowish ; callus of 
fore femora brownish, minutely pubescent ; fore and mid tibiae with short silvery pubescence, 
which is not conspicuous or dense ; femora without spines, those on hind tibiae arranged 6, 7, 3. 
Wings brownish subhyaline, yellowish in subcostal cell and slightly yellowish at base and in first 
basal cell ; veins brownish, Sc and Rx yellowish ; with two submarginal cells, discal cross-vein 
well beyond middle of discal cell, origin of i? 4 very steep, first posterior cell narrowed at apex ; 
halteres with brownish yellow stem, yellow knob which is black above near stem. 

Length 20-22-5 mm. ; wing 12-5-15 mm. (these figures include those given by Engel, 1926a) ; 
proboscis about 4-5 mm. 

Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200 ft., by rocky stream, 7-16. x. 1961, 1 $ 
{R. L. Coe). Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 



206 J. BOWDEN 

Cephenius sikkimensis Enderlein 

Cephenius sikkimensis Enderlein, 1926a : 78 ; Engel, 1937 : 95- 

Head: occiput black, densely white pollinose, except for three (one median, paired submedian) 
vertical stripes, which are clear black, pubescence white ; ocellar tubercle reddish, ocelli yellow, 
interocular stripe greyish black ; frons, face, genae, buccal margin and cavity and head beneath 
yellow, all except buccal area and head beneath densely silvery pollinose, facial tuft longish, but 
not dense, white ; antennae with first segment largely yellow, black at apex, second and third 
black, pubescence all black, antennal length about 4-5 mm., proportions 2-2-5 : 1 : 2 ; proboscis 
black, brownish below at base, palps yellowish. Thorax mainly black, humeral area and a large 
oblique stripe running well onto mesonotum, anterior half of teguliform lobes, post alar calli 
broadly, entire propleural area and metapleurae yellow, upper anterior margin of metasternum 
also dark yellowish, scutellum black ; pubescence mainly white, pronotal hair, a broad band 
along mesonotum, a tuft at upper sternopleural angle and hair at base of scutellum black, a 
small hair tuft present on pteropleurae, pubescence on metasternum distinctly long and shaggy 
although sparse ; scutellar callosities clear yellow, foliate. Abdomen with petiole consisting of 
segments II-V, latter not greatly expanded at apex, club laterally compressed ; colour pre- 
dominantly yellow, clear sulphury yellowish at base of petiole, becoming reddish yellow on club, 
I all black, a broad dorsal brownish black stripe on petiole which extends broadly onto VI, II-V 
also with latero- ventral black stripes extending along greater part of each segment but not reaching 
either margin ; pubescence short, sparse, predominantly black, sides of petiole with golden yel- 
low hair which extends as a narrow band along lower margin of club, on VIII occupying most of 
ventral part ; genitalia reddish yellow, last sternite (tergite as viewed in situ) with heavily 
sclerotised lamellae, and produced at each ventral corner (as viewed in situ) into long thin whip- 
like processes ; telomeres with simple rounded but heavily sclerotised apices, aedeagal process 
ending in a very broad heavily sclerotised formation. Legs: anterior coxae and trochanters 
yellow, mid coxae black basally, yellow at apices, hind coxae black, fore and hind coxae with 
white pubescence, mid coxae with short black hair ; fore legs yellow, a posterodorsal basal area 
on femora brownish and densely covered with black spicules, callus brown, minutely black 
pubescent, otherwise femora, tibiae and basal three segments of tarsi clothed with short, sparse 
silvery pubescence, last two tarsal segments brownish yellow with black hairs ; mid legs similar, 
but femora with more extensive posterodorsal brownish area densely covered with shining black 
spicules, tibiae with some black spicules anteriorly, last three tarsal segments blackish brown and 
black haired ; hind legs with femora yellow, brownish above almost to apex, densely covered on 
brown areas with black spicules, tibiae yellow, with dense black spicules above on more than 
basal half and also medially as a complete ring, basal segment of tarsi with such dense black 
spicules above that it appears black though ground colour is yellowish brown, other tarsal seg- 
ments similar although less densely spiculate so that yellowish brown to brown ground colour is 
more apparent ; all claws black, pulvilli whitish ; femora without spines, those of hind tibiae 
strong, 3, 5, 4. Wings hyaline, slightly shaded yellowish at base and in costal cell ; veins 
brownish ; with two submarginal cells, discal cross vein at about half length of discoidal cell, 
origin of R t steep, first posterior cell only slightly narrowed at apex ; halteres with dusky 
yellowish stem and pale yellow knob. 

Length i4-5-i7-o mm. ; wing io-o-ii-o mm. (these figures include those given by Engel, loc. 
cit.) ; proboscis about 3 mm. 

Nepal : Taplejung District, Sangu, c. 6,200 ft., mixed vegetation by stream in 
gully, ix.-x.1961, 1 $ (R. L. Coe). Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 

The differences between the above description and that of Enderlein's much briefer 
original description, particularly in regard to the legs, are due to the superficiality of 
Enderlein's description. A great many species of Cephenius have the very character- 
istic rows of spicules on the legs so dense that the ground colour may be obscured, 






DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 207 

large areas of the legs thus appearing black when in fact the ground colour may be pale 
yellow or brownish. C. sikkimensis is a good example ; the ground colour of the 
legs is predominantly yellow, all the apparent black being due to very dense spicules. 

Subfamily EXOPROSOPINAE 

HEMIPENTHES Loew 

Hemipenthes Loew, 1869, Berl. ent. Z. 13 : 28 nota. 

This genus, which has numerous Asiatic representatives, has not previously been 
reported from the Southern,- Oriental side of the Himalayas. The present collection 
contains a single specimen representing a distinct species of the velutinus Mg. group. 

Hemipenthes melanus sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 1) 

Body black, sides of abdomen, hind margin of abdominal segment VI and all VII and VIII 
somewhat brownish. Head: frons about twice width of ocellar tubercle ; antennae with first 
segment about three times as long as second, combined length slightly less than that of third, 
latter with bulb-shaped base rather abruptly narrowing at about one-fifth length of segment 
into apical part, apical style short, transparent reddish ; proboscis short, not extending much 
beyond bases of antennae, palps short ; face slightly produced, appearing more prominent 
because of short proboscis. Pubescence almost entirely black, some pale yellowish scales on 
lower frons and face, collar pale straw-yellow, anterior part of plumula dirty white ; no trace 
of white hair or scales on abdomen, even at sides of I, hair and scales on sides of abdomen long, 
those at sides of V and VI, especially, markedly tufted, those on posterior half of III and on IV 
less so, posterior scale fringe of VII long ; ovipositor spines delicate, fairly long, reddish basally, 
transparent yellowish at apices, 6 + 6. Legs yellow, coxae and tarsi, except for basal segments, 
black or blackish ; scales on femora and mid and hind tibiae dense, black, spines and spicules all 
black ; claws strongly swollen at bases, but without discrete tooth, pul villi absent. Wings 
(Text-fig. 1) with extensive deep blackish brown baso-marginal infuscation, characterised by its 
extension to wing tip in second submarginal cell, the marginal cell completely infuscate except 
for a small clear subapical spot ; yellowish brown fenestrae over cross-veins and bifurcations ; 
venation as for genus, with deep loops in i? 2 +3 and i? 4 , discal cell slightly widened at apex and 
very obtuse, first posterior cell and anal cell widely open ; squamae dirty white, black edged and 
black fringed, halteres with dusky stem, knob blackish below, dusky white above. 

Length 8-8 mm. ; wing 9-5 mm. 




Fig. 1. Hemipenthes melanus sp. n. Holotype § wing. 
17. 5 6§§ 



208 J. BOWDEN 

Holotype $. Nepal: Arun Valley, below Tumlingtar, River Sabhaya, west shore, 
c. i, 800 ft., evergreen shrubs on sandy shore, 9-18.xii.1961 (it*. L. Coe). Brit. 
Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 

H. melanus is easily separable from H. velutinus and H. praecisus Loew, to which it 
appears to be closest, by the characteristic wing infuscation with its extension along 
the costal margin to the wing tip, and by the entirely black abdomen. 

REFERENCES 
Efflatoun, H. C. 1945. A Monograph of Egyptian Diptera : Bombyliidae. Bull. Soc. 

Fouad I. Ent., 29 : 1-406, 38 pi. 
Enderlein, G. 1926. Ueber einige mimetische Fliegen; in Study, Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Allg. 

Zool., 42 : 421-427, 2 pis. 
1926a. Zur Kenntnis der Bombyliiden-Subfamilie Systropodinae (Dipt.). Wien. ent. 

Ztg., 43 (2) : 69-92, 1 fig. 
Engel, E. O. 1937. m Lindner, Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region, 25, Bombyliidae : 

1-619, 239 figs. 15 pis. Stuttgart. 
Hesse, A. J. 1938. A Revision of the Bombyliidae (Diptera) of Southern Africa. Ann. S. 

Afr. Mus., 34 : 1-1053, 332 figs. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 






ASIATIC SPECIES OF THE GENUS 
STENOMICRA (DIPTERA : ANTHOMYZIDAE) 

By C. W. SABROSKY 

SYNOPSIS 
Stenomicra Coquillett, a genus of tiny, inconspicuous, and uncommon flies, is represented in the 
collection of the British Museum East Nepal Expedition by one widespread species, S. fasci- 
pennis Malloch, and one new species, S. angustiforceps . Two other Asiatic species, S. albibasis 
(Japan) and 5. argentata (Malaya), from the collection of the U.S. National Museum, are also 
described as new. A key to the 4 species, a detailed generic description, and a critical discussion 
of certain characters are included. 

The genus Stenomicra was erected by Coquillett in 1900 for a single, delicate species 
from Puerto Rico. In 1927 Malloch added three species — from Australia, the 
Philippines, and Hawaii. Species described in new genera by Czerny (1929) from 
Ceylon and by Collin (1944, 1951) from England and Fiji have been recognized 
subsequently as belonging to Stenomicra. Finally, Hennig (1956) added three new 
species from Costa Rica. The genus has thus come to be known as widespread but 
rather uncommon. In the past few years, however, many more specimens of these 
pale, tiny, easily overlooked flies have been collected. There are a number of un- 
described species, chiefly from the Neotropical Region, but also from Australia, 
Micronesia, the Orient, the United States, and South Africa. Incidentally, the genus 
has not hitherto been known from Africa, but at least two new species have been 
found in material received from B. R. Stuckenberg of the Natal Museum. 

The collection made by the British Museum East Nepal Expedition contained 25 
specimens of two species of this genus, collected by Mr. R. L. Coe, to whom I am 
indebted for the privilege of studying the material. One of the species is here 
described as new, together with species from Japan and from Malaya. 

I have followed Sturtevant (1954) and Hennig (1958) in placing Stenomicra in the 
family Anthomyzidae. In the past, the genus has also been referred to the Droso- 
philidae, Asteiidae, Geomyzidae, and Periscelididae. 

The lengthy generic diagnosis is based on a review of all the species available to me, 
and not merely on the Oriental species. The broad consideration is essential, because 
one may be unduly impressed by the development of certain characters if he knows 
only one or a few species. Even though the genus throughout the world appears to 
be divisible into two groups of species on the basis of the characters used in the first 
couplet of the key, I do not feel that these groupings represent genera or even sub- 
genera. In the number of species now known to me, mostly still undescribed, various 

Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Entom., 17 (5), 1965. 



210 C. W. SABROSKY 

combinations of characters can be found, and there are species clearly intermediate 
between the species groups (e.g. 5. argentata sp. n.). 

There is considerable question whether the apparent " vibrissae " of Stenomicra are 
actually that, or whether some other bristles are developed as what might be termed 
" pseudo vibrissae." The small size of the species and the differences in fusion of 
parts of the face make study and interpretation rather difficult. A project of 
sufficient breadth to be worthwhile should involve consideration of these bristles and 
areas in such genera as Anthomyza, Planinasus, Geomyza, Aulacigaster, Camilla, 
Periscelis, etc., and is beyond the scope of this paper. Such a study may well be 
relevant to a review of the family relationships of Stenomicra, necessarily left in 
abeyance for the present. 

There is also a question whether the characteristic proclinate bristles on the vertex 
are postverticals or inner verticals. In either case, the proclinate direction is unusual 
and is one of the distinctive features of the genus. Hendel (1931) and Collin (1944) 
called them postverticals, but Malloch (1927) regarded them as inner verticals. 
Hennig (1958 : 635) also concluded that they are inner verticals, and I agree. Many 
of the species also have weak but distinct hairs behind and below the ocellar triangle, 
in the same position as the postverticals of the Anthomyzidae with which Stenomicra 
is currently associated. I therefore conclude that they are indeed postverticals and 
that the strongly developed bristles on the rim of the vertex are inner verticals. 

The species of Stenomicra show varying degrees of reduction in several characters. 
These reductions, which are sometimes quite extreme, materially affect a statement of 
generic characters and must also be considered in any discussion of the family position 
of the genus. 

The postverticals, when discernible, are minute, weak, and hairlike. In some 
species, such as the type-species, 5. angustata Coquillett from Puerto Rico, the post- 
verticals are divergent. In other species they are convergent, though not cruciate 
as in Anthomyza for example. In a few species, such as the widespread 5. fascipennis 
Malloch, I have been unable to find them. Even when present, they are difficult to 
see, especially as they are so often pale yellow gainst a yellow background. 

In the wing, presence of the anal cell, presence of the anal vein, and separation or 
confluence of the second basal and discal cells appear to be related to the width of the 
wing on its basal portion. Narrowing of the wing tends to reduce the veins and cells 
in that area. In Stenomicra, the range is from all cells distinct, through varying 
degrees of incomplete closure, to complete confluence of second basal and discal cells 
and absence of anal cell. The anal vein in its most reduced form is only a trace, so 
close to the basal portion of the second basal cell that with usual examination one 
would say it was absent. With these reductions, the axillary lobe is undeveloped 
and the alula is absent or very narrow and lacks the usual fringe of hairs. 

In two species (e.g., see Text-fig. 2), the wing is broader at its base, the axillary 
lobe is somewhat developed, and the alula is slightly broader than usual and has a 
fringe of long hairs. Although these features might be regarded as having generic 
significance, the similarity of the two species to other species of Stenomicra is so great 
in most respects that I leave them in the genus as atypical forms. Also, even though 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 211 

the wing is broad at base in these two species, the second basal and discal cells are 
completely confluent and the anal cell is absent. However, the anal vein is strong 
and extends half way to the margin of the wing. 

STENOMICRA Coquillett 

Stenomicra Coquillett, 1900 : 262. Type-species, S. angustata Coquillett, by original designation. 
Podocera Czerny, 1929 : 93. Type-species, P. ramifera Czerny, by monotypy. 
Stenomicra Coquillett; Hendel, 1931 : 10-12. [Podocera — Stenomicra; generic redescription.] 
Diadelops Collin, 1944 : 265-266. Type-species, D. delicata Collin, by monotypy. 
Stenomicra Coquillett ; Sturtevant, 1954 : 5°°- [Diadelops = Stenomicra.] Hennig, 1958 : 
633-635. [Generic characters, relationship.] 

Small flies, usually 1-5-1-75 mm., with slender body. Head wider than thorax, strongly 
concave behind, the vertex a sharp rim above vertical occiput, in profile the head peculiarly 
angulate below, snoutlike, projecting forward at vibrissal angle ; eyes microscopically sparsely 
pubescent, in profile more or less diagonal and the length greater than the breadth, with some 
enlarged facets either above or below. Front devoid of hairs, depressed and emarginate anteriorly, 
parallel-sided above but widening at level of antennae, the face narrowing at the vibrissal angle, 
the eyes obviously closer together at the vibrissal angle than at the vertex, their inner margins 
appearing more or less emarginate at level of antennae; ocellar tubercle small, situated well in 
front of the vertex, commonly centred on the front. Face sloping anteroventrally from bases of 
antennae to vibrissal angles, usually with slight median carina, smooth in a few species, wide 
above and narrowing below ; vibrissal angles prominent, especially in profile, the lower end of 
the facial plate often forming a sharp rim above the vertical epistomal area which is continued 
around the oral opening as a broad to narrow peristomal area ; median plate of clypeus a long, 
narrow, inverted U. Haustellum and labella broad and short, tending to fill the oral opening. 
Palpi reduced, papilliform, difficult to discern. Antenna with large second segment, the third 
decumbent almost at right angles to second, and with many long hairs dorsally ; arista with 
several long rays dorsally near base, followed by alternating rays as in Drosophila. Chaetotaxy 
of head ; long, slightly reclinate outer verticals, weak to medium strong proclinate inner verti- 
cals, rather widely separated from the outer bristles, minute and hairlike postverticals (divergent 
in type-species, apparently convergent or absent in some species), no ocellars, 1 strong and long 
orbital, preceded by a shorter " preorbital " which may be weak and hairlike, or somewhat 
longer and stronger, at its maximum development almost as strong as the orbital ; true vibrissae 
apparently absent, but uppermost pair of facial bristles developed as porrect and slightly 
dorsoclinate and divergent " pseudovibrissae," followed posteroventrally on each side by a row of 
peristomal hairs and bristles. 

Mesonotum longer than broad, almost bare of hairs, typically with only the median acrostichal 
and the two dorsocentral rows, the former incomplete posteriorly, the latter terminating with 
the dorsocentral bristles. Scutellum conical, rounded distally. Postscutellum strongly deve- 
loped, convex, nearly or quite attaining apex of scutellum. Meso- and pteropleura usually 
bare. Chaetotaxy : 1 weak humeral, 1 presutural (posthumeral), 1 + 1 notopleural, the 
posterior on a callosity and well removed from notopleural rim, 1 or 2 dorsocentrals, 1 sterno- 
pleural, 1 apical scutellar. 

Abdomen slender and elongate, usually seven terga visible in addition to the genital segments ; 
sterna becoming broader distally, the seventh segment a complete ring. 

Fore femur with 1 or more strong, straight posteroventral bristles on distal half. Mid tibia 
apically with strong, straight, ventral spur. 

Wing long and relatively narrow, usually narrowed at base with alula absent or very narrow 
and lacking fringe of hairs ; costa extending to apex of fourth vein ; subcosta incomplete, first 
vein very short, second usually very long ; third and fourth veins parallel to subparallel, often 
slightly converging at apex of wing, narrowing the apical cell ; fifth vein not reaching margin of 



212 C. W. SABROSKY 

wing ; second basal and discal cells distinct, partially separated, or confluent ; anal cell and anal 
vein variable, ranging from distinct to absent. 

Key to Species 

i Second vein long, ending near apex of wing, the third costal sector (between tips of 
second and third veins) slightly shorter than fourth sector (Text-fig. i) ; discal 
cell long, broadened distally ; postvertical hairs absent ; preorbital bristles strong, 
long or moderately so ........... 2 

- Second vein ending well before apex of wing, the third costal sector several times the 

length of fourth sector (Text-figs. 2, 3) ; discal cell short and parallel-sided, or 
weakly broadened ; postvertical hairs present ; preorbitals short, weak, hairlike 3 

2 Wing with conspicuous white bands over the crossveins, in addition to white basal 

area ............ fascipennis Mall. 

- Wing brownish hyaline, white only at base (Text-fig. 1) . . albibasis sp. n. 

3 Wing lightly browned, marked with white (Text-fig. 2) ; mesonotum polished 

yellow ........... argentata sp. n. 

- Wing entirely hyaline, unmarked ; mesonotum thinly pollinose, yellow with bluish 

gray infuscation laterally ....... angustiforceps sp. n. 

Stenomicra fascipennis Malloch 

(Text-fig. 4) 

Stenomicra fascipennis Malloch, 1927 : 26, pi. 2, figs. 10, 11 [Philippines]. 
Podocera r ami f era Czerny, 1929 : 94, figs. I, 2 [Ceylon]. Probable syn. 
Diadelops distinctipennis Collin, 1951 : 47, fig. 1 [Fiji]. Probable syn. 

Bluish-grey, pollinose species, with conspicuously white-banded wings. 

cj$. Head and thorax brown in ground color, chiefly bluish gray pollinose ; head paler and 
partly yellowish, as described for P. ramifera, in teneral specimens, and antennae and proboscis 
yellow ; mesonotum broadly bright gray pollinose between dorsocentral lines, brownish on sides 
and scutellum, the latter sometimes yellowish apically ; pleuron brown across upper third, 
yellowish below ; abdominal terga and genital segments of both sexes subshining brown, thinly 
gray pollinose ; legs yellow except infuscated distal segment of fore and mid tarsi and basal 
fourth to third of hind tibia ; halteres apparently typically brownish on outer surface, but 
varying considerably in appearance, probably with degree of maturity of specimen ; wing 
brownish hyaline, darker behind the third vein, marked with a white basal area, a white band 
over each crossvein, and in some specimens white areas subapically in marginal and second 
posterior cells. 

Front at vertex 1*5 times the width of an eye; in profile, eye moderately diagonal, with 
greatest width opposite antennal base, so that its length is only 1-7 times the greatest width ; 
face nearly straight, less produced than in some species, the vibrissal angle oblique and not 
strongly snoutlike ; face with low median carina ; postverticals absent ; inner verticals especially 
weak, short, slender, and inconspicuous, almost hairlike, obviously much weaker than the pre- 
orbitals, the latter strong, bristlelike, nearly as well-developed as the orbitals, erect but curved 
mesad ; pseudovibrissae strong, followed on each side by 1 weak and 2 strong and well-spaced 
peristomal bristles, and 2 weak hairs ; postoccipital hairlike. 

Mesonotum with one pair of long dorsocentrals ; presuturals weak and short, hairlike ; 
meso- and pteropleura bare ; postscutellum highly convex, narrower than scutellum. Mid 
tibial spur of moderate length, less than twice the diameter of the tibia. 

Wing with second vein unusually long, ending just short of wing apex and narrowing the sub- 
marginal cell distally, the third costal sector only o-8o times the length of the fourth sector ; 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 213 

discal cell unusually long and broad, the hind crossvein twice the length of fore crossvein and 
situated beyond the middle of the wing ; ultimate sector of fifth vein only a short stub, distance 
from hind crossvein to wing margin 0-75 times the length of hind crossvein and 0-33 times the 
distance between the crossveins ; discal cell incompletely separated from second basal cell ; 
anal cell incomplete, anal vein short. 

Length of body, 1-5 mm. ; of wing, 1-75 mm. 

Distribution : India and Ceylon to Japan and Fiji. 

East Nepal : Taplejung District : north of Sangu, about 5,000 ft., " dry grass 
above river bank," 3 <$, 3 $, 5.1.1962 ; slope above Sangu, about 7,800 ft., " ex 
Lycopodium sp., " 1 ^, 5 $, 11-14.1.1962 ; Sangu, about 6,200 ft., " mixed vegeta- 
tion by stream in gully," 1 $, ix.-x.1961, and " mixed vegetation in deep gully," 
1 <$, 2.1.-13.11.1962 ; below Sangu, about 4,000 ft., " mixed vegetation on sheltered 
slopes above river," 1 <$, 3. i. 1962; Dobhan, about 3,500 ft., "shady places on 
shrubby slope above River Tamur," 1 $, 2 1-27. i. 1962. Arun Valley: below 
Tumlingtar, River Sabhaya, west shore, about 1,800 ft., " evergreen shrubs on sandy 
shore," 1 <J, 1 $, 9-17.xii.1961 ; below Tumlingtar, east shore of River Arun, about 
1,800 ft., " evergreen shrubs bordering dry stream beds," 1 $, 14-23. xii.1961 (all 
collected R. L. Coe) Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). India : Assam : 6 mi. NW. Digboi, 
1 <J, 30-iii.i944 ; Kemi Nadi, 15 mi. NE. of Sadiya, 1 <$, 24. ix. 1943 ; Chabna, 2 $, 
20.xii.1943 ; Duamara, NE. Doom Doom, 1 $, 2-xii.i943 ; Rupsi, 15 mi. NW. 
Dhubri, 1 $, 3.XL1943 (all collected D. E. Hardy) U.S. Nat. Mus. Thailand: 
Phakhida Banlat, Chaivaphum, 1 <$, 20.xii.1950 (R. E. Elbel) U.S. Nat. Mus. 
Malaya : Selangor, Kepong Forest Reserve, at light, 1^,1$, iii-iv.1960 (H. E. 
McClure) ; Selangor, Ulu Gombak Forest Reserve, at light, 1 $, i-v.1960 (H. E. 
McClure) ; Selangor, Rantu Panjang, 5 mi. N. Klang, light trap, 1 $, ix-xii.1959 
(H. E. McClure) ; Pahang, Kuantan, Swamp Forest on Pekan Road, at light, 
1 $, x.1960 (R. H. Wharton) all U.S. Nat. Mus. Japan : Tokyo, 2 <J, 6 $, 8.iv.i953 
(P. W. Oman) ; Kyoto Prefecture, Kibune, 1 g, 3 $, 10. v. 1953 (P. W. Oman) ; 
Shizuoko Prefecture, Gotemba, 1 <$, 9.x. 1952 (P. W. Oman) all U.S. Nat. Mus. ; 
Bonin Islands, Chichi Jima group, Ani Jima, Sen-zan (NE. bay), 1 $, 28. v. 1958 
(F. M. Snyder) Bishop Mus. Philippines : Luzon, Mt. Makiling, 2 $ (one the holo- 
type) (C. F. Baker) ; Luzon, Manila, 1 #, 1 <j> (Robert Brown) U.S. Nat. Mus. North 
Borneo : Tambunon, 7 $, 12.vii.1953 (R. E. Elbel), and " on grass around shaded 
seepage pools," 1 <$, vii.1949 (D. H. Colless) U.S. Nat. Mus. Guam: Yigo, 1 $, 
x.1957 (N. Krauss) U.S. Nat. Mus. ; Machanao, " Pandanus," 1 <£, 3 <j>, 4.VL1936 
(0. H. Swezey) Bishop Mus. Palau Islands: Koror Island, 2 <$, 6. v. 1953 and 
17. vi. 1953 (J. W. Beardsley) Bishop Mus. ; Koror Island, at light, 1 $, 30. vi. 1953 
and 2 ex., at light, 14.lv and 9.VL1953 (P. Adams) Mus. Compar. Zool. ; Pelelieu 
Island, 1 $, 30.viii.1945 (H. S. Dybas) Chicago Nat. Hist. Mus. ; Babelthuap Island, 
Ulimang, 1 $, 10.xii.1947 (H. S. Dybas) U.S. Nat. Mus.; Koror Island, 8 $, 15 $, 
2. v. 1957, 2 #, 7 $, 29. iv. 1957, and " sweeping grasses,', 1 <£, 4 $, 3. v. 1957 (C. W. 
Sabrosky) ; Malakal Island, 3 <J, 7 $, 2. v. 1957 (C. W. Sabrosky) U.S. Nat. Mus. and 
Bishop Mus. 

This species, like the related 5, albibasis sp. n., differs from other species of the genus 



214 C. W. SABROSKY 

by wing venation (second vein ending near apex of wing, and discal cell long and 
broad), absence of postverticals, weak inner verticals, and strong bristlelike pre- 
orbitals. Related but distinct species, mostly undescribed, also occur in the New 
World and in South Africa. The fundamental venation and pattern of fascipennis 
have been figured by Malloch (1927), Czerny (1929), and Collin (1951), with only 
slight differences that probably reflect variation, degree of maturity of the available 
specimens, or generalized drawing. 

Available material indicates that fascipennis is an extremely common and wide- 
ranging species. I have seen no material from Ceylon and Fiji, the type localities of 
Podocera ramifera and Diadelops distinctipennis , except the types themselves which I 
examined only in a general way some years ago ; their descriptions show no appreci- 
able differences from the abundant material before me. However, a small series from 
Natal, South Africa, with a wing identical to that of fascipennis, proved to have quite 
different $ genitalia, and it is possible that either the Ceylon or Fiji species or both 
may be found to be distinct on the basis of genitalic characters. However, in view 
of the known wide distribution of fascipennis, I believe that ramifera and distincti- 
pennis are most probably synonyms. 

Stenomicra albibasis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 1) 

Black, gray-pollinose species with predominantly yellow abdomen ; wings light 
brownish hyaline, basally white. 

$. Head and thorax black, bluish gray pollinose, dull ; antennae and proboscis yellowish to 
brown ; abdomen yellow, the first two terga and narrow lateral margins of three and four black ; 
legs yellow, distal segment of each tarsus black ; wing (Text-fig. 1) hyaline, light brown, white 
toward base, the veins yellow to light brown with conspicuously darker brown markings on first 
vein, toward base and at its apex, and on node at origin of third and fourth veins ; halteres white ; 
bristles of head and thorax black. 

Front 1 -25 times the width of an eye ; ocellar triangle midway between vertex and anterior 
margin of front ; in profile, eye slightly more diagonal than usual, revealing broader area of 
lower occiput ; postverticals absent, inner verticals short and weak, preorbitals moderately 
long and strong, though still obviously much less developed than the orbital bristles ; 2 strong 
and 3 short and hairlike peristomal bristles, in addition to the pseudovibrissae. Mesonotum 
with one pair of strong dorsocentral bristles ; presuturals weak and short, hairlike ; meso- and 
pteropleura bare. Fore femur with 2 long, outstanding posteroventral bristles on distal third. 

Wing as figured (Text-fig. 1) ; the second vein very long, curving parallel to costa and ending 
slightly before apex of wing ; discal cell broadened distally, the hind cross vein 2-2 times the 
length of fore cross vein ; ultimate sector of fifth vein o-6o times the length of penultimate sector 
of fourth vein (distance between cross veins), the distance from hind crossvein to margin of wing 
subequal to the penultimate sector of fourth vein. 

Lengths of body and of wing, 175 mm. 

Holotype $. Japan: Kyoto Prefecture, Kibune, 10. v. 1953 (P. W. Oman) 
U.S. Nat. Mus., Type No. 67514. 

In fundamental characters, as noted in the first couplet of the key, this species 
resembles 5. fascipennis Malloch, but is easily distinguished by the absence of the 
conspicuous white bands over the crossveins, 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 215 

Stenomicra argentata sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 2) 

Shining yellow species, the wings light brownish hyaline marked with white cross- 
band and anal spot. 

$. Almost entirely yellow ; face, antennae, mesonotum, and scutellum deep yellow, almost 
orange ; small ocellar tubercle black ; cheeks and mesopleura brown in ground color, overlaid 
with silver pollinosity ; abdomen yellow with triangular brown spot on middle of third tergum ; 
legs yellow except for narrow black base of hind tibia ; wing lightly browned, faintly grayish 
white apically, narrow white crossband at outer two-thirds and a white spot in anal area (Text- 
fig. 2), the anal spot chiefly and 3 spots in the crossband glistening white at certain angles, 
because of dense patches of silvery micro trichia ; hal teres white ; bristles chiefly brown. 

Front polished, at the vertex slightly wider than an eye and slightly over one-third the head 
width ; eye with facets larger above than below ; face flat, smooth, highly polished, without 
trace of median carina, ending broadly in a sharp rim above the pseudovibrissae ; epistomal and 
peristomal areas below and behind the pseudovibrissae also smooth and polished ; cheeks sub- 
shining with the brilliant silver pollinosity ; arista with six long rays dorsally toward base ; 
postverticals present but barely discernible, short, weak, appressed, and slightly converging ; 
inner verticals short and weak, though distinct ; preorbitals very short and weak ; pseudo- 









Figs. 1-3. 1, wing of Stenomicra albibasis ; 2, wing of S. argentata ; 3, wing of S. angustiforceps. 



216 C. W. SABROSKY 

vibrissae strong, with a pair of weak, erect bristles immediately below them, followed by strong 
peristomal bristles (3 strong, 1 weak on right side, 4 strong, 1 weak on left, in the lone available 
example) . 

Thorax highly polished except for silvery pollinose mesopleura ; presutural bristle long and 
strong, equal to anterior notopleural ; each mesopleuron with 2 short but distinct bristles and a 
weak hair or two along posterior margin. 

Fore femur with strong, straight posteroventral bristle at outer two-thirds of femur, and 
distally from that 3 shorter, curved, preapical posteroventral bristles. 

Wing as figured (Text-fig. 2) ; second vein ending well before apex of wing, the third costal 
sector 4 times length of fourth sector ; discal cell weakly broadened distally, the hind crossvein 
slightly oblique and twice the length of fore crossvein ; ultimate sector of fifth vein a short stub, 
only 0-20 to 0-25 times the length of penultimate sector of fourth vein (distance between cross- 
veins), the distance from hind crossvein to margin of wing 0-55 times the length of penultimate 
sector of fourth vein ; anal vein distinct but short ; alula present but narrow, with a few short 
fringe hairs. 

Lengths of body and of wing, 175 mm. 

Holotype $. Malaya: Selangor, Kepong Forest Reserve, at light, iii-iv.1960 
(H. E. McClure) U.S. Nat. Mils., Type No. 67515. 

The distinctive wing pattern will readily separate this species from known con- 
geners. 

The species falls in the typical section of the genus, with second vein ending well 
before the apex of the wing, but in several respects it is intermediate between the two 
groups. The discal cell is long and slightly broadened, the hind crossvein is approxi- 
mately twice the length of the fore crossvein, and the ultimate sector of the fifth 
vein is relatively short, compared with the short, parallel-sided discal cell, subequal 
crossveins, and long ultimate sector of fifth vein in the species of the typical group. 
Furthermore, the inner vertical bristles are weak and short, as in the species of the 
fascipennis group, whereas they are moderately strong in typical Stenomicra. 

Stenomicra angustiforceps sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 3, 5) 

Pale species with slender, hyaline wing, the males with slender elongate forceps 
(surstyli) . 

0*$. Pale, predominantly yellow, only weakly shining. Head whitish yellow, except for 
black ocellar tubercle and aristae, and orange-yellow antennae and proboscis. Thorax yellow, 
darker above, the sides of the mesonotum infuscated outside the dorsocentral lines, slightly 
bluish gray, appearing as two dark stripes ; scutellum chiefly concolorous with the dark mesonotal 
stripes, apically yellowish ; postscutellum and metanotum dark brown. Abdomen chiefly 
yellow, including genital segments of both sexes ; second through fourth terga in both sexes each 
with broad brown subapical band, most distinct on the fourth tergum, and a band across dorsum 
of seventh tergum in $ and on first genital segment of 6*- Tegs pale yellow, the distal segment 
of each tarsus brown to blackish. Wing hyaline, faintly yellowish. Halteres whitish yellow. 
Bristles and hairs pale, yellowish, except for black peristomal bristles. 

Front at vertex 1-7 times the width of an eye ; eye strongly oblique in profile, twice as long as 
broad, with enlarged facets above and slightly enlarged below ; postverticals present, short and 
hairlike, divergent ; inner vertical bristles well developed, moderately strong ; preorbitals 
short ; pseudovibrissae strong, followed on each side by 1 weak, 4 strong, and 1 moderately 
strong peristomal bristles, plus a bristle on postocciput. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 217 

Mesonotum with 2 pairs of strong dorsocentral bristles, the dorsocentral hairs gradually 
increasing in length posteriorly ; presutural bristle well developed, nearly as long as the anterior 
notopleural ; pteropleura bare, the mesopleura presumably so but partly obscured by pin in the 
available specimens. 

Legs : Mid tibial spur of moderate length, no more than twice the diameter of the tibia. 

Wing as figured (Text-fig. 3), long and narrow, almost lanceolate toward apex ; second costal 
sector long, but ending well before apex of wing, the third costal sector 5 times the length of 
fourth sector ; crossveins only moderately separated, the distance between them (penultimate 
sector of fourth vein) slightly shorter than penultimate sector of third vein and slightly over 0-40 
times the distance from hind crossvein to margin of wing ; discal cell small ; anal cell absent and 
anal vein undeveloped. 

$ genitalia as in Text-fig. 5, the forceps (surstyli) slender and elongate. 

Length of body, 1-5-1-75 mm. ; of wing, 2 mm. 





5 

Figs. 4-5. 4, left surstylus of 5. fascipennis ; 5, left surstylus of S. angustiforceps . 

Holotype <£, allotype $, and paratypes $, 2 $, East Nepal : Taplejung District, 
north of Sangu, about 5,000 ft., " dry grass above river bank," 5.1.1962 (R. L. Coe) 
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 

I have also seen a headless and crushed female, not included in the type series, from 
the same district of East Nepal, below Sangu, about 4,000 ft., " mixed vegetation on 
sheltered slope above river," 3. i. 1962 (R. L. Coe). 

Stenomicra angustiforceps belongs to the typical section Stenomicra, with its small 
and parallel-sided discal cell. The hyaline-winged species in this group are best 
distinguished by the <$ genitalia. This species is particularly well marked by its 
slender and elongate forceps. 

STENOMICRA spp. 

In material from Southeast Asia are some pale individuals that resemble and will 
key to 5. angustiforceps. Possibly they belong to distinct species, but present 
material is inadequate for decision. Micronesian collections contain two pale species 
that differ from augustiforceps only in the characters of the <$ genitalia, and it appears 
that there is a complex of closely related forms which will be difficult to distinguish. 



218 C. W. SABROSKY 



REFERENCES 
Collin, J. E. 1944. The British species of Anthomyzidae (Diptera). Ent. mon. Mag. 80 : 

265-272, 2 figs. 
1951. A new species of Diadelops Collin (Diptera : Anthomyzidae) from Fiji. Proc. R. 

ent. Soc. London, (B) 20 : 47-48, 1 fig. 
Coquillett, D. W. 1900. Report on a collection of dipterous insects from Puerto Rico. 

Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 22 : 249-270. 
Czerny, L. 1929. Podocera ramifera, eine neue Gattung und Art der Perisceliden von Ceylon. 

Konowia 8 : 93-94, 2 figs. 
Hendel, F. 1931. Kritische und synonymische Bemerkungen fiber Dipteren. Verh. zool.- 

bot. Ges. Wien 81 : 4-19. 
Hennig, W. 1956. Neue neotropische Acalyptrata aus dem Deutschen Entomologischen 

Institut. Beitr. Ent. 6 : 146-154, 8 figs. 
1958. Die Familien der Diptera Schizophora und ihre phylogenetischen Verwandt- 

schaftsbeziehungen. Beitr. Ent. 8 : 505-688, 365 figs. 
Malloch, J. R. 1927. The species of the genus Stenomicra, Coquillett (Diptera, Acalyptrata). 

Ann. 6- Mag. nat. Hist (9) 20 : 23-26, pi. 2. 
Sturtevant, A. H. 1954. Nearctic flies of the family Periscelidae (Diptera) and certain 

Anthomyzidae referred to the family. Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 103 : 551-561. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



PSYCHODIDAE 

By F. VAILLANT 

SYNOPSIS 
This collection contained twenty-four specimens, representing four known genera, five new 
species and one new subspecies. 

Up to this date, only two species of Diptera of the family Psychodidae have been 
recorded from India, Horaiella prodigiosan Tonnoir (subfamily Trichomyinae) and 
Telmatoscopus (Neotelmatoscopus) horai Tonnoir (subfamily Psychodinae) but, in the 
collections of the British Museum Nat. Hist.), I examined a male specimen labelled 
Pericoma metatarsalis Brun. var khasiensis Senior White, India, Khasia Hills, 
Mawphlang, 10 . x . 1920. 

Mr. R. L. Coe, of the British Museum, collected in 1961 and 1962, several Psychodid 
flies in Nepal, in the Taplejung district. One was caught below Tamrang Bridge, 
at an elevation of 5,500 ft., all the others were from Sangu, at 6,200 ft. They all 
belong to the subfamily Psychodinae, and I wish to express my thanks to Mr. Coe 
for the opportunity to study them. The flies were pinned, but I had to boil them in 
caustic potash and mount them on slides, after noting the colour of their vestiture. 
The types (on slides) are now in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

Trichopsychoda atra sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 1-6) 

$. On the whole body, the hairs are dark brown or black. The eyes touch each other at their 
posterior internal angles. The antennae have only 14 segments and their ratio is : 20. 15. 21. 
23. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 20. 14. 7. Each segment from 3 to 1 3 has a pair of Y-shaped 
ascoids. Ratio of segments of palpus : 29. 32. 43. 50. The wing has dark brown hairs on its 
proximal part, up to the level of fork M x -fM 2 ', on its distal part, the wing has a golden covering ; 
the fringe is also golden in the distal part of the wing, but brown at its tip ; a few stout dorsal 
bristles just posterior to the costal vein ; subcostal vein very short ; the wing is as acute as it is 
in Tr. africana Quate and the nerve i? 5 ends exactly at the apex. The subgenital plate is crescent 
shaped and has long hairs on its posterior margin. 

Wing length 2 " o mm. 

Holotype $. Sangu, at light on camp site, 3.X.1961. 

All species of Trichopsychoda described up to this date have 15- or 16-segmented 
antennae, and the terminal two or three segments are subspherical. Thus Tr. atra, 
in having 14-segmented antennae, is different from the other species, and the defini- 
tion of the genus Trichopsychoda, as given by L. W. Quate, does not apply to it 
entirely. The end of one of the antennae of the only specimen examined is missing 

Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Entom., 17 (5), 1965. 



F. VAILLANT 




DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 221 

and it is possible that one or two segments were detached from the other antenna ; 
a close examination seems to show that this is not true. 

By its wing venation, Tr. atra n. sp. is closely related to Tr. africana Quate, from 
South Africa. 



Psychoda cinerea indica ssp. n. 

(Text-figs. 7-13) 

<$. Head with dark brown vestiture ; ratio of segments of antennae : 27. 17. 27. 27. 30. 
31. 31. 31. 30. 30. 26. 26. 11. 6. 6. 6. Ratio of segments of palpi : 23. 28. 35. 43. 
Thorax with dark brown vestiture ; a wide light brown tuft of hairs between the wings. Covering 
light brown on legs, from their base to the 3/4 of the first joint of the tarsi ; covering dark brown 
on the distal part of the tarsi. Wings o * 40 times as wide as long, with light brown hairs. Hal- 
teres black on their stem and the base of their knob, light brown on the larger part of their knob. 

Wing length 1 ' 3 mm. 

Holotype <$. Sangu, swarming at dusk in bushy gully, 23 . xi . 1961, 9 . i . 1962. 

Ps. cinerea indica differs from Ps. cinerea cinerea Banks from Europe (Text-figs. 
14-15) by the proportions of the wing and by the shape of the aedeagus. The wing 
of Ps. cinerea cinerea is 0-34 times as wide as long. 

$. A specimen, captured also at Sangu, is probably of the same subspecies ; 
though its colour is different from that of the <$, the shape of the wings is the same, 
and the ratio of the antennal segments is not very different. 

Head with light brown vestiture. The left antenna is abnormal, for its 14th and 15th seg- 
ments are partly fused ; ratio of segments of right antenna : 27. 17. 27. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 
28. 28. 26. 23. 13. 5. 5. 5. Ratio of segments of palpi : 21. 26. 26. 35. Thorax with a 
parting on the medio dorsal line, ochraceous, but with a large reddish brown patch on each shoul- 
der. Wing 0*40 times as wide as long, with ochraceous covering. Each cercus has a long ventral 
seta. 

Wing length 1 ' 7 mm. 

I $, Sangu, at light on camp site, 3.X.1961. 

Figs. 1-20. Trichopsychoda and Psychoda spp. 1-6. Tr. atra sp. n., $. 1, head, dorsal 
side ; 2, first three segments of antenna ; 3, tip of antenna; 4, proximal part of wing ; 
5, subgenital plate ; 6, armature of genital accessory vesicles, ventral view on left, more 
dorsal view on right. 7-9. Ps. cinerea indica ssp. n., <J. 7, tip of antenna ; 8, genitalia, 
dorsal view ; 9, distal part of aedeagus, ventral view. 10-13. P s - cinerea indica ssp. n., <j>. 
10, tips of both antennae ; 11, subgenital plate, left half of ovipositor and armature of 
genital accessory vesicles, ventral view ; 12, dorsal lobe of subgenital plate, enlarged. 
13, armature of genital accessory vesicles, dorsal view. 14-15. Ps. cinerea cinerea 
Banks, $. 14, genitalia, dorsal view; 15, plate that is between the IXth sternite of the 
abdomen and the aedeagus. 16-17. P s - cinerea cinerea Banks, $. 16, subgenital plate, 
left half of ovipositor and armature of accessory vesicles, ventral view ; 17, armature of 
genital accessory vesicles, dorsal view. 18-20. Ps. magna sp. n., $. 18, 6th segment of 
antenna ; 19, subgenital plate, ventral view ; 20, armature of genital accessory vesicles, 
dorsal view. 

Figs. 1 and 4 to the same scale ; figs. 5-1 1, 13-17 and 19 to the same scale ; figs. 2, 3, 12, 
and 18 to the same scale. 



222 F. VAILLANT 

The wings of $ specimens of Ps. cinerea cinerea from Europe (Text-figs. 16, 17) are 
0-36 times as wide as long, and their subgenital plate is quite different from that of 
Ps. cinerea indica. 

Psychoda magna sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 18-20) 

<j>. The only specimen available has lost much of its covering and the distal part of both 
antennae. Eyes separated by distance equal to about 1 facet and a half. Ratio of the first 
seven antennal segments : 27. 20. 32. 34. 34. 35. 35; a pair of flat and bifurcate ascoids on 
each segment from 3 to 7. Ratio of the segments of the palpi : 26. 26. 28. 43. Wing venation 
almost similar to that of Ps. cinerea; the medial fork is at the same distance from the apex of the 
wing as from the hollow at the tip of the anal vein. The wing is acute and the nerve R 5 ends at 
the apex ; the costal cell has a brownish tinge. Subgenital plate of conspicuous shape. Cerci 
rather short. 

Wing length : 3 ' 2 mm. 

Holotype $. Sangu, spray-splashed rocks in shallow ravine, 13.1.1962. 

Ps. magna differs from all other species of the same genus in the shape of its sub- 
genital plate, the posterior part of which has parallel sides and a very small dorsal 
process far from the hind margin. 

Telmatoscopus (Telmatoscopus) arcuatus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 21-31) 

<J. Vestiture of the whole body tawny. Eyes broadly contiguous ; bridge with 3 or 4 rows 
of facets. Ratio of segments of antennae : 47. 17. 27. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 21. 
20. 17. 17. 22 ; each segment from 3 to 9 has a complete transversal row of circular spots, where 
the cuticula is thin, but does not seem to bear ascoids ; on each of the last 7 segments, the spots 
are not regularly disposed. Ratio of segments of palpi : 20. 41. 41. 48. The wing is rounded 
at its apex, and the vein i? 4 ends anteriorly, but very close, to the wing apex. Dististyles bent at 
their distal 2 /3 and with a short branch on their inner side. Each cercopod with 10 or 1 1 spatulate 
tenacula. 

Wing length : 2 * 2 mm. 

Holotype <$. Below Tamrang Bridge, river bank, x-xi.1961. 

T. arcuatus differs from most species of the subgenus Telmatoscopus with conti- 
guous eyes and broad wings in its long curved forceps and bifurcate dististyles ; 

Figs. 21-41. Telmatoscopus spp. 21-31. T. arcuatus sp. n., $. 21, base of antenna; 
22, 9th segment of antenna ; 23, tip of antenna ; 24, proximal part of wing ; 25, 
genitalia, side view ; 26, right cercopod, side view ; 27, tenaculum of cercopod, enlarged ; 
28, left forceps, dorsal view ; 29, subgenital valvula and plate that is between the IXth 
sternite of the abdomen and the aedeagus, dorsal view ; 30, anal valvula ; 31, aedeagus, 
dorsal view. 32-40. T. nepalensis sp. n., <J. 32, head, dorsal side; 33, base of antenna; 
34, tip of antenna ; 35, proximal part of wing; 36, right cercopod, side view; 37, tip of 
tenaculum, enlarged. 38, left forceps, dorsal view ; 39, subgenital valvula ; 40, aedeagus ; 
41. T. nepalensis sp. n., $, 9th segment of antenna, side view. 

Figs. 24, 32, and 35 to the same scale ; figs. 26, 28, 29-31, 36, and 38-40 to the same 
scale ; figs. 21-23, 2 7> 33> 34» 37 an d 41 to the same scale. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



223 




224 F. VAILLANT 

it differs from T. praecipius Quate and T. maai Quate from Borneo, which also have 
contiguous eyes and broad wings, in the proportions of the wings ; these are about 1-3 
times as long as wide for these last two species, and about 3 times as long as wide for 
T. arcuatus sp. n. 

Telmatoscopus (Mormia) nepalensis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 32-42) 

$. A tuft of dark brown hairs on the forehead ; the rest of the head with tawny vestiture. 
Eyes contiguous on midline ; eye bridge with 4 rows of facets. Antennal ratio of segments : 
34. 16. 32. 33. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 29. 29. 29. 26. 24. 24 ; a pair of wide fiat leaf- 
shaped ascoids on each segment 3 to 16 ; segments 4 and 5 have in addition a short spine ; the 
neck of the segments 3 to 9 is eccentric. Ratio of segments of palpi : 23. 40. 40. 70. Thorax 
with light brown vestiture ; a dark brown tuft between the wings ; a strip of light yellow hairs 
on the median line and some hairs of the same colour on each side of the thorax. Light brown 
and light yellow hairs all over the legs. Nerves of the wing and posterior fringe with light yellow 
hairs ; anterior fringe light brown. Tip of wing rounded, between the apex of i? 4 and that of 
R 5 ; the subcostal vein ends in the costal vein. Eight ramose tenacula on each cercopod. 
Aedeagus dissymetrical. 

Wing length : 2*2 mm. 

$ (Text-figs. 41-42). Same vestiture as $. Eyes similar to those of <J. Antennal ratio : 
27. 16. 25. 23. 23. 23. 22. 22. 22. 21. 20. 19. 19. 19. 17. 18; ascoids much smaller than 
they are for the male. Ratio of palpus : 21. 38. 36. 57. 

Wing length : 2*2 mm. 

Holotype <$. Sangu, spray splashed rocks in shallow ravine, 13^.1962. 

Paratype $ : same data as holotype $. 

T. nepalensis can be considered as a Mormia, because the origin of the stem of the 
anterior fork is past the apex of the basal cell. It differs from the other species of 
Mormia in having no port-hole organs ; besides the necks of some flagellar segments 
are longer than the basal bulbs. T. nepalensis has contiguous eyes, and very few 
species of Mormia share this character. 

Pericoma coei sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 43-50) 

cJ. Light yellow vestiture on all the head and body. Eyes separated by distance equal to 
almost 2 facets. Antennal ratio : 24. 17. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 14. 11. n. 
13 ; 2 ascoids of equal length on segments 4 to n, 2 ascoids of unequal length on segment 12, 
only one ascoid on segment 13, and no ascoid on segments 1, 2, 3, 14, 15 and 16 ; ascoids simple, 
rod-like. Ratio of palpus : 27. 33. 48. 75. Body with light yellow vestiture. Legs I and II : 
femur and tibia with light grey hairs and a few brown ones ; nevertheless, the apex of the tibia 
has a white covering ; first segment of the tarsus black on its proximal 1/3, white on its distal 
part ; 4 other segments of the tarsus with black vestiture. Legs III : same covering ; but there 
are only a few white hairs at the apex of the tibia, and a few black ones at the base of the first segment 
of the tarsus. Wing with tawny covering, but with several patches of hairs of another colour ; 
one large white patch at the apex of the first basal cell, a smaller one on the medial fork and an 
oblique transverse patch between the two other ones ; a patch of black hairs on the 1 /3 of nerve 
i?x, another one on the median fork and one at the tip of each of the nerves R 5 , M 1( M 2 , M 3 and 
Cu ; the fringe is grey on the proximal part of the wing, black on the anterior edge, white at the 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



225 



apex, and tawny on the posterior edge ; the medial fork is before the level of the tip of Cu and the 
radial fork is distal to it. Apex of the wing closer to tip of R 5 than to tip of R t . Halteres with 
light yellow scales on rod and dark ones on knob. Each cercopod with 4 tenacula ; dorsal 
plate of the genitalia with two pointed lobes. 




Figs. 42-50. Telmatoscopus and Pericoma spp. 42. T. nepalensis sp. n., $, subgenital 
plate and armature of genital accessory vesicles, ventral view. 43-49. P. coei sp. n., 
o*. 43, base of antenna ; 44, tip of antenna ; 45, proximal part of wing ; 46, genitalia, 
dorsal view ; 47, genitalia, side view ; 48, anal valvula ; 49, aedeagus, ventral view. 
50. P. coei sp. n., $, subgenital plate, left half of ovipositor, and armature of genital 
accessory vesicles, ventral view. 

Figs. 42-44, 46, 48-50 to the same scale. 



226 F. VAILLANT 

Wing length : 2 * 5-2 ' 6 mm. 

$ (Text-fig. 50). Same colour as $. Segments 4 to 13 of the antennae with ascoids of equal 
length ; segments i, 2, 3, 14, 15 and 16 without ascoids ; ratio : 12. 20. 13. 17. 17. 16. 15. 15. 
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 12. 11. 12. Ratio of segments of palpi : 27. 35. 48. 77. 

Wing length : 2*5 mm. 

Holotype $. Sangu, rotting fruits of Bhor tree on ground, 7-31.X.1961. 

Paratypes: 1 $, 1 % same data as holotype ; 3 $, Sangu, mixed vegetation by 
stream in gully, xi . 1961. 

P. coei sp. n. is closely allied to several European species, especially to P. palustris 
(Meigen), to P. trivialis Eaton, and to Pericoma of the unispinosa group. It differs 
from the first two species in having two pointed lobes on the dorsal genital plate of 
the male ; it differs from the Pericoma of the unispinosa group in having 4 tenacula of 
equal size on each cercopod of the male. 

REFERENCES 

Jung, H. F. 1956. Beitrage zur Biologie, Morphologie und Systematik der europaischen 

Psychodiden (Diptera). Dt. ent. Z., N/F, 3 : 97-257. 
Quate, L. W. 1959. Synopsis of Polynesian Psychodidae (Diptera). Pacif. Insects, 1 (4) : 

431-440. 
— — 1962. A taxonomic study of Borneo Psychodinae. (Diptera : Psychodidae). Pacif. 

Insects, 4 (1) : 1-75. 
Satchell, G. H. 1955. The genus Trichopsychoda Tonnoir (Diptera : Psychodidae). Proc. 

R. ent. Soc. Lond. B 24 (3-4) : 49-57. 
Tonnoir, A. L. 1933. Descriptions of remarkable Indian Psychodidae and their early stages 

with a theory of the evolution of the ventral suckers of Dipterous larvae. Rec. Indian 

Mus., 35 (1) : 53-76, 1 pi. 
1940. A Synopsis of the British Psychodidae. (Dipt.), with descriptions of new species. 

Trans. Soc. Brit. Ent., 7 (2) : 21-64. 
Vaillant, F. 1 96 1. Revision des Psychodidae Psychodinae de France (Diptera). Ann. Soc. 

ent. Fr., 130 : 131-157. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



CELYPHIDAE 

By P. VANSCHUYTBROECK 

SYNOPSIS 
Aucun Celyphide, a ma connaissance, n'est connu du Nepal. Des quatre exemplaires recoltes, 
un appartient a une espece tres repandue en Asie : Celyphus obtectus Dalman ; deux especes 
sont nouvelles : Spaniocelyphns nepalensis et Celyphus coei. 

Essentiellement tropicaux, les Celyphides appartiennent, principalement, a la 
faune oriental, par six genres sur huit decrits ; ce sont : Hemiglobus Frey, Spanio- 
celyphtis Hendel, Celyphus Dalman, Acelyphus Malloch, Paracelyphits Bigot et 
Idiocelyphus Malloch. 

CELYPHUS Dalman 

Celyphus Dalman, 1823, Analecta Entomologica : 32, pi. II, B, fig. 1 a 5. 

Nervure transverse bien nette separant la cellule discale et la cellule basale anterieure de 
l'aile. Arista fortement ecartee de la ligne mediane a la base, de plus de la moitie de sa base, 
en forme de feuille, la plus large section presque ou tout a fait aussi large que le troisieme segment 
antennaire. Scutellum hemispherique ; occiput arrondi, soies postverticales manquantes ou 
reduites. Arista foliacee. 

Celyphus obtectus Dalman 

Celyphus obtectus Dalman, 1823, Analecta Entomologica : 32-33. 

Generalement petite espece avec pattes non entierement noires. Pas de tache 
noire a la partie inferieure de la face. Deux soies postverticales. Partie filiforme 
apicale de l'arista toujours visiblement plus courte que la partie elargie. Scutellum 
habituellement bleu metallique, plus ou moins rugueux jusqu'a l'apex, avec une ligne 
mediane plus ou moins lisse. 

Arun Valley, east shore of R. Arun below Tumlingtar, c. 1800', 14-23. xii.1961, 
evergreen shrubs bordering dry stream-bed, 1 <$ (R. L. Coe). 

Celyphus coei sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 1-2) 

Espece voisine des C. hicidits Karsh et C. ceylanensis Vanschuytbroeck. Teinte 
fonciere jaune brun et violacee ; scutellum granuleux, elargi anterieurement. 
Thorax avec plaques humerales triangulaires et epaules proeminentes brun rouge, 
brillantes. Pleures uniformement jaunatres. Transverses alaircs peu marquees 
entre seconde cellule basale et discale. 

Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Entom., 17 (5), 1965. 

ENTOM. 17, 5 6 



228 



P. VANSCHUYTBROECK 



Face et front testaces, brillants ; bords de la face avec plaque plus foncee, a reflets violaces, 
couvertes de soies noires ; prelabrum brun brillant ; palpes allonges, jaune brun avec moitie 
apicale noire. Front de teinte uniforme. Segments basal et median de l'antenne jaune clair, 
le segment apical plus fonce, borde de noir ; arista lanceolee, plus longue que les trois segments 
antennaires reunis, jaunatre, noircie le long des bords et a la base, couverte d'une courte pilosite 
noire, l'extremite sous forme d'un soie plumeuse, de moitie de la longueur de la partie foliac6 de 
l'antenne. Tubercule ocellaire bleu noir, brillant. 

Mesonotum jaune brun, mat brillant, sans tache ou bande plus foncee ; calus humeral 
preeminent, portant une fine pilosite courte. Scutellum globuleux ovo'ide, tres legerement 
allonge longitudinalement avec extremit.6 apicale arrondie, plus long que large (5.2 a 3). 

Pattes generalement jaunatres ; extremites apicales des femurs et extremites basales des 
tibias posterieurs legerement rembrunis ; femurs anterieurs portant deux rangees paralleles de 
quatre soies courbees ; tibias anterieurs avec une soie vers le 1 /3 apical en plus de l'epine apicale 
posterieure ; tibias anterieurs des 2/3 des femurs. 

Ailes hyalines sauf a l'apex aum erne niveau des 2-eme et 3-eme nervures longitudinales depuis 
les 2/3 de la base; nervures longitudinales trois et quatre non paralleles ; section mediane de la 
quatrieme nervure longitudinale (ta-tp) dans le rapport de 7 a 8 ; sous costale s'etendant jusqu'a 
la moitie de la costale ; R x recourbee a l'apex vers la costale (10) et ecartee de M de la moitie 
de cette distance de la sous costale (5). 

Abdomen elargi transversalement, sternites bordes de brun ; dernier sternite portant une 
plaque mediane brune. 




Fig. 1. Celyphus coei sp. n. $ Hypopyge. 

Holotype £. Taplejung Distr., Dobhan, c. 3,500' ; small pockets of plants on 
arid slopes above R. Maewa, 2. i. 1962 (R. L. Coe). (British Museum (Nat. Hist.)). 

Paratype <$ : ibidem. 



SPANIOCELYPHUS Hendel 
Spaniocelyphus Hendel, 1914, Suppl. Ent. Berl. 3 : 92. . 

Vertex a bords aigus, sans soies postverticales bien developpees. Cellule discale et cellule 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



229 



basale posterieure de l'aile separees par une nervure transverse bien distincte. Palpes bien 
moins 61argis a l'apex que dans le genre Acelyphus. Front plus court egalement que chez 
Celyphus. Abdomen etroit, avec bandes laterales bien marquees. Premier article des antennes 
plus court que le troisieme. Scutellum ovale, plus long que large, un peu plus large que le 
thorax ; arista elargie en forme de feuille. Pas de soies scutellaires. Femurs posterieurs sans 
forte epine apicale courbee, mais portant une petite soie apicale. 

Spaniocelyphus nepalensis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 3) 

De teinte generate metallique, bleu vert a reflets violaces ; tete jaune brun avec 
plaques violacees ; abdomen entierement bleu ; pattes jaunatres, plus ou moins 
rembrunies ; soies antennaires aplaties, elargies, lanceolees avec apex garni d'une 
soie plumeuse ; scutellum rugeux ; mesonotum avec seulement bande mediane 
longitudinale rugeuse ; pleures unicolores ; soies verticales externes, courtes, 
dirigees vers l'exterieur ; seconde cellule basale separee de la cellule discale par une 
transverse complete. 

Face et front testaces, brillant, chaque cote du front avec une bande plus claire, le long du 
rebord des yeux ; front brunatre avec reflets violacees ; rebord buccal bleut6 ; segments basal 
et median des antennes brunatres, le basal cependant plus fortement rembruni ; segment apical 
plus pale et plus large, avec une encoche mediane noire sur le bord superieur pour l'insertion de 
l'arista; soie antennaire lanceolee, plus longue que la soie plumeuse apicale (16 a 8). Tubercule 
ocellaire noiratre ; occiput jaune brun avec aires laterales plus foncees. 

Mesonotum avec une aire longitudinale mediane rugeuse, les parties laterales lisses, entiere- 
ment brillant, bleute a reflets violaces ; humerus fortement preeminent transversalement ; 
pleures bleu violace, brillant. Scutellum entierement rugeux, brillant, ovale, une fois et demi 
plus long que large (45 a 30) ; arrondi apicalement, mais plus aigu a l'apex, recouvrant entiere- 
ment l'abdomen. 





Fig. 2. Celyphus coei sp. n. <$ Aile. 
Fig. 3. Spaniocelyphus nepalensis sp. n. <$ Aile. 



entom. 17, 5. 



2 3 o P. VANSCHUYTBROECK 

Hanches anterieures brunes ; medianes et posterieures noiratres ; pattes anterieures manquent ; 
pattes medianes et posterieures largement noircies ; tarses jaune brun. 

Ailes avec cellules basale et discale separees par une nervure transverse complete. 

Holotype <£. Taplejung Distr., between Sangu and Tamrang, x-xi.1961, mixed 
shrubs in deep gorge, c. 5,200' (R. L. Coe). (British Museum (Nat. Hist.)). 

5. nepalensis est voisin du S. scutatus Wiedemann, dont il differe essentiellement 
par la forme du scutellum (plus allonge du nepalensis) ; la presence seulement d'une 
ligne mediane rugueuse au scutellum chez scutatus ; la soie antennaire lanceolee chez 
les deux especes, mais soie terminale plumeuse bien plus longue chez nepalensis. 




A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 

TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



1. Masner, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. £5. 

2. Nixon, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 ; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. £6. 

3. Watson, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera) . Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. £4 4s. 

4. Sands, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- £3 5s. 

5. Ahmad, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156; 
475 Text figures. In press. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED, BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



FULGOROIDEA FROM SOUTHER 
CHILE (HEMIPTERA) 




R. G. FENNAH 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 6 

LONDON: 1965 



FULGOROIDEA FROM SOUTHERN CHILE 

(HEMIPTERA) 



BY 

R. G. FENNAH 



Commonwealth Institute of Entomol 



mology 



Pp. 231-272 ; 199 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 6 

LONDON: 1965 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in Jive series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 17, No. 6 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1965 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 30 November, 1965 Price Seventeen Shillings 



FULGOROIDEA FROM SOUTHERN CHILE 

(HEMIPTERA) 

By R. G. FENNAH 

SYNOPSIS 

This report is concerned primarily with a collection of Fulgoroidea made by members of the 
Royal Society Expedition to southern Chile (1958-1959), but the study has necessitated a revision 
of virtually the known Fulgoroid fauna of the region, some thirty-two species. Three genera and 
ten species are described. as new. The fauna is found to comprise species with neotropical or 
holarctic affinities, together with some isolated taxa peculiar to southern Chile. 

Among the insects collected by the Royal Society Expedition to southern Chile 
(1958-1959) were series in which four of the nineteen families of the Fulgoroidea were 
represented. In order to identify the species concerned, it was found necessary to 
revise the known Fulgoroid fauna of this area, and the opportunity has been taken of 
discussing material of little-known species from Valdivia and southern Argentina 
taken at different times by other collectors. 

The writer's warmest thanks are tendered to Dr. G. Kuschel and Dr. M. W. Hold- 
gate, both members of the Expedition, for the opportunity of examining their valuable 
and informative collections ; to Mr. J. P. Doncaster, Keeper of the Department of 
Entomology, for the privilege of studying material in the accessions of the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.), and also to Dr. A. Villiers for the loan of specimens from the 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

The area of Chile with which this study is mainly concerned lies south of the 40th 
Parallel : its main faunistic and vegetational features have been discussed by 
Kuschel (i960) and the detailed features of the areas sampled by the Royal Society 
Expedition have been described by Holdgate (i960). Of the Chilean Fulgoroid 
material studied, that brought back by the Expedition was obtained in different 
vegetational zones, but the remainder came mostly from the Valdivian forest north 
of Puerto Montt. 

The total assemblage of specimens included representatives of six families, Cixiidae, 
Delphacidae, Achilidae, Derbidae, Dictyopharidae and Issidae, but those of the last 
two were not found south of Ancud. Both in number of families and in number of 
species the Fulgoroid fauna shows impoverishment in the more southerly areas. The 
families Cixiidae, Delphacidae and Achilidae occur in all parts of the world, and are 
the last Fulgoroidea to disappear wherever the cool temperate zone reaches its colder 
extreme. Members of the first family are primarily root-feeders in the nymphal 
stages ; of the Delphacidae, members of the tribe Delphacini feed mainly on grasses, 
sedges and rushes ; those of the tribe Alohini usually feed on herbs and shrubs, and 
those of the subfamily Asiracinae often, if not invariably, feed on shrubs or woody 
herbs ; the Achilidae, as far as is known, live in their immature stages under decaying 
bark ; the Derbidae, which in the northern hemisphere do not penetrate so far north 
as the other families, regularly feed on fungus as nymphs and on fungus or phanero- 

Entom. 17, 6. 8 



234 K. G. FENNAH 

gams as adults. All these families attain their greatest development, in genera and 
species, in the warm temperate and tropical parts of the world. 

Even in so small a collection as that discussed below, it is possible to recognize 
three features regarding faunal relationships ; firstly, that a moderate number of the 
Valdivian genera, and a few of the Magellanic, have representatives in the warmer 
parts of America ; next, that some genera in this fauna are not only restricted to the 
southern part of South America, but morphologically stand far apart from other 
genera in their family ; and finally, that of these Chilean fulgoroid genera only one 
can be recognized as being related to a genus in New Zealand, Tasmania or Australia. 

The Valdivian genera with neotropical representatives include the cixiids Pintalia 
and Mnemosyne, the Achilids Catonia and the unexpected Rhotala (elsewhere known 
from Panama, the Philippine Islands and Australasia), and the Issid Nubithia. The 
Issids Sarnus and Plagiopsis seem close to Thionia and Aphelonema, respectively : 
the latter genus has not been recorded in Chile. The Magellanic genera represented 
elsewhere include Catonia and the Delphacid Nothodelphax. The latter is found in 
Tristan da Cunha, Gough Id., Falkland Is., Mexico, eastern U.S.A., southern Canada 
and northern Europe. The genus is compact ; most of the known species occur in 
the U.S.A., and the Chilean representative does not stand apart from the remainder 
in degree of morphological difference. 

The genera peculiar to the region include four in the Dictyopharidae, Chondrodera, 
Sicoris, Sicorisia, and one described below as new, the Derbid Goneokarella, the 
Delphacids Idiosystatus, Idiosemus, Calbodus, and a Cixiid genus described below as 
new. 

Goneokarella has a near relative in Phrygia, from Rio de Janeiro, but these two 
occupy a very sequestered position in the Derbidae. They have no Maorian relatives. 
The only Derbid in New Zealand is the very different Eocenchrea maorica Muir, and 
this finds its nearest relatives in species in Australia and New Caledonia. 

Similarly, New Zealand has only one representative of the Achilidae, this being 
Agandecca annectens B. White. The genus is found only in New Zealand, and so far 
no other has been reported from Australia, Australasia or south America that can be 
confidently regarded as of the same stock. 

In the Delphacidae the principal interest lies in the Asiracinae. There are no 
representatives of the subfamily in America north of Mexico ; in Central and South 
America there are seven genera, all far removed from one another. Two of them, 
Idiosemus and Idiosystatus, are restricted to the southernmost part of the continent, 
and occur in Chile. One of the remainder, Ugyops (s.l.) is well represented in the 
Brazilian subregion and in the Greater Antilles, and, outside America, occurs in the 
Mascarene Islands, the seaboard of S.E. Asia from Narkondam Id. to the Philippines, 
virtually all the Western Pacific Islands, Australia and in the North Island of New 
Zealand. But Ugyops does not occur in Hawaii, nor in the Marquesas Islands or any 
islands eastward of them, nor in Chile. 

Apart from Pintalia and Mnemosyne, the Cixiid genera of southern Chile, as so far 
known, are endemic, and appear to have a broad affinity with Pintaliine genera. In 
New Zealand there are endemic genera of Cixiidae, and with only two exceptions 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 235 

(Tiriteana and Koroana) they are unquestionably of Oliarine affinity. The only 
species in New Zealand that appear to belong to the Pintaliini include those of 
Koroana and three species currently ascribed to Cixius, namely, C. aspilus Wlk., C. 
kermadecensis Myers, and C. punctimargo Wlk. On present evidence, however, none 
of these can be accepted with complete assurance as congeneric with any species from 
Chile. The cosmopolitan Oliarus occurs in New Zealand, but has not been reported 
any nearer Chile than Buenos Aires. It is, however, not unlikely that its apparent 
absence from Chile is attributable to insufficient collecting. 

The type specimens of new species described below are in the collection of the 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.). All bibliographic citations not listed in the references 
at the end of this report are given according to the usage in " A Bibliography of the 
Homoptera (Auchenorhycha) " by Z. P. Metcalf (N.C. State College of Agriculture 
and Engineering, University of North Carolina, 1942). 

Family CIXIIDAE 

MNEMOSYNE Stal 
Mnemosyne Stal, 1866a : 150. Haplotype, Mnemosyne cabana Stal, 1866a : 391. 

Mnemosyne cixioides (Spinola) comb. n. 
Achilus cixioides Spinola, 1852a : 246. Atlas Zoologico, Hemipteros, pi. 3, fig. 2, 2a-a\ 

PINT ALIA Stal 
Pintalia Stal, 18620 : 4. Logotype, Pintalia lateralis Stal, 18621? : 4. 

Pintalia fasciolaris Blanchard comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 1-8) 
Cixius fasciolaris Blanchard, 1852a : 251. 

The figures are of the type in the Paris Museum. No other specimens have been 
seen by the writer. The only locality mentioned by Blanchard is Coquimbo. 

NOTOCIXIUS gen. n. 

Type-species, Cixius fulvicollis Blanchard. 

Vertex with a transverse carina apart from apical carina, not medially carinate between this 
carina and base, the transverse carina not, or at most obscurely, connected with anterior margin ; 
median carina of frons distinct, often shortly forked at base ; clypeus carinate medially and 
laterally ; lateral ocelli distinct, median ocellus usually so, eyes round, antennae with first seg- 
ment very short, second segment shortly barrel-shaped. Pronotum short, anterior margin of 
disc truncate, posterior margin deeply excavate, lateral carinae of disc curving laterad behind 
eyes, a weak carina laterally between this carina and tegula, tegulae subcarinate. Post-tibiae 
unarmed or with one or two very small spines laterally, six spines apically in two groups of three, 
basal metatarsal segment with eight small teeth, the middle six each with a short narrow scale, 
second metatarsal segment with seven teeth, the middle five each with a short scale. A vertical 
obcordate plate above ovipositor. 

Entom. 17, 6. 8§ 



236 



R. G. FENNAH 



This genus differs from Cixius in the tegmina being carried more steeply, in the 
frontoclypeal suture being almost transverse, and in the pregenital sternite of the 
female being transverse and relatively narrow, not large and triangular. It is rather 
like Koroana, but differs not only in the less arcuate frontoclypeal suture, but also in 
the anterolaterad inflection of the lateral carinae of the frons, in the tegmina being 
carried more steeply, and in the ovipositor being curved, not straight. Koroana is 
characterized by stout spines laterally on the post-tibiae and this may be associated 
with the relatively coarse build of its member species ; such spines do not occur in 
Notocixius, in which, if present at all, they are minute. 




Figs. 1-8. Pintalia fasciolaris (Blanchard) . 1, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 2, head 
in profile ; 3, frons and clypeus ; 4, tegmen ; 5,. anal segment, pygofer and left genital 
style, lateral view ; 6, anal segment of male, posterior view ; 7, aedeagus (free hand 
sketch from undissected genitalia) ; 8, medioventral process of pygofer. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 237 

Notocixius fulvicollis (Blanchard) comb. n. 

(Text-figs. 9-19) 

Cixius fulvicollis Blanchard, 1852a : 254. 

Chile : Llanquihue, Peulla, i <$, 9 .iii . 1959 (/. F. G. Clarke). 

The figures are based on the above specimen, which has been compared with the 
type in the Paris Museum. The species is most easily recognizable by the markings 
on the tegmina. The type locality is Carelmapu. 




Figs. 9-19. Notocixius fulvicollis (Blanchard). 9, Frons and clypeus ; 10, head in profile ; 
11, vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 12, tegmen ; 13, pygofer ; 14, medioventral 
process of pygofer ; 15, anal segment of male ; 16, aedeagus, dorsal view ; 17, aedeagus, 
left side ; 18, genital style, posterior view ; 19, genital style, lateral view. 



2 3 8 



R. G. FENNAH 



Notocixius pollens (Blanchard) comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 20-26) 
Cixius pollens Blanchard, 1852a : 256. 

The figures are of Blanchard's type. The type locality is given as Santiago. 

Notocixius adspersus (Blanchard) comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 27-31) 
Cixius adspersus Blanchard, 1852a : 257. 

Chile : Santiago, Cuesta Zapata, 1$, 2 $, 30. xi. 1947 (G. Kuschel). 

With the exception of Text-fig. 31, the figures are of the male of this series, which 
has been compared with the type. The typical locality is Sotaqui in Coquimbo. 
This and N. pallens are readily recognizable by the relatively elongate form of the 
posterior compartment of the vertex. 

Notocixius helvolus (Spinola) comb. n. 

(Text-figs. 32-39) 
Cixius helvolus Spinola, 1852a : 255. 

Chile : Llanquihue, Frutillar, 1 $, 1 $, 15. ii. 1956 ; Volcan Calbuco, 200 m., 4 $, 
1 $, 22. ii. 1956 (G. Kuschel). 

The males of this series are of a uniform clear yellow, with only a dilute smoky spot 
just distad of the apex of the clavus, but in one of the females the basal half of the 
tegmina is abruptly dark castaneous. This species broadly resembles the New Zea- 
land Cixius aspilus Wlk. and C. kermadecensis Myers, but in these the clypeus is 
abnormally inflated and the transverse carina of the vertex is markedly convex, and 
the ovipositor of C. kermadecensis has a relatively small ovate ceriferous area. 




Figs. 20-26. Notocixius pallens (Blanchard). 20, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 21, 
head in profile ; 22, frons and clypeus ; 23, tegmen ; 24, anal segment of male, right 
side ; 25, medioventral process of pygofer ; 26, genital style. 






FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 239 

Notocixius tenebrosus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 40-47) 

o*. Vertex broader at anterior margin than long in middle line (about 4 : 1), a little wider at 
base than at apex, anterior margin truncate, lateral margins straight, posterior margin broadly 
excavate, disc rather deeply hollowed, obscurely medially carinate at extreme base ; base of 
frons visible in dorsal view, frons longer than broad (nearly 1-4 : 1), basal margin straight, lateral 
margins diverging to level of antennae, thence incurved to frontoclypeal suture, which is slightly 
concave, disc carinate medially and at lateral margins, depressed between carina and with two or 
three obscure, ridge-like transverse elevations, median carina forked at one third from base, each 
arm meeting basal margin midway between middle line and lateral margin, median ocellus 
present ; postclypeal portion of clypeus shorter than frons (about 1 : 2-8), carinate medially 
and laterally, anteclypeus about as long as postclypeus, rostrum fully attaining post trochanters, 
apical segment as long as subapical ; lateral ocelli distinct ; eyes round, first antennal segment 
very short, concealed, second segment globose. Pronotum narrow with anterior margin of disc 
transverse, posterior margin obtusely angulately excavate, disc feebly medially carinate, strongly 
depressed, lateral discal carinae following hind margin of eyes, a carina on each side between eye 
and tegula, outer angles of lateral lobes slightly acute ; mesonotum with disc distinctly tri- 
carinate, with traces of a pair of intermediate carinae ; profemora and mesofemora rather 




Figs. 27-31. Notocixius adspersus (Blanchard). 27, Frons and clypeus ; 28, head in profile ; 
29, vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 30, tegmen ; 31, female genitalia, posterior view. 



240 



R. G. FENNAH 



compressed ; post-tibiae laterally unarmed, apically with five teeth, basal post-tarsal segment 
apically with two stout and five small spines, second segment similarly adorned. 

Piceous ; lateral margins of vertex, pronotum, tegulae, post-tibiae distally and post-tarsi, 
ferruginous or castaneous. Tegmina hyaline, veins and margin castaneous ; some suffusion 
in basal half, an ill-defined broad oblique fascia between stigma and apical part of clavus, and 
apical areoles except submarginally, castaneous. Wings hyaline, with dark castaneous veins. 

Anal segment of male moderately long, in side view with central margin very shallowly con- 
cave, dorsal margin strongly decurved distad of anal foramen. Pygofer short dorsally, moderately 
long ventrally, in lateral view with posterior margin sinuately convex, laterodorsal angles not 
distinct, medioventral process triangular, prominent. Aedeagus tubular, a pair of long, shallowly 
curved spinose processes arising on each side at apex, directed ventrocephalad ; a shorter spinose 
process arising on left near apex, directed dorsocephalad and curving to right ; a slender long 
spinose process arising ventrally near apex directed cephalad, flagellum in repose reflected 
cephalad, comprising a narrow sinuate sclerotized limb in basal half, abruptly expanding into a 
broad granulate membrane in distal half ; a broad sclerotized plate arising ventrally on right of 
flagellum at base, descending ventrocephalad to left in basal half of aedeagus. Genital styles 
each narrow, L-shaped, with dorsal margin in basal half produced dorsad in a shallow setiferous 
eminence. 

<£ : length, 2-9 mm. ; tegmen, 3-5 mm. 




Figs. 32-39. Notocixius helvolus (Spinola). 32, Frons and clypeus ; 33, head in profile; 
34, vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 35, tegmen ; 36, pygofer ; 37, anal segment of 
male, dorsal view ; 38, aedeagus, left side ; 39, genital style. 






FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 



241 



Holotype <$. Chile : Llanquihue Prov., Casa Panque, 4-10. xii. 1926 (F. & M. 
Edwards), B.M. 1927-63. 

This species is distinguished by the wide basal fork of the median frontal carina, 
the almost quinquecarinate mesonotum, the shape of the male genitalia, and the 
colour pattern of the tegmina. 

Notocixius chepuanus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 48-55) 

<J °.. Head with eyes narrower than pronotum. Vertex between basal angles wider than 
long in middle line (i-6 : 1), anterior compartment strongly declivous, anterior margin 
angulately convex, lateral margins straight or weakly concave, posterior margin rather deeply 
roundly excavate, posterior compartment not as long as anterior, anterior compartment medially 




Figs. 40-47. Notocixius tenebrosus sp. n. 40, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 41, head 
and thorax, lateral view ; 42, frons and clypeus ; 43, tegmen ; 44, pygofer and anal seg- 
ment, lateral view ; 45, aedeagus, right side ; 46, aedeagus, left side ; 47, genital styles. 



242 



R. G. FENNAH 



ecarinate, largely visible in anterior view ; frons longer in middle line than broad (1-3 : 1), basal 
margin shallowly angulately excavate, lateral margins diverging distad to below level of antennae, 
then moderately incurved to frontoclypeal suture, disc very shallowly depressed on each side of 
middle line, median carina distinct, moderately widely forked near base, median ocellus distinct 
at apex ; clypeus with basal margin shallowly convex, distinctly convex transversely, shallowly 
convex in profile, strongly carinate medially and laterally, median carina subfoliate ; rostrum 
distinctly surpassing post-trochanters, subapical segment slightly longer than apical ; antennae 
with basal segment very short, ring-like, second segment shortly cylindrical, wider at apex than 
at base, lateral ocelli distinct, eyes rounded. Pronotum short, anterior margin transverse, 
posterior margin rather strongly concave, disc medially carinate, lateral carinae curving laterad 
behind eyes ; mesonotum about as long as broad, with dorsal margin in profile sinuate, disc 
tricarinate ; post-tibiae laterally with a minute spine at base and one or two small spines at 
middle and apically with six spines, basal metatarsal segment with six small teeth, second seg- 
ment with seven teeth. Tegmina longer than broad (3 : 1), with Sc + R fork at about one-third 
from base, Cu x fork distinctly basad of middle of tegmen, R-M cross-vein distinct, M-Cu cross- 
vein obsolete, cross-vein between claval suture and anterior claval vein sometimes obscure, not 
in same line as R-M cross-vein. 




Figs. 48-55. Notocixius chepuanus sp. n. 48, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 49, head 
and thorax, lateral view ; 50, frons and clypeus ; 51, tegmen (male) ; 52, tegmen (female) ; 
53, male genitalia, lateral view ; 54, aedeagus, right side ; 55, genital style. 






FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 243 

Dark castaneous (male) or ferruginous (female) ; frons, clypeus and mesonotum almost piceous, 
lateral margins of frons, sides of vertex, labrum, carinae and hind margin of pronotum, femora 
and tibiae apically, and post-tarsi, stramineous or pale testaceous. Tegmina of male milky 
hyaline with a faint yellowish brown suffusion, veins almost concolorous, interruptedly yellowish 
brown on corium, distinctly brown in membrane, margin fuscous, pale at apices of veins, subapical 
areoles distally dilute ferruginous fuscous. Wings milky-hyaline, with veins fuscous. 

<J. Anal segment of male moderately long, slightly expanding to middle, in side view with 
ventral margin concave in basal half, convex in distal half, apical margin viewed from above 
weakly convex, anal style moderately broadly cylindrical, not quite attaining apical margin. 
Pygofer rather long, in side view broadly convex, medioventral process about as broad as long, 
triangular, apically rounded. Aedeagus long, relatively slender, shallowly curved upward 
distad, a rather short slender spinose process dorsally, directed dorso-caudad, a quarter of length 
of aedeagus from apex, a broad median subquadrate lobe ventrally in basal half ; flagellum 
rather narrowly tubular, of subequal width throughout, a long slender spinose process arising at 
middle on right, curved cephalad then ventrad, and a short slender spine at apex of flagellum. 
Genital styles rather long, in profile rather narrow and parallel sided in basal half, expanded into 
a subrectangulate lobe distally, with apical margin rounded-truncate. 

^ : length, 3-3 mm. ; tegmen, 4-0 mm. 

$ : length, 4-0 mm. ; tegmen, 4-0 mm. 

Holotype $. Chile : Chepu, 42 ° S. 16.X.58 (G. Kuschel). 

Paratypes: 1 $, same data ; Aisen, Rio Murta, 1 $, 25. i. 1956 (G. Kuschel). 

This species can be distinguished from all others in Chile and Argentina, except 
P. fasciolaris and perhaps N. fulvicollis, by the heavily mottled tegmina. From 
P. fasciolaris it can be separated by the anterior margin of the vertex being parallel to 
the transverse carina of the vertex, whereas it is more acutely angulate than the 
transverse carina in P. fasciolaris. In the latter species, the lateral margins of the 
frons curve in to the frontoclypeal suture more gently than in N. chepuanus, and 
accordingly the greatest width of the frons is a little more basad. The intercarinal 
areas of the frons of P. fasciolaris often show five darker spots in each, and there are 
faint traces of pitting in approximately corresponding positions. The intercarinal 
areas of the frons in N. chepuanus are smooth and uniformly coloured. 

From N. fulvicollis the present species can be separated by the pattern of markings 
on the tegmina. The two species stand well apart in the form of the male genitalia. 

Notocixius magellanicus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 56-63) 

<J §. Head with eyes narrower than pronotum. Vertex between basal angles wider than 
long in middle (2-4 : 1), declivous, anterior margin angulately convex, lateral margins markedly 
concave, posterior margin obtusely angulately excavate, posterior compartment of vertex as long 
as anterior compartment, the latter divided by a median carina, frons longer than broad (about 
i-i : 1), basal margin transverse, lateral margins diverging distad for most of their length, then 
strongly incurved to frontoclypeal suture, disc shallowly depressed on each side of middle line, 
median carina distinct, very widely forked near base, median ocellus distinct at apex ; clypeus 
with basal margin shallowly convex, disc rather strongly convex transversely and in profile, 
finely but strongly carinate medially and laterally ; rostrum attaining post-trochanters, apical 
segment about as long as subapical ; antennae with basal segment very short, ring-like, second 
segment globose, lateral ocelli distinct, eyes rounded. Pronotum short, anterior margin 
transverse, posterior margin rather strongly concave, disc medially carinate, lateral carinae 

Entom. 17, 6. 8§§ 



244 



R. G. FENNAH 



curving laterad behind eyes ; mesonotum about as long as broad, with dorsal margin in profile 
sinuate, disc with three distinct longitudinal carinae and two intermediate carinae that vary in 
their distinctness ; post-tibiae laterally unarmed, apically with six spines, basal metatarsal 
segment with five spines apically, second metatarsal with six. Tegmina with Sc + R fork at 
about one-third from base, Cu x fork slightly basad of middle of tegmen, R-M and M-Cu cross- 
veins at same level, or nearly so, a cross-vein between claval suture and anterior claval vein. 

Fuscous-piceous ; lateral margins of frons, basal angles of vertex, labrum, second antennal 
segment ventrally, carinae and hind margin and lower margin of lateral lobes of pronotum, 
stramineous or pale yellow ; all trochanters, postfemora at apex, tibiae distally, and basal two 
segments of post-tarsi, dilute fuscous or testaceous. Tegmina milky hyaline, a suffusion basally, 
stigma, a suffusion between common claval vein and posterior margin, dark fuscous ; veins 
fuscous, posterior claval vein in part, and commissural margin from base to level of union of 
claval veins, sordid white. Wings hyaline, with fuscous veins. 

cj. Anal segment of male distinctly short, in profile with ventral margin feebly concave, apical 
margin in dorsal view rounded-truncate, anal style moderately stout, cylindrical, much sur- 
passing apical margin. Pygofer rather long, in side view posterior margin oblique, dorso- 




Figs. 56-63. Notocixius magellanicus sp. n. 56, Frons and clypeus ; 57, head in profile ; 
58, vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 59, tegmen ; 60, pygofer, right side ; 61, anal 
segment of male ; 62, aedeagus, right side ; 63, genital style. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 245 

lateral angles each distinctly produced caudad in a deeply convex setiferous lobe, medioventral 
process moderately large, triangular, distally rounded. Aedeagus slender, porrect caudad, a 
spinose process on right at apex, extending cephalad for half length of aedeagus, tlvs process in 
side view expanding to distal third, then tapering to apex ; flagellum submembranous, almost 
parallel-sided, apically very obliquely truncate, a blade-like process arising on left near base, 
directed dorsocephalad. Genital styles long, slender and sinuate in basal two thirds, each rather 
abruptly expanding in distal third into an acute rounded-triangulate lobe, with a vertical ridge on 
its inner face from apex to ventral margin of style. 

o* : length, 3-6 mm. ; tegmen, 4-6 mm. 

§ : length, 4-0 mm. ; tegmen, 5-1 mm. 

Holotype g. Chile : I. Wellington, Puerto Eden, 400 ft., 13.xii.58 (G. Kuschel) 
in B.M. (N.H.). 

Paratypes : Chile : I. Wellington, Puerto Eden, 25-350 ft., 82 £, 62 $, 28-30. xi. 58., 
under Nothofagus nitida (M. W. Holdgate, G. Kuschel) ; Isle Piazza, Lecky Retreat, 
25 ft., 14 <$, 14 $, 26.xii.58, Nothofagus forest ; Gamero, Pena. Munoz, 20-40 ft., 
14 $, 8 $, 27.xii.58, Nothofagus antarctica (M. W. Holdgate) ; Aisen, Rio Murta, 1 $, 
25.L56 (G. Kuschel). 

This species is distinguished by the relatively broad vertex, the proportions of the 
frons, the shape of each element of the male genitalia, and by the pallid lower margins 
of the lateral lobes of the pronotum. 

Notocixius ophion sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 64-73) 

(J $. Vertex about as broad at anterior margin as long in middle line, broader at level of 
middle of hind margin than long in middle line (not quite 1-4 : 1), anterior margin obtusely 
angulate, lateral margins shallowly concave, posterior margin broadly excavate, transverse carina 
feebly angulate, posterior compartment of disc rather deeply hollowed, finely medially carinate 
at extreme base ; frons longer than broad (1-7 : 1), basal margin angulately excavate, lateral 
margins diverging to level of antennae, thence incurved to frontoclypeal suture, which is slightly 
concave, disc carinate medially and at lateral margins, depressed between carinae, median carina 
simple to base, median ocellus absent ; postclypeal portion of clypeus shorter than frons (1 : 
2-3), carinate medially and laterally, anteclypeus about as long as post-clypeus, rostrum slightly 
surpassing post-trochanters, apical segment about as long as subapical, lateral ocelli distinct, 
eyes round, first antennal segment very short, second segment in anterior view barrel-shaped. 
Pronotum narrow, with anterior margin of disc transverse, posterior margin obtusely angulately 
excavate, disc hollowed out on each side of middle line, lateral discal carinae following hind 
margin of eyes, a feeble oblique carina on each side between lateral discal carina and tegula, 
outer angles of lateral lobes in anterior view rectangulate ; mesonotum with disc tricarinate, 
with a very obscure indication of sublateral carinae, profemora and mesofemora rather com- 
pressed, post-tibiae laterally unarmed or with a single minute spine, apically with six teeth in two 
groups of three, basal metatarsal segment with two stout and six small even teeth apically, 
second segment with two stout and seven small teeth apically, some of the latter bearing a narrow 
scale. 

Castaneous ; lateral carinae of frons and vertex, disc and posterior margin of pronotum, 
rostrum except at apex, pleura, postcoxae, post-trochanters, all tibiae and tarsi light testaceous 
or sordid stramineous disc of mesonotum ferruginous, except anteriorly. Tegmina hyaline, 
membrane faintly infumed distad of nodal line, veins of corium concolous, distal line of transverse 
veinlets, and all veins distad of this, and apical margin, fuscous. Wings hyaline, with brown 
veins. 



246 



R. G. FENNAH 



<J. Anal segment of male moderately long, in side view with ventral margin shallowly sinuate, 
dorsal margin declivous distad of anal foramen, apical margin in dorsal view broadly convex. 
Pygofer short dorsally, rather long ventrally, in lateral view with posterior margin strongly 
convex, laterodorsal angles not distinct, medioventral process triangular, prominent. Aedeagus 
tubular, porrect, a pair of moderately long spinose processes arising laterally at apex, directed 
cephalad ; a spinose process, of approximately equal length, arising ventrally on left subapically, 
directed cephalad and curving weakly to right, flagellum rather narrowly tubular, reflected 
cephalad in repose. Genital styles moderately long, relatively straight and approximately 
parallel-sided in basal three-quarters, expanding in distal quarter ; apical margin strongly convex, 
apical angle subrectangulate. 

(J : length, 4-1 mm. ; tegmen, 5-5 mm. 

Holotype <$. Chile: Volcan Calbuco, 200 m., 22. ii. 1956 (G. Kuschel). 

This species is most easily recognizable by the tegminal marking. It is separable 
from N. helvolus by its dark body colour ; from N. fulvicollis and N. chepiianus by the 




Figs. 64-73. Notocixius ophion sp. n. 64, Frons and clypeus ; 65.. head and pronotum 
lateral view ; 66, vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 67, tegmen ; 68, pygofer, left 
side; 69, anal segment, left side ; 70, anal segment, dorsal view ; 71, aedeagus, left side ; 
72, aedeagus, right side ; 73, genital style. 






FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 



247 



absence of fuscous spots on the corium ; and from N. pallens and N. adspersus by 
the proportions of the posterior margin of the vertex. 

CIXIOSOMA Berg 

Cixiosoma Berg, 18796 : 185. Haplotype, Cixiosoma platense Berg. 

Cixiosoma platense Berg 

(Text-figs. 74-78) 
Cixiosoma platense Berg, 18796 : 186. 

Argentina : Terr. Rio Negro, Viedma, 1 $, 23.x. 1926 (F. & M. Edwards), B.M. 
1927-63 ; 
Uruguay : Maldonado, 1 $ (C. Darwin), B.M. 1885-119. 

Cixiosoma bonaerense Berg 

(Text-figs. 79-87) 
Cixiosoma bonaerense Berg, 1883 : 188. 

Argentina : Chaco, Roque Saenz Pena, 3 <$, 5 $, 1932 (K. J. Hayward), B.M. 
1933-58 ; Prov. Buenos Aires, 1 <$, 2 $, 9.x. 1899 (S. Venturi). 

Cixiosoma caliginosum sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 88-94) 

cJ $. Vertex as long in middle line as broad at base of middle line, narrower at apex than at 
base, anterior margin subangulately convex, lateral margins diverging caudad, weakly obtusely 
angulately concave, basal margin approximately semicircularly excavate, disc rather hollowed 




Figs. 74-78. Cixiosoma platense Berg. 74, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 75, head in 
profile ; 76, frons and clypeus ; 77, tegmen ; 78, female genitalia, posterior view. 



248 



R. G. FENNAH 



out, medially carinate only in basal half and divided transversely by a straight carina that is 
interrupted at its middle ; base of frons visible in dorsal view J frons in middle line longer than 
broad at widest part (nearly 1-2 : 1), widest at level of antennae, basal margin very weakly convex, 
lateral margins sinuate, frontoclypeal suture rather strongly convex, median carina more strongly 
raised than lateral marginal carinae, a short arcuate carina at base uniting lateral margins to 
apex of vertex, and so demarcating a small triangular facet on each side of frons at base, median 
ocellus absent ; clypeus tricarinate, disc shallowly tectiform ; rostrum reaching to post-tro- 
chanters, apical segment shorter than subapical, eyes broadly ovate, with a very small excavation 
below, ocelli distinct. Pronotum short, anterior margin transverse, posterior margin acutely 
angulately excavate, lateral carinae of disc following hind margin of eyes, a short carina between 
eye and tegula on each side, outer angle of lateral lobes subacute ; mesonotum tricarinate, post- 
tibiae laterally trispinose, apically with six spines, basal post-tarsal segment with twelve small 
teeth, second segment broader between apical angles than long in middle, with about sixteen 
small scale-like teeth apically. Tegmina with Sc + R and M united at base, and forming a 
very short stalk, Sc + R forked at about one-third from base, M forked at level of nodal line, 




Figs. 79-87. Cixiosoma bonaerense Berg. 79, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 80, 
head in profile ; 81, frons and clypeus ; 82, tegmen ; 83, pygofer, 84, anal segment, 
lateral view ; 85, anal segment, dorsal view ; 86, aedeagus, right side ; 87, genital style. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 



249 



C«j forked a little distad of Sc -f R fork, claval veins uniting at level of basal quarter of tegmen, 
basad of 5c + R fork, all veins evenly and densely granulate. 

Black ; all carinae, margins of legs, and tarsal segments apically, excepting the third segment, 
fulvous or orange-brown. Tegmina milky hyaline, veins stramineous, with castaneous granules. 

cJ. Anal segment of male moderately long, in side view with ventral margin concave in basal 
half, obtusely angulately convex in distal half, apical margin viewed from above rounded, 
medially excavate, anal style rather slender, attaining apical margin. Pygofer moderately long 
in side view with posterior margin broadly convex, laterodorsal angles not distinct, medioventral 
process about twice as long as broad, slightly tapering distad, deeply rounded at apex. Aedeagus 
subtubular, shallowly curved upward and expanding distad, phallobase dorsally longitudinally 
excavate, forming a shallow boat-like sclerite, and terminating in two spinose processes, one on 
each side, each about a quarter of total length of aedeagus, directed cephalad and curved upward 
at its tip, a stout spinose process arising just below apex, directed cephalad below aedeagus, 




Figs. 88-94. Cixiosoma caliginosum sp. n. 88, Frons and clypeus ; 89, head in profile ; 90, 
vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 91, tegmen ; 92, anal segment, pygofer and left 
genital style ; 93, aedeagus, right side ; 94, aedeagus, left side. 



250 



R. G. FENNAH 



flagellum expanding distad, distally submembranous, irregularly trumpet-mouthed at apex. 
Genital styles moderately long, rather narrow and sinuate in basal two-thirds, subquadrate in 
apical third, with apical angle shortly produced in a curved spinose process. 

^ : length, 4-1 mm. ; tegmen, 4-8 mm. 

o. : length 4-2 mm. ; tegmen, 5-0 mm. 

Holotype $. Chile : Chiloe, in swamp at end of Chepu, 14.x. 58, bog vegetation, 
Leptocarpus (M. W. Holdgate). 

Paratypes : 4 $, same locality, 3-11.X.58, Leptocarpus swamp, Tepualia scrub 
(M. W. Holdgate) ; 1 $, Ensenada, 14-15. xii. 36 (F. M. Edwards). 

This species is readily separable from C. platense and C. bonaerense by its relatively 
narrow frons, and its black ground colour. The wax-secreting area of the female 
genitalia is much larger in C. caliginosum than in either of the other two species. 



Idiosytatus Berg, 1883& : 231. 



Family DELPHACIDAE 

IDIOSYSTATUS Berg 
Haplotype, Delphax acutiuscula Spinola. 



Idiosystatus acutiusculus (Spinola) 
(Text-figs. 95-100) 
Idiosystatus acutiusculus Spinola, 1852a : 258. 

Chile : Chepu, n <$, 3 $, 21.x. 58, 2 <$, 4 $, 19.x. 58, 1 $, 24.x. 58 (G. Kuschel) ; 
30 ft., 4 3\ 3 ?, 3, n.x.58, Leptocarpus swamp, secondary scrub (M. W. Holdgate) ; 




Figs. 95-100. Idiosystatus acutiusculus (Spinola). 95, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 
96, head in profile ; 97, frons and clypeus ; 98, anal segment, left side ; 99, aedeagus, left 
side ; 100, left genital style. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 251 

Coquimbo, Punta Teatines, 5 <J, 5 $, 16.ix.52 (G. Kuschel) ; Santiago, Batuco, 
5 J, 6 Q, 21.xii.1955. 

IDIOSEMUS Berg 

Idiosemus Berg, 18336 : 233. Haplotype, Liburnia xiphias Berg. ■ 

Stenosy status Muir, 1930/: 214. Orthotype, Stenosystatus anonymi Muir. syn. n. 

Idiosemus xiphias (Berg) 

Liburnia xiphias Berg, 18796 : 190. 
Stenosystatus anonymi Muir, 1930/: 215 syn. n. 

Chile : Santiago, Bucalemu, 16 <$, 9 9, 25. v. 51 (Pena). 

CALBOD £/S Spinoia 

Calbodus Spinoia, 1852a : 261. Haplotype, Calbodus pallidulus Spin. 

This genus is very close to Eurysa, but at present can be separated by the relatively 
longer rostrum, of which the apical segment surpasses the mesotrochanters, and by the 
post-tibial spur, which, though relatively solid, bears a row of even teeth along the 
margin. The frons is relatively more elongate than in species of Eurysa, and the 
carinae are moderately distinct at the junction of vertex and frons. 

Calbodus pallidulus Spinoia 

Calbodus pallidulus Spinoia, 1852a : 262. 

Delphacodes correntosoensis Muir, 1929a : 80. syn. n. 

Chile : Chiloe, San Pedro, 42 S., 2,100 ft., 5 <$, 6 $, 13.xi.58, forest edge scrub ; 
2,000 ft., 1 <$, 10.xi.58, Nothofagus forest ; 2,500 ft., 21.xi.58, 9 <$, 4 $, grassland ; 
Volcan Calbuco, 200 m., 4 <$, 22.ii.56 (G. Kuschel). 

Calbodus patquianus sp. n. 

(Text-figs, ioi-iii) 

o* $. Vertex as long medially as broad at base, obtusely rounding into frons, very slightly 
narrower at apex than at base, lateral margins straight or shallowly concave, apical margin 
straight or feebly convex with submedian carinae weakly prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, 
submedian carinae coarse, uniting at apex of vertex or at extreme base of frons, basal compart- 
ment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (1-9:1); and than median length 
(2-3 : 1), frons in middle line longer than wide at widest part (about 1-6 : 1), widest at middle, 
lateral margins shallowly convex, median carina simple, or forked at extreme base, clypeus at 
base slightly wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc as long as broad at base, in profile 
shallowly convex, anteclypeus in profile shallowly convex ; rostrum not reaching to post- 
trochanters, apical segment slightly shorter than subapical ; antennae slightly surpassing f ronto- 
clypeal suture, basal segment longer than broad (i-6 : 1), second segment longer than first (i-8 : 
1) ; ocelli distinct but small. Pronotum with disc shorter in middle line than broad at anterior 
margin (1 : 12), lateral carinae straight or weakly concave, not nearly attaining hind margin ; 
a few pustules present near each lateral margin. Total length of mesonotum greater than that 
of scutellum (2-6 : 1). Post-tibial spur shallowly tectiform, with twelve teeth, including a tooth 
at apex. 



252 



R. G. FENNAH 



Dark testaceous or yellowish fuscous ; carinae of head and thorax, five to seven round spots 
in each compartment of frons, apical segment of rostrum, pustules on pronotum, post-tarsi 
distally and post-tibial spur, stramineous ; antennae, pleurites, pro- and mesocoxae, femora and 
tibiae, fuscous. Tegmina hyaline, veins concolorous. 

<$. Anal segment of male short, ring-like, lateroapical angles each produced ventrad in a 
spinose process that is weakly curved laterad near its apex. Pygofer moderately long, latero- 
dorsal angles weakly produced, subrectangulate, no medioventral process present ; posterior 
opening of pygofer about as broad as long, diaphragm medially rather wide, with dorsal margin 
horizontal, abruptly and deeply incised at middle, the margin on each side of the incision at its 
base produced ventrad in a spinose process. Aedeagus relatively long and narrow, tubular, bent 
upward through about 45 degrees near base, thence almost straight to apex, a dense group of 
minute denticles subapically on upper surface, orifice terminal, oblique, with lower margin 
produced. Genital styles relatively large, in posterior view extending laterad then dorsad, 
widening distad of middle, broadly bifurcate at apex. 

<$ : length, 2-7 mm. ; tegmen, 3-0 mm. 

$ : length, 3-1 mm. ; tegmen, 3-6 mm. 

Holotype <£. Argentina : Patquia, La Rioja, 1.1933 (K. J. Hayward), Brit. Mus. 
1933-187. 
Paratype $ : same data. 

This species is placed in Calbodus with some hesitation on account of differences in 
bodily proportions that, in sum, separate this species very markedly from C. pallidulus. 




Figs, ioi-iii. Calbodus patquianus sp. n. 101, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 102, 
head in profile ; 103, frons and clypeus ; 104, antennae ; 105, tegmen ; 106, pygofer, 
posterior view ; 107, pygofer, lateral view ; 108, anal segment, lateral view ; 109, anal 
segment, posterior view ; no, aedeagus ; in, genital style. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 



253 



Without further information regarding the extent of variation in Calbodus, it would 
seem premature to define the genus rigidly by the characters exhibited by the type- 
species. 

This species is well distinguished by the characters of a speckled frons and pustulate 
pronotum in combination with those shown by the male genitalia. 

NOTHODELPHAX Fennah 
Nothodelphax Fennah, 1963a : 15. Orthotype, Liburnia foveata Van Duzee, 1894c : 192. 

Nothodelphax atlanticus (China) comb. n. 
(Text- figs. 114-116) 

Delphacodes atlanticus China, 1958 : 5. 



Nothodelphax atlanticus nigrescens ssp. n. 

(Text-figs. 112, 113, 115, 117) 

<J $. Vertex as long as broad at base. 

Intercarinal areas of frons, clypeus, genae in anterior half, abdomen except mediodorsally 
and laterally, pygofer except dorsally, anal style in both sexes, and ovipositor, piceous ; femora 
and tibiae with fuscous stripes ; first valvifers yellowish fuscous, abdominal terga of female 
yellowish brown except along middle line. Tegmina (brachypterous) translucent, ochraceous or 
suffused with yellowish brown, veins concolorous ; (macropterous) sordid yellowish translucent, 
marginal veins ferruginous or fuscous. 

cj (brachypterous) : length, 2-7 mm. 

$ : length 3-2 mm. ; tegmen, 3-8 mm. 

Holotype <J of subspecies. Chile 
(G. Kuschel), in B.M. (N.H.). 



Isla Wellington, Puerto Eden, 60 ft., 6.xii.58 




Figs. 112, 113, 115, 117. Nothodelphax atlanticus nigrescens subsp. n. 112, Pygofer, posterior 

view ; 113, aedeagus, left side ; 115, apex of aedeagus ; 117, genital style. 
Figs. 114, 116. Nothodelphax atlanticus atlanticus China. 114, Aedeagus ; 116, genital style. 



254 R. G. FENNAH 

Paratypes : 4^, 3 $, same data, in scrub, grassland, sedge. Chiloe I., San Pedro, 
42 S., 2,100ft., 2 ^, 1 mutilated specimen, 13. xi. 1958, forest edge scrub ; Navarino 
I., Port Williams, 1 <$, 3.1L59, swept in Marsippospermum swamp. 

Morphologically there is comparatively little difference between material of N. 
utlanticus from Chile, Falkland Is., Gough Id., and Tristan da Cunha, and such 
differences as have been noted (in colour pattern and in the shape of the genital styles) 
are here interpreted as being of less than specific value, on the grounds that other 
species in the genus differ from one another quite evidently in other characters such as 
aedeagal structure, as well as more distinctly in the form of the genital styles. 

Although the present subspecies is distinctly darker than the typical subspecies, 
it does not closely resemble N. foveata subfoveata (Muir), which, apart from its 
more contrasting coloration, has a relatively shorter vertex and a male anal segment 
with the spinose processes rather close to one another. 

The genus includes several North American species, for which new combinations 
are given below. 

Nothodelphax gillettei (Van Duzee) comb. n. 
Liburnia gillettei Van Duzee, 1897a : 258. 

Nothodelphax consimilis (Van Duzee) comb. n. 
Liburnia consimilis Van Duzee, 1897a : 249. 

Nothodelphax occlusa (Van Duzee) comb. n. 
Liburnia occlusa Van Duzee, 1897a : 256. 

Nothodelphax neocclusa (Muir & Giffard) comb. n. 
Delphacodes neocclusa Muir & Giffard, 1924a : 22. 

Nothodelphax lineatipes (Van Duzee) comb. n. 
Liburnia lineatipes Van Duzee, 1897a : 255. 

Family DERBIDAE 
GONEOKARELLA Fennah 
Goneokarella Fennah, 1952a : 142. Type-species, Goneokarella maculivenis Fennah. 

Goneokarella maculivenis Fennah 

(Text-figs. 118-121) 

Goneokarella maculivenis Fennah, 1952a : 142. 

cJ. Anal segment of male in dorsal view longer than broad at middle (about 3:1), broad at 
extreme base, parallel-sided for most of length, apical margin deeply excavate, anal foramen 
situated near apex, anal style rather short, surpassing apical margin. Pygofer short, moderately 
long ventrally. Aedeagus rather long, tubular, tapering distad, three pairs of processes arising 
dorsally at apex, reflected anteriorly ; the first pair rather broad, directed ventro-cephalad, 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 



255 



strongly narrowing distad of middle to a blunt point at apex ; the second pair directed dorso- 
cephalad, rather narrow, widening distally, then abruptly narrowing, slender and acuminate at 
apex ; the third pair directed cephalad, also rather narrow at base, gradually widening distad, 
rather abruptly narrowing at two-thirds from base, acute apically ; a short subgranulate 
membranous lobe overlying all three pairs of processes basally. Genital styles long, slightly 
bent upwards in distal half, apical angle acute ; a broad-based spinose process arising dorsally a 
little basad of middle, directed caudad, shallowly decurved and acuminate at tip. 

Chile : Isla Wellington, Puerto Eden, 25 ft-1,200 ft., 43 <$, 32 $, 29.xi-6.xii.58, 
Nothofagus forest, Pernettya, sedge and heath (M. W. Holdgate, G. Kuschel) ; Isla 
Chiloe, San Pedro, 600 ft-2,100 ft., 3 $, 5 $, 13-15. xi. 58 (M. W. Holdgate, G. 
Kuschel) ; Isla Piazza, Lecky Retreat, 25 ft., 1 $, 26.xii.58 (M. W. Holdgate). 

This genus and Phrygia Stal (of which the haplotype, P. fuscata Stal, is from Brazil) 
occupy an isolated position in the Cenchreine Derbidae. 




118-121. Goneokarella maculivenis Fennah. 118, Anal segment of male; 
aedeagus, left side ; 120, apex of aedeagus, left side ; 121, left genital style. 



119, 



Family ACHILIDAE 
RHOTALA Walker 
Rhotala Walker, 18576 : 152. Haplotype, Rhotala delineata Walker, 18576 : 152. 

Rhotala valdiviana sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 122-132) 

6*. Vertex wider at base of middle line than long medially (about i-6 : 1) ; anterior margin 
shallowly convex, lateral margins slightly converging distad, basal margin almost semicircularly 
excavate, median carina represented by a callus ; no carina separating vertex from frons ; frons 
longer than broad (2 : 1), basal margin feebly convex, lateral margins gradually diverging to 
below level of antennae, then incurved to frontoclypeal suture, disc rather narrowly depressed 
on each side of middle line, the depressed area widening distad ; clypeus shorter than frons 
(1 : 1-3), disc flat, carinate coarsely in middle and finely at lateral margins , rostrum with sub- 
apical segment attaining post-trochanters, apical segment reaching to base of pygofer ; eyes 
rounded, a little emarginate ventrally ; ocelli distinct ; antennae with basal segment short, ring- 
like, second segment pyriform. Pronotum with disc almost as long medially as broad at base. 



256 



R. G. FENNAH 



tricarinate, a distinct carina on each side between eye and tegula. Post-tibiae laterally with five 
spines, apically with four large spines and one very small spine ; basal metatarsal segment with 
nine teeth apically, one or two smaller than the others ; second segment with eight teeth. 
Tegmina slightly surpassing abdomen, Sc + R fork, Cu x fork and union of claval veins at 
approximately same level. Wings not quite reaching to apex of abdomen. 




Figs. 122-132. Rhotala valdiviana sp. n. 122, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 123, 
head and pronotum, lateral view ; 124, frons and clypeus ; 125, tegmen ; 126, male 
genitalia, lateral view ; 127, posterior ventral margin of pygofer ; 128, anal segment of 
male, dorsal view ; 129, aedeagus, left side ; 130, aedeagus, ventral view ; 131, left 
genital style and associated spinose appendage, dprsal view ; 132, spinose appendage of 
genital style, lateral view. 






FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 257 

Ochraceous ; head and thorax with linear markings as shown in figure, pleurites and coxae in 
part, four rings on each femur and tibia of fore and middle legs, pro- and mesotarsal segments, 
distally, castaneous ; ventrites sublaterally dark yellowish brown, dark fuscous on posterolateral 
margins. Pygofer dark castaneous laterally, lighter castaneous at base ventrally, genital styles 
yellowish brown distally. Tegmina ochraceous, veins more or less regularly flecked with small 
castaneous spots, or very narrowly overlain with a percurrent castaneous line. Wings ochraceous 
hyaline. 

Anal segment of male relatively large, broadly sub-ovate, shallowly decumbent on each side of 
middle, anal foramen situated at middle, a broad deep channel extending from this point to apical 
margin. Pygofer moderately long, in lateral view extending farther caudad dorsally than ven- 
trally, dorsolateral angles rectangulate, lateral margin straight in upper half, broadly excavate 
in lower half, ventral margin entire, convex. Aedeagus broadly tubular at extreme base, abruptly 
dividing distally into two rami, one above the other ; the dorsal limb tubular, slightly depressed, 
membranous distally, a pair of strongly sinuate spinose processes arising about two-thirds from 
base, each directed ventrocaudad, then dorso-caudad, finally laterad ; the lower limb tubular, a 
pair of stout dorsally-compressed spinose processes emerging near apex, each curved laterad then 
cephalad ; aedeagal appendages rather narrowly tubular, surpassing apex of aedeagus by about a 
quarter of their length, each bearing at apex a broad thin flattened flagellum reflected cephalad, 
and produced distally into a slender tapering spinose process that crosses its counterpart in the 
middle line. Genital styles about twice as long as broad, lower margin in ventral view very 
weakly sinuate, dorsal margin in ventral view broadly convex, in lateral view, produced dorsad 
in basal quarter in a triangulate lobe with a short stout tooth on its outer face, distad of this 
lobe a large spinose process directed dorsocephalad ; mesad of genital styles, and approximated 
to their bases, though not attached, a pair of large stout scimitar-like processes, each produced 
mesad one-third from base in a shallow triangulate lobe. 

Holotype <J. Chile : Volcan Calbuco, 200 m., Rio Peseado, 22.xi.56 (G. Kuschel). 

Paratype : 1 nymph, Chile : Chiloe, Chepu, 42 S., 30 ft., 21 .x.58, Tepualia forest 
(M. W. Holdgate). 

This species is distinguished from the Panamanian R. ambigua Fowler, the only- 
other species found in the Americas, by its brachypterous form, by the shorter disc 
and longer occipital portion of the vertex, by the relatively shorter median disc of 
the pronotum, and its evenly curved lateral margins (which are almost straight in 
R. ambigua) and by the larger number of teeth on the hind margin of the basal two 
post-tarsal segments, the numbers being 5, 5 in the type of R. ambigua, and also 
in the Oriental species with which it was compared (R. nebulosa Dist., R.funesta Wlk., 
R. delineata Wlk., R. albopunctata Dist., and R. philippinensis Dist.). 

CAT ONI A Uhler 
Catonia Uhler, 1895a : 61. Logotype, Catonia intricata Uhler, 1895a : 61. 

Catonia ornatipennis Blanchard comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 133-138) 

Cixius ornatipennis Blanchard, 1852a : 252. 

Chile : Isla Wellington, Puerto Eden, 49 ° S., 2 $, 30. x.58 (G. Kuschel), 40 ft., 
6.xii.58, in Nothofagus forest (M. W. Holdgate) ; Aisen, Rio Murta, 1 $, 25.L56 



258 



R. G. FENNAH 



(G. Kuschel). There is one specimen in the Paris Museum labelled Cixius ornati- 
pennis Bl., 15 .43. This agrees with the original description and is here considered to 
be the type. 

Catonia gayi Spinola comb. n. 

(Text-figs. i39- I 43) 
Cixius gayi Spinola, 1852a : 248. 
Cixius maculatus Blanchard, 1852a : 252. syn. n. 
Cixius valdiviensis Blanchard, 1852a : 253. syn. n. 
Cixius irroratus Blanchard, 1852a : 253. syn. n. 

o*. Anal segment of male short, in profile with ventral margin convex in basal half, concave in 
distal half, in dorsal view almost semicircularly rounded, with apical margin feebly excavate at 




Figs. 133-138. Catonia ornatipennis (Blanchard). 133, Frons and clypeus ; 134, head in 
profile ; 135, vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 136, tegmen ; 137, aedeagus, ventral 
view ; 138, aedeagus, dorsal view. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 



259 






middle, anal style rather short, distinctly surpassing apical margin. Pygofer rather short, in 
lateral view with posterior margin almost straight, only very weakly convex, medioventral 
process not quite as broad as long, bifid in its distal half. Aedeagus with phallobase bilaterally 
symmetrical, each half produced distally into four unequal lobes, as follows : dorsally a ribbon- 
like lobe, denticulate on its dorsal margin, curved mesad apically to meet its counterpart in 
middle line ; below this a lanceolate-spatulate lobe, slightly hollowed, like a scoop ; mesad of 
this, and distinctly separated from it, a short, flattened thumb-like lobe directed caudad ; along 
the mesal margin of this lobe a vertical, narrow, subspatulate lobe extending caudad almost to 
apex, its surface minutely studded with denticles ; from the base of this lobe an oblique vertical 
flange extends across the ventral surface to the middle of the lateral margin ; phallic appendages 
long, strap-like, not quite similar at apex, inner surface minutely denticulate. Genital styles as 
figured, distal half of dorsal margin produced dorsad in a quadrate lobe with its distal angles 
acutely produced, a long rod-like process arising on inner surface near base, directed dorsad, 
ventral margin of styles scroll -like basally and incurved to meet in middle line. 

Chile : Isla Wellington, Puerto Eden, 7 £, 2 $, 13, 30.xi.58, under Nothofagiis 
nitida (G. Kuschel) ; 40 ft., 6.xii.58, in Nothofagus forest (M. W. Holdgate) ; I. 
Chiloe, Chepu, 6 <$, 16, 19.x. 58 (G. Kuschel) ; Valdivia, El Mirador, 1,600 m., 
2 $, 5 .i .57 (G. Kuschel). 




Figs. 139-143. Catonia gayi (Spinola). 139, Frons and clypeus ; 140, head and thorax, 
lateral view ; 141, vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 142, tegmen ; 143, aedeagus, 
dorsal view. 



260 R. G. FENNAH 

The description given by Spinola refers primarily to a species with a frons speckled 
with yellow ; a form with " dos fajas transversales blancas en la f rente " is referred to 
as a variety in a postscript to the description. The writer accordingly here restricts 
Spinola's specific concept to the species with a speckled frons, and, as a result, is led 
to make the synonymy given above. A figure purporting to be that of Cixius gayi 
Spin., is given in pi. 3 fig. 3 of the Atlas Zoologico, but in fact represents the much 
larger Cixius chilensis Spin., which belongs in the Dictyopharid genus Chondrodera 
Mel. 

The writer has not seen the type of Cixius gayi Spin., and it was not traced in the 
Paris Museum. The three species here placed in synonymy with it are each rep- 
resented in the Paris Museum by a single specimen, labelled, respectively, Cixius 
maculatus Bl. 15.43, Cixius valdiviensis Bl. 15.43, and Cixius irroratus Bl. 15.43. 
Each agrees with the original description and is considered to be the type. 

Family DICTYOPHARIDAE 

CHONDRODERA Melichar 

Chondrodera Melichar, 1912a : 157. Orthotype, Chondrodera granicollis Melichar, 1912a : 217. 
Taractellus Metcalf, 1948 : 77. Orthotype, Cixius chilensis Spinola. syn. n. 

Chondrodera chilensis (Spin.) 

Cixius chilensis Spinola, 1852a : 249. 

The figures given in Gay's Atlas zoologico, Entomologia, Hemipteros, pi. 3, figs. 
3, yi-c, refer to C. chilensis, and not to Cixius gayi Spin., as stated both in the Atlas 
and on p. 248 of the seventh volume of the Historia de Chile. 

Chile : Santiago, La Florida, 1 $, 28. hi. 1956 (G. Kuschel). 

SICORIS Stal 

Sicoris Stal, 1866a : 151. Orthotype, Dictyophara gayi Spinola, 1852a : 243. 
This genus and Sicorisia Melichar may be separated as follows. 

Frons carinate only submedially in basal half, and only medially in distal half, in 
profile distinctly concave ; eyes with a wide area behind, but no callus ; basal 
segment of post-tarsus with 22 teeth at apex, second segment with 16 teeth 

SICORIS Stal. 

Frons tricarinate throughout, in profile straight ; eyes with a thick callus behind ; 
basal segment of post-tarsus with 14-16 teeth at apex, second segment with 14 
teeth SICORISIA Melichar 

Sicoris gayi (Spinola) 
Sicoris gayi Spinola, 1852a : 243. 

<$. Anal segment of male about twice as long as broad, in profile shortly and abruptly deflexed 
at apex, apical margin truncate, apical angles not at all produced, anal foramen in apical quarter. 
Aedeagus in repose tubular, ensheathed in membranous folds, a pair of tubular membranous 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 261 

processes arising dorsally at apex directed cephalad above aedeagus, each tapering gradually into 
a slender spinose process ; a pair of short broad flattened blade-like pigmented processes arising 
at base of aedeagus lateroventrally, directed caudad. Genital styles rather less than twice as 
long as broad, in side view with lower margin shallowly convex, meeting apical margin subrect- 
angulately, apical margin oblique, straight, as long as dorsal margin, dorsal margin straight, 
ascending to apical angle, which is produced in a short stout spine curved cephalad ; a stout 
blunt spine on outer surface just below dorsal margin at its middle. 

Chile : Santiago, Cuesta Zapata, i $, 30. xi. 1947 (G. Kuschel) ; La Curro, 3 <$, 
27.1.51 (/. Herrera G.). 

SICORISIA Melichar 
Sicorisia Melichar, 1912a : 161. Orthotype, Sicorisia discreta Melichar, 1912a : 161. 

Sicorisia discreta Melichar 

Sicorisia discreta Melichar, 1912a: 161. 

$. Frons flat, tricarinate throughout, a moderately broad margin behind each eye, developed 
as a thick callus. Post-tibiae with four spines laterally, eight apically, basal post-tarsal segment 
with two simple teeth and twelve to fourteen scale-bearing teeth, second segment with two simple 
teeth and twelve scale-like teeth. Tegmina coelopterous, with Cu x three-branched, forking at 
about one-third from base. Wings about two-thirds as long as tegmina, narrow, strap-like. 

Chile : E. Peumo, 1 $, 17.xi.51 (/. Herrera. G.), in U.S.N.M. 

Sicorisia breviceps sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 144-154) 

<J. Vertex longer than broad at base (almost 1-4 : 1), basal margin weakly concave, lateral 
margins straight, slightly converging distad, apical margin convex, all margins carinate, includ- 
ing basal margin, median carina distinct throughout ; frons in middle line longer than broad 
(nearly 1-7 : 1), wider at apex than at base, lateral margins sinuate, disc tricarinate, in profile 
straight, except at base where it curves backward to vertex ; clypeus distinctly broader than 
frons, post-clypeal portion with lateral margins carinate, strongly convex, median carina distinct ; 
rostrum reaching beyond middle of abdomen, subapical segment longer than apical, and surpass- 
ing post-trochanters. Pronotum rather short, anterior margin of disc weakly convex, posterior 
very weakly concave, almost straight, median carina distinct, lateral carinae of disc feeble, 
closely following hind margin of eyes, two carinae on each side between eye and lower half of 
tegula, lateral lobes with ventral margin bent anteriorly, eyes round, bordered posteriorly by a 
callus, ocelli distinct, a short oblique carina across gena just below ocellus, antennae with first 
segment very short, second segment globose ; mesonotum broader than long, disc tricarinate, 
with lateral carinae curved mesad anteriorly to form a transverse carina, and strongly diverg- 
ing basad. Legs slender, protibiae longer than profemora (about 1-2 : 1), post-tibiae with five 
teeth laterally, eight apically, basal metatarsal segment with two simple teeth and twelve small 
scale-bearing teeth, second metatarsal segment with two simple and twelve small scale-bearing 
teeth. 

Tegmina coelopterous, longer than broad (about 2-2 : 1), deeply rounded apically, Sc + R 
forked at level of union of common claval vein with margin, M fork at middle of tegmen, Cu x 
forked slightly distad of M fork, and with only two veins at apex ; common claval vein shorter 
than anterior claval vein. Wings not quite as long as tegmina, and about half as wide, M and Cu x 
each forked once near apex. 



262 



R. G. FENNAH 



Ochraceous ; carinae of frons and clypeus, and lateral carinae of vertex, intercarpal areas of 
frons and clypeus interruptedly, and of vertex and mesonotum at base and apex, lateral lobes of 
pronotum and pleura except at margins, more or less dilute fuscous ; a transverse band across 
vertex, genae near antennae, punctation on pronotal disc, four spots on mesonotum, one in each 
compartment, and longitudinal stripes on all legs, and apical segment of pro- and mesotarsi, 
piceous. Tegmina translucent, two ovate spots on M and one on Cu v and all cross-veins, fuscous 
piceous. Wings milky hyaline, veins brown. 

Anal segment of male in dorsal view longer than broad (about 2-5 : 1), lateral margins parallel, 
apical margin slightly incised at middle. Pygofer moderately short, dorsolateral angles moder- 
ately produced caudad in a rounded-truncate lobe, weakly inflected distally. Aedeagus tubular, 
almost porrect, with a pair of moderately short spinose processes ventrally three-quarters from 
base, a pair of moderately short spinose processes laterally a little before apex, and a pair of 




Figs. 144-154. Sicorisia breviceps sp. n. 144, Frons and clypeus ; 145, head in profile ; 
146, vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 147, tegmen ; 148, apex of wing ; 149, pygofer, 
lateral view ; 150, pygofer, dorsal view ; 151, anal segment, dorsal view ; 152, aedeagus, 
left side ; 153, right genital style, ventral view ; 154, left genital style, lateral view of 
mesal surface. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 263 

longer spinose processes arising at apex, directed cephalad above aedeagus. Genital styles 
relatively long and narrow, dorsal and ventral margins parallel for much of their length, apical 
angle produced dorsad in a short spinose process, and a short acute lobe directed mesad on 
inner surface of style. 

o*. (coleopterous) : length, 3-9 mm. ; tegmen 3-0 mm. 

Holotype <J. Chile : V. Marga Marga, in B.M. (N.H.). 

This species differs from S. discreta in the much shorter vertex, the degree of 
curvature of the frontal margins, the shape of the tegmina and wings and in the 
venation of the former. 

MYROPHENGES gen. n. 

Type-species, Issus planifrons Spinola, 1852. 

Head with eyes much narrower than pronotum. Vertex about twice as broad as long, anterior 
margin convex, lateral margins straight, slightly diverging basad, basal margin shallowly concave, 
median carina distinct, obsolete distally, disc shallowly depressed, base of frons amply visible 
from above, more shallowly convex than anterior margin of vertex ; frons about as long as 
broad, disc shallowly convex basally, less so apically, basal margin, as visible in anterior view, 
transverse or shallowly convex, lateral margins diverging to below level of antennae, thence rather 
strongly incurved to frontoclypeal suture, disc rugose punctate, with median carina absent 
basally, broad and only feebly indicated distally ; clypeus about as long as broad at base, 
ecarinate, mandibular sclerites amply visible in anterior view ; rostrum surpassing mesotro- 
chanters, scarcely attaining post-trochanters, apical segment about two-thirds of length of 
subapical ; antennae short, basal segment ring-like, scarcely visible, second segment subglobose ; 
ocelli relatively large, eyes rounded, not or little excavated beneath. Pronotum about as long as 
vertex, median disc about twice as broad as long, tricarinate, a carina on each side between eye and 
basal cell in tegmen, a stouter carina on each side below this, between eye and tegula ; mesonotum 
broader than long, disc flat, lateral carinae distinct, median carina absent ; legs rather short, 
profemora and mesofemora a little compressed laterally, post-tibiae with three spines laterally, 
one large and five smaller spines apically, basal metatarsal segment with seven small even teeth 
apically, second segment with six teeth, one larger than the others. Third, fourth and fifth 
abdominal terga each with two transverse rows of pores. 

Tegmina subcoriaceous, little surpassing abdomen and decurved distally, Sc + R forked near 
base, each of these veins simple to apex, M forked near apex, Cu t forked at level of union of claval 
veins, two rows of transverse veinlets present ; claval suture distinct, claval veins uniting at 
three-quarters from base, common vein entering apex of clavus. Wings as long as tegmina, all 
veins simple. 

Anal segment of male short. Pygofer short, distal margin transverse, united with convolute 
genital styles. 

The generic concept is based on the specimen in the British Museum here figured, 
which is believed to represent the species cited. It stands far apart from all others. 
In the form of the vertex it can be compared only with Taosa, Brachytaosa and 
Cladypha. In the first two, a scale is attached to each of the teeth of the distal 
margin of the post-tarsal segments, a structure absent in the present genus, whereas 
in Cladypha, with which it agrees better in head structure, a pad of setae is developed 
on the first and second post-tarsal segments, and in the tegmen, a cross vein is present 
in the clavus, structures, again, not found in Myrophenges. Moreover, in Cladypha 
the head is distinctly wider than the pronotum. 



264 



R. G. FENNAH 



Myrophenges planifrons (Spinola) comb. n. 

(Text-figs. 155-161) 

Issus planifrons Spinola, 1852a : 265. 

o*. Anal segment of male in dorsal view about as broad as long. Pygofer moderately long. 
Aedeagus comprising a deep narrow trough, with its dorsal margins not symmetrical on each 
side ; within this trough a subtubular membranous process, upcurved distally, and fimbriate 
on dorsal surface in distal half. Genital styles relatively broad, with apical angle produced in a 
stout finger-like lobe; a broad lobe arising on inner surface of style in basal half, produced 
cephalad and tapering. 

S. Chile : 1 $, Llanquihue (F. M. Edwards), B.M. 1927-63. 




Figs. 155-161. Myrophenges planifrons (Spinola). 155, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 
156, head in profile ; 157, frons and clypeus ; 158, tegmen ; 159, anal segment of male ; 
160, aedeagus, left side. 

Family ISSIDAE 
NOTOSIMUS gen. n. 

Type-species, Conosimus angustipennis Melichar, 1906. 

Vertex rather broader between eyes than long in middle (less than 1-3 : 1), approximately 
pentagonal with anterior margin obtusely angulate at middle, lateral margins straight and 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 265 

posterior margin shallowly excavate, disc flat or feebly depressed, feebly carinate medially ; 
frons with greatest length subequal to greatest width, in ventro-anterior view with basal margin 
convex, lateral margins convex, frontoclypeal suture deeply concave, frons tricarinate ; clypeus 
subequal to greatest length of frons, medially elevated but not carinate ; rostrum reaching to 
post-trochanters ; subapical segment shorter than apical ; antennae with basal segment short, 
ring-like, second segment longer than broad, cylindrical, widening distally, obliquely truncate at 
apex, ocelli absent, eyes round, rather weakly emarginate below. Pronotum in middle line 
more than half as long as vertex, anterior margin strongly convex, posterior margin weakly 
concave, disc ecarinate except for a feeble median carina, a short coarse carina at each lateral 
margin ; mesonotum rather broader than long, disc tricarinate with lateral carinae concave ; 
tegulae present, largely concealed ; post-tibiae with two spines laterally, about seven apically, 
basal metatarsal segment with about six spines. Tegmina longer than broad (more than 2 : 1) 
broadest near base, narrowest distally, costa strongly convex in basal quarter, weakly sinuately 
concave in distal half, apical angle acutely rounded, anal angle obtusely rounded, apical margin 
oblique, weakly convex, 5c + R, and M simple, Cu x forked at middle, claval suture extending to 
apical quarter of tegmen. Wings not quite as long as tegmina. 

Anal segment of male moderately long, weakly deflexed in apical half, with sides deeply 
impressed. Pygofer rather short, dorsolateral angles moderately produced caudad, deeply 
rounded. Aedeagus complex, almost as deep dorsoventrally as long. Genital styles each 
triangular in side view, united mesalty along their ventral margin. 

Although the subfamilial affinity of this curious species cannot be determined with 
absolute certainty until the female genitalia can be examined, it is confidently 
regarded as a member of the Acanaloniinae, and in the writer's key to this subfamily 
(Fennah, 1954 : 472), if the presence of the lateral pronotal carina is ignored, it runs 
to couplet (3) (4) , and differs from Galapagosana and Euthiscia in the claval suture not 
reaching to the apical margin, and from Thiscia and Acanalonia in the tegmina being 
widest much basad of the middle. 

From Conosimus, to which the species was referred by Melichar, it differs in the 
relatively much broader frons, in the strongly concave frontoclypeal suture, the 
carination of the mesonotum and the presence of well-developed wings. 

The opportunity is here taken of recording that the references to the second post- 
tarsal segment in couplet (5) (6) of the key cited above, and on the page following the 
key, should have been to the first post-tarsal segment. 

Notosimus angustipennis (Melichar) comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 162-170) 
Conosimus angustipennis Melichar, 1906 : 109. 

o*. Anal segment of male relatively narrow, shallowly decurved distally, a deep groove along 
each side distad of middle. Pygofer rather short, dorsolateral angles roundly produced caudad, 
lateral margin sinuate, shallowly excavate near middle. Aedeagus complex, phallobase tubular, 
much shorter than deep dorsoventrally ; dorsal margin produced caudad medially in a finger- 
like lobe (Text -fig. 169,0), laterally a pair of dorsolateral lobes (b), two pairs of submedian spinose 
processes, one arising on inner surface of phallobase (c), the other marginally (d) ; ventrally an 
unpaired lobe narrowly produced dorsad at apex (<?) and with a pair of vertical processes 
subapically (/) ; a pair of long taeniate processes arising dorsally, curving ventrocephalad (g). 

Genital styles triangular, with dorsal and ventral margins almost straight, apical angle 
produced dorsad in a short blunt lobe, apical margin shallowly sinuate, produced at middle in a 
small acute process ; ventral margin slightly invaginated before apex. 



266 



R. G. FENNAH 



Argentine : La Rioja Prov., Patquia, i $, i.1933 (K. J. Hayward), B.M. 1933- 
333- 

PL AGIO PS IS Berg 

Plagiopsis Berg, 1883 : 189. Haplotype, Plagiopsis distanti Berg, 1883 : 191. 

Plagiopsis scotti Breddin 
(Text-fig. 171-175) 
Plagiopsis scotti Breddin, 1897a : 17. 

$. Post-tibiae with one spine laterally, six apically, basal and second metatarsal segments 
each with two spines. 

Anal segment of female and posterior margin of seventh (pregenital) sternite of female as 
figured. 




Figs. 162-170. Notosimus angustipennis (Melichar). 162, Vertex, pronotum and mesonotum ; 
163, head and thorax, lateral view ; 164, frons and clypeus ; 165, tegmen ; 166, pygofer 
lateral view ; 167, anal segment, lateral view ; 168, section of groove along lateral margin 
of anal segment (diagrammatic) ; 169, adeagus, left side (for lettering see text) ; 170, 
left genital style, lateral view. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 267 

Argentina : Chaco, i <j>, 29.x-n.xi.1953 (K. J. Hayward), B.M. 1934-519. 

Plagiopsis bergi Breddin 

(Text-figs. 176-180) 
Plagiopsis bergi Breddin, 1897a : 18. 

$. Anal segment of female and posterior margin of seventy (pregenital) sternite of female as 
figured. 

Argentina : Chaco, Roque Saen, Pefia, 1 <j>, 1932 (K. J. Hayward), B.M. 1933-58. 

SARNUS Stal 

Sarnns Stal, 1866a : 204. Logotype, Issus decipiens Spinola, 1852 : 264. 

Post-tibiae with two spines laterally, eight apically, basal metatarsal segment with 
nine spines, second segment with two. Wings reduced to small lobes. 




Figs. 1 71-180. Plagiopsis scotti Breddin. 171, Frons and clypeus ; 172, head in profile ; 
173, vertex and pronotum ; 174, anal segment of female, posterior view ; 175, seventh 
sternite of female, ventral view, posterior margin uppermost. Plagiopsis bergi Breddin. 
176, Frons and clypeus ; 177, head in profile ; 178, head, pronotum and mesonotum; 
179, anal segment of female, posterior view ; 180, seventh sternite of female, ventral 
view ; posterior margin uppermost. 



268 R. G. FENNAH 

Three species before the writer do not agree with a specimen labelled Issus decipiens 
Spin, from Chile in the Paris Museum. The last has a frons rather distinctly widening 
distally, and with the basal two thirds of the disc (except submarginally) very dark 
fuscous, almost black, with the short portion of the incomplete median carina 
stramineous, and the apical third of the disc pale. The three species may be separated 
as follows. 

i Tegmina with apical margin oblique, almost straight, apical angle subacutely 
rounded. Anal segment of female three times as long as broad at widest part 

rhomboidalis (p. 269) 

- Tegmina with apical margin rounded and broadly rounding into costal margin 

without any evident apical angle. Anal segment of female not more than twice 

as long as broad at widest part ......... 2 

2 Lateral margins of frons shallowly arcuate. Ground colour of body and tegmina 

stramineous, little sprinkled with piceous . ..... gilvus (p. 270) 

- Lateral margins of frons straight. Colour of body and tegmina stramineous or 

testaceous, heavily marked with castaneous-fuscous . . rectemarginatus (p. 268) 



Sarnus rectemarginatus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 181, 182, 190-194) 

cj $. Vertex broader than long in middle line (about 4-6 : 1), frons in middle line longer than 
broad (more than 1-2 : 1), wider at base than at apex (1-5 : 1), lateral margins very shallowly 
sinuate, almost straight to distal fifth, thence incurved to frontoclypeal suture, median carina 
distinct in basal half, obscurely present in distal half. Tegmina with apical margin convex, 
broadly rounding into costal margin. 

Stramineous, but so heavily sprinkled castaneous-piceous, in the same basic pattern as in 5. 
gilvus, that the total area, occupied by each hue are about equal. Tegmina minutely and densely 
sprinkled fuscous on a testaceous ground ; an irregular curved band from costa to Cu 2 at middle, 
and from this point to Cu x at apex, almost piceous ; longitudinal veins castaneous, veinlets 
stramineous, those at apical margin sometimes with a greenish tinge. 

<$. Anal segment cf male moderately long, distally deflexed, apical margin truncate, in lateral 
view with lower margin not produced ventrad in a lobe at apex. Aedeagus tubular, U-shaped, a 
pair of long spinose processes arising laterally near middle, curved ventrad then cephalad, each 
process tapering distally, distinctly but not abruptly more rapidly narrowing a little before apex. 
Genital styles as figured. 

<j>. Anal segment of female in dorsal view sub-rhomboidal, twice as long as broad, lateral 
margins distad of level of anal style almost straight, converging to broadly rounded apical 
margin ; margins moderately decurved ventrad. 

$. length, 37 mm. ; tegmen, 3-4 mm. 

$, length, 4-0 mm. ; tegmen, 4-0 mm. 

Holotype £. Chile : Coquimbo, El Panque, 1,400 m., 14.x. 1957 (G. Kuschel). 

Paratypes : 1 <$ 2 $, same data. 

This species is recognisable by the characters given in the key. Of the distinctive 
features, the near parallellity of the lateral margins of the frons is perhaps the most 
easily observed. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 



269 



Sarnus rhomboidalis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 183-189) 

<J $. Vertex broader than long in middle line (6 : 1) ; frons almost as broad as long in middle 
line ; lateral margins weakly diverging in basal two-thirds ; median carina present only in 
second quarter from base. Tegmina with apical margin almost straight, oblique, subacutely 
and rather abruptly rounding into costal margin. 

Fuscous ; discs of frons, pronotum and mesonotum densely speckled testaceous, carinae of 
pronotum and mesonotum, margins of legs and pleurites, testaceous-ochraceous. Tegmina 
translucent, fuscous ; veins castaneous, veinlets testaceous to stramineous, a subovoid area 
between Sc + R and Cu 1 at level of Sc + R fork, stramineous. 

<J. Anal segment of male moderately long, distally deflexed, in lateral view narrow ; lower 
margins strongly produced ventrad in apical quarter in a bluntly rounded lobe. Pygofer rather 
short. Aedeagus tubular, U-shaped, a pair of spinose processes arising laterally near middle, 
directed ventrad then cephalad, each process abruptly narrowing a little before apex. Genital 
styles as figured. 

$. Anal segment of female long, fully three times as long as broad at widest part, lateral 
margins distad of anal foramen almost straight, moderately converging distad, apical margin 
deeply rounded. 

<J : length, 3-5 mm. ; tegmen, 3-6 mm. 

$ : length, 3-8 mm. ; tegmen, 4-5 mm. 

Holotype $. Chile : Cuesta Zapata, Santiago, 30. xi. 1947 (G. Kuschel). 
Paratypes : 1 <$, 4 <j>, same data. 




Figs. 181-184. Sarnus rectemarginatus sp. n. 181, Male genitalia; 
ventrolateral processes of aedeagus. Sarnus rhomboidalis sp. n. 
184, apical portion of ventrolateral processes of aedeagus. 



182, apical portion of 
183, Male genitalia ; 



270 



R. G. FENNAH 



This species is distinguished by the characters given in the key above, and by the 
structure of the male genitalia. 

Sarnus gilvus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 195-199) 
$. Vertex broader than long in middle line (4-7 : 1), frons in middle line longer than broad 
(i-i : 1), slightly wider at base than at apex, lateral margins weakly convex, median carina more 
or less distinct on basal half of frons. Tegmina with apical margin convex, broadly rounding 
into costal margin. 




Figs. 185-199. Sarnus rhomboidalis sp. n. 185, Frons and clypeus ; 186, vertex and 
pronotum ; 187, head in profile ; 188, tegmen ; 189, anal segment of female, posterior 
view ; Sarnus rectemarginatus sp. n. 190, Frons and clypeus ; 191, vertex and pronotum ; 
192, head in profile ; 193, tegmen ; 194, anal segment of female, posterior view ; 
Sarnus gilvus sp. n. 195, Frons and clypeus ; 196, vertex and pronotum ; 197, head in 
profile ; 198, tegmen ; 199, anal segment of female, posterior view. 



FULGOROIDEA FROM S. CHILE 271 

Stramineous ; a row of four to eleven small spots on each side of frontal disc submarginally. a 
sprinkling of spots distally at middle and basally at lateral angles, two rows of small spots in 
anterior half of pronotum, and a round spot on each side of median carina at base, lateral lobes 
sometimes, a linear mark on each side of median carina of mesonotum, two linear markings on 
each side of clypeus, rostrum apically, two diffuse transverse bands on pro- and mesofemora, one 
on pro- and mesotibiae, fourth to sixth abdominal terga, except medially, and about six small 
spots on each corresponding ventrite, piceous. Tegmina translucent, stramineous, a series of 
about ten sublinear spots along costal margin and a small spot in each apical areole, a diffuse 
broad band from costa at one third from base to clavus at apex, and longitudinal veins in their 
middle portion, dark fuscous ; veins in an ovate area in basal third of corium, and in clavus, 
concolorous with ground. 

Anal segment of female in dorsal view ovate, less than twice as long a,s broad, lateral margins 
distad of level of anal style convex, decurved ventrad. 
§ : length, 3-0 mm. ; tegmen, 4-0 mm. 

Holotype 9- Chile : Carrizal Bajo, playa, io.x.1957. 

Paratype : 1 $, same data. 

In the type specimen the lateral lobes of the pronotum are pale ; in the more 
heavily marked paratype they are mostly piceous. This species is distinguished by 
its general pale ground colour, and by the evenly arcuate shape of the lateral margins 
of the frons. 

NUBITHIA Stal 

Nubithia Stal, 1859a: 323. Haplotype, Nubithia grisescens Stal, 1859a : 323. 

Nubithia gayi (Spinola) comb. n. 

Issus gayi Spinola, 1852a : 263. 

It is possible that N. chilensis Melichar (1906 : 177) will prove to be the same as this 
species, but until the types can be examined the relationship cannot be decided with 
certainty. 

REFERENCES 

China, W. E. 1958. Hemiptera of Tristan da Cunha. Results of the Norwegian Scientific 

Expedition to Tristan da Cunha 1937-1938 No. 43 : 1-8, 1 fig. 
Fennah, R. G. 1952. On the generic classification of Derbidae (Fulgoroidea), with descriptions 

of new Neotropical species. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 103 : 109-170, 38 figs. 

1954- The higher classification of the family Issidae (Homoptera : Fulgoroidea). Trans. 

R. ent. Soc. Lond. 105 : 455-474, 15 figs. 

1963- New Genera of Delphacidae (Homoptera : Fulgoroidea) Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 

(B) 32 : 15, 16. 

Holdgate, M. W. i960. The Royal Society Expedition to southern Chile. Proc. R. Soc. (B) 

152 : 434-441. 
Kuschel, G. i960. Terrestrial zoology in southern Chile. Proc. R. Soc: (B) 152 : 540-550, 1 

map. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1948. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fasc. 4 Pt. 10, Achilidae : 1-85. 



Entom. 17, 6. 



272 



acutiusculus, 251 
adspersus, 238 
angustipennis, 265 
atlanticus, 253 
anonymi, 250 

bergi, 267 
bonaerense, 247 
breviceps, 261 

Calbodus, 251 
caliginosum, 247 
Catonia, 257 
chepuanus, 241 
chilensis, 260 
Chondrodera, 260 
cixioides, 235 
Cixiosoma, 247 
consimilis, 254 
correntosoensis, 251 

discreta, 261 

fasciolaris, 235 
fulvicollis, 235, 237 

gayi, Catonia, 258 
gayi, Nubithia, 271 
gayi, Sicoris, 260 
gillettei, 254 
gilvus, 270 
Goneokarella, 254 

helvolus, 238 

Idiosemus, 251 
Idiosystatus, 251 
irroratus, 258 

lineatipes, 254 



R. G. FENNAH 

INDEX 
Synonyms in italics 



maculatus, 258 
maculivenis, 254 
magellanicus, 243 
Mnemosyne, 235 
Myrophenges, 263 

neocclusa, 254 
nigrescens, 253 
Nothodelphax, 253 
Notocixius, 235 
Notosimus, 264 
Nubithia, 271 

occlusa, 254 
ophion, 245 
ornatipennis, 257 

pallens, 238 
pallidulus, 251 
patquianus, 251 
Pintalia, 235 
Plagiopsis, 266 
planifrons, 264 
platense, 247 

rectemarginatus, 268 
rhomboidalis, 269 
Rhotala, 255 

Sarnus, 267 
scotti, 266 
Sicoris, 260 
Sicorisia, 261 
Stenosy status, 250 

Taractellus, 260 
tenebrosus, 239 

valdiviana, 255 
valdiviensis, 258 

xiphias, 251 




A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 

TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



i. Masner, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. £5. 

2. Nixon, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 ; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. £6. 

3. Watson, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera) . Pp. 177; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. £4 4s. 

4. Sands, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- £3 5*- 

5. Ahmad, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156; 

475 Text figures. November, 1965. £2 15s. 

6. Okada, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae & Drosophilidae. 
In press. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED, BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



.t. 



THE EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE 

AND THE 
MEDITERRANEAN REGION 



E. S. ROSS 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 7 

LONDON: 1966 



>o 



THE EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE | 24JM*»*6 

AND THE 
MEDITERRANEAN REGION 



BY 

E. S. ROSS 



■V 



California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco 



1C1< 



Pp. 273-326 ; 20 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 7 

LONDON: 1966 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 17, No. 7 of the Entomological series. 
The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited follow those 
of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1966 






TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 3 January, 1966 Price £1 2s. 



THE EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE 

AND THE 

MEDITERRANEAN REGION 

By E. S. ROSS 



CONTENTS 



Introduction .... 

Acknowledgments 

General Explanation of Figures 

Key to Genera .... 

Electroembia Ross . 

Embia Latreille 

Cleomia Stefani 

Oligotoma Westwood 

Haploembia Verhoeff 
References .... 



Page 

275 
278 
278 
279 
279 
280 
3ii 
313 
315 
322 



SYNOPSIS 
Twenty-four Recent and Tertiary species of Embioptera of the European and Mediterranean 
regions are recognized and revised. Nine of these are new species of Embia. One old species of 
Embia is placed in synonymy. The treatments of known species usually are based on holotypes, 
or other type specimens. The reference list is intended to include all papers on the systematics 
and biology of Embioptera occurring within the geographic scope of this work. 

INTRODUCTION 

Except for the recent work of Dr. Renzo Stefani of Sardinia, no great effort has been 
made to collect or study the Embioptera in the regions here considered. The writer 
is monographing the order but his extensive fieldwork to gather adequate study 
material has been confined to the major evolutionary centres of the order — the 
Old and New World tropics and Australia. Consequently, the present study can 
be considered little more than a consolidation of information based on a review of 
the literature and the few available specimens scattered in museums, chiefly in 
Europe. It is hoped that this comprehensive coverage will encourage resident 
workers in the Mediterranean region to develop an interest in the order and at least 
to make adequate collections. 

Collecting Methods 

No sample of Embioptera is of much value unless it includes at least one adult 
male. Such specimens exhibit the principal characters used in classification and 
species identification. Adult females, although identifiable within a limited region, 
are only of secondary value. Unfortunately, adult males of most species mature 
during a limited season and die soon after mating. During the greater part of the 

Entom. 17, 7. IO 



276 E. S. ROSS 

year the colonies comprise aggregations of adult females and their broods of nymphs. 
In the Mediterranean region even these are most likely to be encountered during the 
winter and spring rainy season. With increasing aridity and heat of summer and 
fall, most embiids confine their activity to the depths of the soil and must be collected 
by tedious excavation. 

Therefore, the best way to obtain adult males is to collect nymphs alive and rear 
them to maturity in laboratory cultures. If not diseased, such cultures can be 
maintained indefinitely and will yield large series of adults for variation studies 
as well as for distribution to museums. 

Fortunately, embiids are about the easiest insects to culture. The collector 
should go into the field with a digging tool, such as a geological pick, tweezers, vials 
of alcohol, and a number of large glass or plastic shell vials (about i in. x 5 in., with 
straight sides) with tight cotton stoppers. 

In the Mediterranean climatic zone most embiid colonies will be found under 
stones in places with at least vestiges of native vegetation. In spring or early 
summer, adult males may be found in the field and killed and preserved in vials of 
alcohol. The other occupants of the colony should be taken alive. First pack a 
culture tube with habitat material, such as dead oak leaves, dry grass, or bark 
fragments, before introducing the insects. These are best caught by trapping them 
in a section of silk gallery which can be then transferred to the tube. Embiids also 
can be caused to run backwards into the tube and this reduces the hazard of injury 
with the pinch of tweezers. 

The tube culture will support at least a dozen embiids but more can be collected 
if the larger field lot is soon established in a larger container, such as a jar. 

Immediately after capture, the embiids will begin to spin new galleries in the 
habitat material which also serves as food. Periodically drops of water should be 
pipetted into the container to maintain slight dampness. After the culture becomes 
thoroughly webbed, and somewhat crowded, it is advisable to supplement the diet 
with lettuce leaf laid on the silk surface beneath the stopper. About every third day 
the old, uneaten leaf should be removed and replaced with fresh. 

Maturing males tend to rest in upper galleries where they can be trapped and col- 
lected. If the original field lot was small, the first males should not be removed 
until it is reasonably certain mating has occurred. As a culture flourishes, one can 
afford to collect associated adult females, eggs, and nymphs. It should be noted 
that some species may be parthenogenetic. Haploembia solieri (Rambur) reproduces 
exclusively by parthenogenesis on islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea. 

The culturing activity often also yields specimens of various parasites associated 
with embiids. Some cultures may fail due to pathological agents, notably infestation 
with sporozoan parasites of the genus Diplocystis. 

General Biology 

The habitat and biology of Mediterranean embiids may be expected to be quite 
similar regardless of their systematics. The prime governing factor is the highly 
seasonal climate with a prolonged summer dry season which tends to restrict the 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 277 

occurrence to soil levels. Colonies are most readily encountered under objects on 
the ground, such as stones, logs, dry cattle droppings, etc. The silk galleries ramify 
amongst vegetative debris under and around such objects and, as the soil cracks 
with increasing desiccation, the galleries extend down these openings to cooler, 
damper depths. It is probable that some species come up from these levels at night 
in the dry season to feed. At such times they may carry back bits of leaf for con- 
sumption in the subterranean retreat. 

Sexual maturity probably occurs once a year in the spring or early summer. The 
males mate and soon die. Their mandibles are used as clasping organs in mating 
and not for ingestion of food (the gut of adult males is devoid of food) . The nymphs 
and parent females retreat to soil depths during the dry season but return to the 
surface with the first winter rains. In regions experiencing cold winter periods, the 
embiids rest completely enclosed in cocoon-like chambers in the galleries. They 
break out and resume activity during intermittent warm winter periods. Oligotoma 
nigra Hagen, occurring in the south-eastern portion of the Mediterranean region, 
may not have a fixed annual cycle and any stage or sex may be present at any time 
of the year. 

Details on the biology of Mediterranean embiids may be found in papers by the 
following authors : Delamare Deboutteville (1946, 1949), Denis (1949), Friederichs 
(1906, 1923, 1934), Kusnezov (1904), Ledoux (1958), Lucas (1859), Michieli (1956, 
1958), Stefani (1953, et seq.), Taborsky (1938). 

Zoogeographic Considerations 

Embioptera essentially are tropical insects and the regions here considered repre- 
sent the northern and western margins of the Ethiopian and Asian embiid faunas, 
respectively. The Baltic Amber fossil Electroembia antiqua (Pictet) shows that the 
order ranged into northern Europe during the early Tertiary. Today the most 
northern limits are in the Crimea, the Bulgarian littoral and European shores of 
the Mediterranean Sea. In more southern latitudes of Europe, such as Spain, and 
North Africa, the order ranges well inland and to higher altitudes. 

Collecting to date, especially in eastern Mediterranean regions, has been neglected 
and we have little basis for meaningful zoogeographic conclusions. Also, caution 
must be exercised because embiids are easily transported in human commerce and 
species have been moved about during thousands of years of ancient commerce. 
It is possible for a given area to have been populated as a result of a single intro- 
duction and centuries of inbreeding of the limited gene pool conceivably could 
produce a population somewhat distinct from any other (as in island introductions) . 

Oligotoma nigra Hagen, a member of a species-group centred in northern India, 
apparently has been moved westward (perhaps beginning in early caravan traffic) 
and is now well established along the south-eastern Mediterranean littoral and up 
the Nile valley into Sudan. Embia savignyi West wood of the Nile region appears 
to have been artificially carried to Crete and possibly other areas. 

Except for the above species, the Embioptera of the Mediterranean area are native 
to the region, yet subject to artificial movement within this range. Haploembia 



278 E. S. ROSS 

Verhoeff, of the otherwise Oriental-Indo-Australian family Oligotomidae, is the only 
genus restricted to the Mediterranean region and must have been derived from 
Asiatic stock (there are no endemic oligotomids in Africa) . Embia Westwood is the 
best represented genus in the area and its Mediterranean species comprise a distinct, 
detached segment of the Ethiopian fauna in which the genus is an important element. 
It would appear that the Embia fauna moved into the region from the western side 
of Africa inasmuch as all of the endemic species are concentrated in the western 
Mediterranean and none have been collected around the eastern extremity of the 
Sea. This, however, may reflect a lack of collecting. 

In the Middle East the genus Embia is replaced by Par embia Davis, a genus centred 
in north-western India and Pakistan (West). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This paper is a unit of a world scope monographic treatment of the Embioptera 
supported by research grants from the National Science Foundation and the National 
Geographic Society, both of Washington D.C. An introductory volume dealing 
with general topics and a world classification of genera is in preparation, as well as a 
series of larger volumes dealing with the species of the Ethiopian, Asian, Australian 
and New World faunas. 

Part of the present study was conducted in several museums of Europe and this 
was followed by research on specimens borrowed from the institutions listed below. 
The writer is grateful to the named individuals for their cooperation and assistance. 

Austria : Naturhistorische Museum, Wien (M. Beier). Belgium : Institut Royal 
des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles (H. Synave). Denmark : Univer- 
sitetets Zoologiske Museum, K0benhaven (A. Nielsen, S. S. Tuxen). England: 
(B.M.N.H.) British Museum (N.H.), London (D. E. Kimmins). France : Laboratoire 
Arago, Bayuls-sur-Mer (C. Delamare Deboutteville) ; Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris (S. Kelner, J. Carayon). Germany : Deutsches Entomologisches 
Institut, Berlin (W. Hennig) ; Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin (St. Von Keler) ; 
Geologischen Staatsinstitut in Hamburg (E. Voigt, W. Hantzschel) ; Staatliches 
Museum fur Naturkunde in Stuttgart (W. Richter). Hungary : Magyar Nemzeti 
Muzeum, Budapest (Z. Kaszab). Italy : Museo Civico di Storia Naturale " G. 
Doria ", Genova (F. Capra) ; Universita di Cagliari, Sardinia (R. Stefani). Poland : 
Polska Akademia Nauk, Warszawa (J. Nast). Portugal : Lisboa (E. Luna de 
Carvalho). Spain : Museo de Zoologia, Barcelona (F. Espafiol) ; Instituto Espanol 
de Entomologia, Madrid (G. Ceballos) ; Colegio del Salvador, Zaragoza (R. P. L. 
Palazon de Lattre, S. J.). Sweden : Zoologiska Institution Lund (P. Brinck). 
Switzerland : Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel (E. Sutter). United States : 
(M.C.Z.) Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. (P. J. Darlington) ; 
(C.A.S.) California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (Author's collection). 

GENERAL EXPLANATION OF FIGURES 

The figures in this paper were drawn by the author and are based on tracings of 
photomicrographs of cleared slide preparations. The various figures are seldom 
drawn to the same scale. An attempt has been made to show degree of sclerotization 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 279 

by line thickness and shading. Membranous areas are stippled. The basitarsal 
chaetotaxy and peg-like microsetae (echinulations) are accurately represented, 
otherwise setae generally are omitted. Explanation of symbols : 9 = ninth abdomi- 
nal tergite ; 10 L = left hemitergite of tenth segment, 10 LP = process of 10 L ; 
10 R = right hemitergite of tenth segment, 10 RP = process of 10 R ; MF = median 
flap of 10 R ; MS = median sclerite of tenth tergite ; EP = epiproct ; H = hypan- 
drium, or ninth abdominal sternite, HP = process of H ; LCB and RCB = left and 
right cercus-basipodites ; LPPT and RPPT = left and right paraprocts, LPPT P = 
process of left paraproct. 

Generally it will be easier to identify male specimens of a species by reference 
to the figures than by the use of the keys. 

Key to Genera of European and Mediterranean Embioptera 

1 Fossilized in Baltic Amber ELECTROEMBIA 

- Recent species ............ 2 

2 All instars with two ventral papillae on hind basitarsus. Males always apterous 

HAPLOEMBIA 

- All instars with one hind basitarsal papilla. Males apterous or alate ... 3 

3 Adult males always alate; wing vein MA (R 4+8 ) always unforked. Basal segment 

of left cercus unlobed and non-echinulate. Right tergal process (10 RP) acutely 
triangulate, separated from hemitergite (10 R) by membranous area. OLIGOTOMA 

- Adult males apterous or alate; when winged, MA always forked. Basal segment 

of left cercus lobed and echinulate on inner surface. Right tergal process in- 
conspicuous, right hemitergite uniformly sclerotized to its base ... 4 

4 Adult males apterous or alate. Left cercus with a simple inner lobe or expansion 

EMBIA 

- Adult males always apterous. Left cercus bilobed, with an inner-basal lobe and a 

larger, dorso-medial distal lobe ....... CLEOMIA 

Family EMBIIDAE Burmeister, 1839 
ELECTROEMBIA Ross 
Electroembia Ross, 1956 : 77. 

Type-species. Embia antiqua Pictet, 1854, by original designation. 
Distribution. Tertiary fossils in Baltic Amber. 

Diagnosis. Males apterous, uniformly blackish ; superficially resembling apterous males of 
Embia. Terminalia with membranous, medial cleft of tenth tergite exceptionally broad at 
base ; median flap (MF) elevated, ridge-like, micro-echinulate anteriorly, caudally continuous 
with inner margin of right hemitergite (10 R) which has a small, spine-like apical process (10 RP) ; 
process of left hemitergite (10 LP) projected straight back, twisted and terminated as a very 
fine, acute point ; caudal margin of composite left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) bearing a broadly- 
rounded, micro-echinulate lobe ; basal segment of left cercus gradually expanded from base to 
apex on inner side to become peculiarly wedge shaped, inner surface extensively micro-echinulate. 
Hind basitarsus with two ventral papillae ; plantar setae rather sparse, the basals much larger 
than the distals. 

Remarks. This genus is not closely related to Embia Latreille. It appears to 
have affinities with other genera, such as Rhagadochir Enderlein and Chir embia 



280 E. S. ROSS 

Davis of the Ethiopian region, which belong to a complex of related genera centred 
in the Ethiopian and Neotropical regions. Electroembia is not a primitive genus 
and it is not inconceivable that living representatives could occur in the present 
fauna of Asia Minor or North Africa. 

As I mentioned before (1956), male apterism in Embioptera is most prevalent in 
regions experiencing a prolonged dry season and thus apterism in Electroembia 
suggests that the climate of the Baltic region at the time of fossilization was probably 
Mediterranean in type with a summer dry season and a wet winter and spring. 

Electroembia antiqua (Pictet) 
(Text-fig. 1) 

Embia antiqua Pictet, 1854 : 370, pi. XL, fig. 28. Pictet & Hagen, 1856 : 56, pi. 5, fig. 7. 

Lucas, 1883 : XXVI. Friederichs, 1906 : 236. 
Oligotoma antiqua (Pictet) Hagen, 1885 : 176. Handlirsch, 1906-08 : 894. Krauss, 191 1 : 47. 

Enderlein, 19 12 : 95. 
Haploembia antiqua (Pictet) Davis, 1939 : 562, figs. 7-15. Stefani, 1955 : 116. 
Electroembia antiqua (Pictet) Ross, 1956 : 79, 2 figs. 

Syntypes. Four specimens, stage or sex not indicated. Originally deposited in 
the Geological-Paleontological Institute, Humboldt University, Berlin. According 
to information I have received, the box which contained these specimens is now 
empty and the specimens cannot be located. 

Syntype data. Baltic Amber. 

Plesiotypes. Two males and one nymph in Geologisches Staatsinstitut, Hamburg 
(Scheele collection). 

Remarks. I have nothing further to add to my 1956 redescription of this species 
based on specimens loaned to me by the Geological Institute in Hamburg. Although 
it is possible that several species of the order potentially may be collected in Baltic 
Amber, the concept of the name antiqua may be fixed to this redescription. One 
must also consider the remote possibility that the Hamburg specimens are Pictet's 
subsequently moved from their original place of deposit. 

My 1956 figure based on the above specimens is here republished for the benefit 
of entomologists not having ready access to the geological periodical in which it first 
appeared. 

EMBIA Latreille 1 

1 Synonymy complete. Citations incomplete. 

Embia Latreille, 1825 : 437. 

Euembia Verhoeff, 1904 : 201 [name for spp. with alate males]. Enderlein, 1909 : 180 [As syn. 

of Embia]. 
Monotylota Enderlein, 1909 : 188 (Type-species : Embia ramburi R.-K., 1905). Davis, 1940a : 

324 [As syn. of Embia]. 

Type-species. Embia savignyi Westwood, 1837, by original monotypy. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 281 

Distribution. Southern Europe southward into southern Africa and eastward 
into S.W. Arabia. Prefers semi-arid life zones. Absent in tropical rain forest. 

Revisions. Krauss, 1911 ; Enderlein, 1912 ; Davis, 19400. 

Diagnosis. Males apterous or alate, usually blackish but with some uniformly pale, tan 
species, or species with prothorax reddish. Head usually with small eyes ; antennae with short 
segments which do not have exceptionally long setae, apical segments never contrastingly pale ; 
mandibles usually elongate, parallel-sided with apical teeth usually curled ventrad and not 
clearly visible from above ; submentum seldom large, or heavily sclerotized. Body form 
rather stout with relatively thick, short legs ; hind basitarsi short with only a terminal ventral 
papilla. Wings, if present usually short in relation to body size ; MA (R 4 + 5 ) always forked 
(except in aberrant individuals) ; cross-venation never extensive. Abdominal terminalia 




SUBMENTUM 



HIND BASITARSUS 



Fig. 1. Electroembia antiqua (Pictet). Important characters of male plesiotype in 
Baltic Amber. (Republished from Ross, 1956). Explanation of symbols on page 279. 



282 E. S. ROSS 

with tenth tergal cleft always narrow ; left hemitergite (10 L) often strongly arched well 
sclerotized, often with inflexed caudal margins ; left process (10 LP) always simple, usually 
short, outwardly-curved, distally-tapered, and acutely-pointed ; right hemitergite (10R) more 
extensive than 10 L with margins (especially the inner) weakly sclerotized ; right process (10 RP) 
poorly developed, usually a small point or weak lobe directed beneath caudal margin of 10 R 
and not visible from above ; median flap (MF) well developed, elongate, caudally-lobed and 
separated from 10 R for most of its length by a narrow, membranous emargination. Epiproct 
sclerite (EP) usually obscured by MP, elongate, straight, parallel-sided. Hypandrium (H) 
extensive, evenly but weakly sclerotized ; its lobe (HP) submedial, broadly rounded apically ; 
weakly sclerotized on left side strongly so on right side. Composite left paraproct (LCB + 
LPPT) well developed, highly interspecifically variable ; usually bearing a short, talon-like, 
sclerotic process on caudal margin and often a rounded nodule on ventral surface (in some species 
one or both of these structures may be absent or sub-obsolete). Right cercus-basipodite (RCB) 
a ventral half ring and with the probable right paraproct (RPPT) fused along its basal margin. 
Cerci rather short, never with distal segment contrastingly pale or white ; basal segment of 
left cercus (LC X ) interspecifically variable, with a single, echinulate lobe on inner side ; basal 
segment of right cercus sclerotic only on inner side, outer side largely membranous, at least 
baso-laterally ; apical segments of both cerci subequal. 

Females. Without useful generic characters except for the short hind basitarsi with only one 
ventral papilla. Paragenital sternites of abdomen often with special sclerotic developments. 

Remarks. The genus Embia promises to be one of the largest and most difficult 
of the order due to much apparent current evolutionary activity manifested by 
recognizable, but difficult-to-define, differentiation in various populations. The 
genetic stock present in Europe is very limited but in North Africa several species- 
groups are present which have diversified to form an interesting array of species and, 
perhaps, races. 

One species, Embia savignyi Westwood is typically Ethiopian and seems to be 
centred in southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. It entered the Mediterranean 
region (probably with the assistance of man's commerce) by way of the irrigated 
zones of the Nile Valley and has been carried to Crete and possibly other eastern 
Mediterranean regions. It also may be expected in oases of the eastern Sahara. 

From Libya westward, and northward through Spain, and the islands and shores 
of the western Mediterranean, the fauna of Embia is very distinct from the Ethiopian 
and this probably reflects long isolation from southern stocks. It is possible, 
however, that there is some southern contact by way of Spanish Sahara and Mauri- 
tania. The Embioptera fauna of these regions is completely unknown, however. 

The main value of the present treatment should be a clarification of the identity 
of most of the older species on the basis of their holotypes. Attention also is called 
to the complexity of the genus Embia in North Africa. In the past almost any 
winged male from this region was simply identified as mauritanica Lucas. It is now 
evident that the genus is highly diversified and plastic. 

Due to limited collecting the present treatment of North African species is princi- 
pally based on a study of a mere 48 adult males from 25 scattered localities, chiefly 
in N.E. Algeria and Tunisia. Twelve species have been distinguished in this study 
but several discrepant specimens on hand cannot be assigned to any of these species. 
It is hoped that adequate series will aid their future determination. It is possible, 
however, that a thorough survey and study of series will reveal clinal blends and 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 283 

overlaps of some of the species here named and show that in some cases clear-cut 
species or racial definitions will be difficult, if not impossible, to attain. The ten- 
dency of embiids, particularly those apterous in both sexes, to inbreed in limited 
areas, should result in at least slight differentiation of various populations. Also, 
inhospitable arid climates with periodic dry cycles might tend to periodically reduce 
population size and thereby increase chances of genetic differentiation. 

To reflect apparent relationships of species, the following treatment indicates a 
number of species-groups. Most of the species can be distinguished by use of the 
following key and reference to the figures of the terminalia. 



Key to European and Mediterranean Species of EMBIA 
Adult Males 

1 Left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) with a distinct caudal process on its posterior 

margin ............ 2 

- Left paraproct without process; or, at best, with a minute barb-like point not 

visible from above .......... 6 

2 (1) Submentum heavily sclerotized, lateral margins strongly inflexed; median flap 

(MF) of terminalia sclerotic, as black as hemitergites (10 L and 10 R) ; left 
paraproct (LCB -f LPPT) with ventral nodule very large, as heavily sclero- 
tized and as darkly pigmented as the paraproct ; always apterous . ramburi 
Submentum weakly sclerotized, lateral margins not strongly inflexed; median 
flap (MF) weakly sclerotized or submembranous, paler than hemitergites; 
left paraproct without ventral nodule or, if present, weakly or partially 
sclerotized; apterous or alate ......... 3 

3 (2) General colour light brown, or tan, with head golden. Process of left paraproct 

(LCB -+- LPPT) slender, tapered to fine point, similar to apex of left tergal 
process. Nile Valley and Eastern Mediterranean . . . savignyi 

- General colour dark brown to black, head usually concolorous with body. 

Process of left paraproct variable, apex broadly acute or blunt. Southern 
Europe and North Africa ......... 4 

4 (3) Process of left paraproct small, much less prominent than left tergal process. 

Always apterous ........... 5 

- Process of left paraproct large, as conspicuous as left tergal process. Apterous 

or alate ........ mauritanica group 2 

5 (4) Very large (about 18 mm. long), resembling an adult female; left tergal process 

outwardly arcuate; paraproct process conate, its length equal to basal width; 
inner side of basal segment of left cercus broadly arcuate. Tunisia . biroi 

Smaller (about 10 mm. long) ; left tergal process nearly straight, paraproct 
process very slender, talon-like, its length much greater than basal width; 
inner side of cercus acutely lobed. Sardinia ..... nuragica 

6 (1) Left paraproct process a minute, sharp point, or a rudiment beneath posterior 

margin of paraproct .......... 7 

- Left paraproct without trace of a process (silvestrii Group) . . . . 10 

7 (6) Mandibles with apical teeth curled beneath subapicals (amadorae Group) . 8 

- Mandibles with apical teeth well separated, all visible from above (algerica 

Group) ............ 9 

2 It is impractical to key out the species of this group. The worker should compare the figures 
accompanying the species treatments in making identifications. 



284 E. S. ROSS 

8 (7) Head quadrate, almost as broad as long; left tergal process (10 LP) short, 

slightly extended beyond paraproct margin; median flap (MF) dark brown; 
basal segment of left cercus expanded mesad from its extreme base. Portugal 
and Spain? .......... amadorae 3 

- Head elongate-oval; left tergal process longer, extended well beyond paraproct 

margin; median flap pale, translucent; basal segment of left cercus narrow 
basally before mesal expansion ...... larachensis 

9 (7) Apterous; head as dark as body; basal segment of left cercus obtusely lobed, 

apical two-thirds broad to apex and only slightly tapered distad . . algerica 

- Alate ; head golden, body brown ; basal segment of left cercus acutely, symmetri- 

cally lobed, caudomesal side incurved and strongly tapered distad . lecerfi 

10 (6) Left tergal process (10 LP) with sides nearly straight, subparallel, its apex 
blunt and rounded; basal segment of left cercus with lobe evenly hemi- 
spherical ........... lucasi 

— Left tergal process with sides sinuous, unevenly spaced, its apex acutely pointed; 

basal segment of left cercus with lobe greatly expanded and extended caudad 

silvestrii 

The SAVIGNYI Group 

Embia savignyi Westwood 4 

(Text-fig. 2) 

(Without name) Savigny, 1825?, pi. II, figs. 9, 10 [no explanation]. 

Embie Latreille, 1825 : 437. Audouin, 1825 : 194 [explanation of Savigny's plate]. Latreille, 

1829 : 256. 
Embia savignyi Westwood, 1837 : 372, pi. 11, fig. 1. Davis, 1940a : 325, figs. 1-6 [designates 

neotype] . 
Embia aegyptiaca Blanchard, 1845 : 283 [nom. nud.] (type loc. Egypt). Davis, 1940a : 327 

[as syn. of savignyi]. 
Donaconethis ehrenbergi, sensu Enderlein, 191 2 : 107 [D. ehrenbergi Enderlein, sensu 1909, 

appears to be a distinct species.]. 
Embia enderleini Esben-Petersen, 1915 : 86, figs. 10-11 (Type : male from Dabba el Gardegna, 

Sudan). Davis, 1940a : 327 [as provisional syn. savignyi], 

Neotype. Male, deposited in the British Museum (N.H.). Designated by Davis 
(1940a). 

Type data. Sudan: G. R. F. Medani (H. W. Bedford), 22.xii.22, Blue Nile. 

Diagnosis. Males moderate in size, robust, always winged. Generally light brown or tan in 
colour with head golden ; prothorax slightly paler than pterothorax ; body and legs extensively 
subcutaneously mottled with rust-red ; terminalia chestnut-brown with processes of left tergite 
and left paraproct dark amber, median flap whitish. Body length averaging 10 mm. 

Important structural features : Cranium broad, quadrate, sides subparallel ; eyes small, 
interspace equal to four eye-widths ; mandibles elongate, sides parallel, apical teeth strongly 
curled ventrad. Terminalia with left process (10 LP) very narrow, evenly tapered, abruptly 
curved to left at apical third ; median flap (MF) narrow, longitudinally wrinkled, devoid of 
spiculation, acute ; process of left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) very narrow, claw-like, resembling 

3 I suspect that fuentei Navas, when redescribed, will key to this couplet. 
4 Synonymy complete. Citations incomplete. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 285 

left tergal process, evenly arcuated ventrolaterad ; ventral nodule of paraproct small, often 
conate ; basal segment of left cercus broadly, obtusely rounded on inner side, not forming an 
abrupt lobe. 

Females. Without distinctive specific characters but separable from those of all other North 
Africa and European species by the pale coloration which is similar to that of males. 

General distribution. Chiefly southern Sudan and S.W. Ethiopia, thence north- 
ward down the Nile to its delta. Probably sporadic occurrence by introduction on 
islands and shores of eastern Mediterranean Sea. 




HIND BASITARSUS 



Fig. 2. Embia savignyi Westwood. Important characters of male plesiotype from Maadi, 
Cairo, Egypt. Explanation of symbols on page 279. 



286 E. S. ROSS 

Mediterranean region records. Egypt: Maadi, Cairo, i J at light ix.1953 
(Hoogstraal) (C.A.S.). Crete: i <$ (Handlirsch) (Vienna Mus.). S. Palestine: Deir 
El-Belah, 8 mi. S.W of Gaza, 1 $, 24.IV.1917 (E. E. Austen). 

Remarks. In spite of the fact that savignyi is the first known species of the order, 
very few specimens have been collected. The males are distinct from all others 
treated in this paper in their pale coloration and the form of the terminalia processes. 
Like those of so many pale species inhabiting arid regions, males frequently are 
attracted to light, especially at the beginning of the rainy season. 

The MAURITAN1CA Group 
Embia mauritanica Lucas 

(Text-fig. 3) 

Embia mauritanica Lucas, 1849 ; III, pi. 3, fig. 2 ; Lucas, 1859 : 442 [biol.]. McLachlan, 
1877 : 375 [after Lucas] . Hagen, 1885 : 190 [after Lucas] . Saussure, 1895 : 339. Friederichs, 
1904 : 236 [after Lucas]. Krauss, 1911 : 61, pi. 4, fig. 20 ; pi. 5, fig. 20. [ex parte]. Ender- 
lein, 1912 : 36, 106, figs. 14, 15. Navas, 1915 : 371 [records] ; Navas, 1923 : 9 [record]. 
Friederichs, 1934 : 44 2 [biol.]. Davis, 1940a : 328, 331, figs. 17-23 [redesc. cotypes]. Stefani, 
1953 : 88 [comparison]. Michieli, 1953 : 90 ; Michieli, 1957 : 555 [misident. of E. tyrrhenica 
Stefani] . 

Embia tunetana Navas, 1919 : 26, fig. 28 ; Navas, 1934 : IOQ [record]. Davis, 1940a ; 330, 
figs. 29-31 [redesc. type]. (Type : <J on slide, Paris Mus. labelled " Tunisie E. Le Moult "). 
syn. n. based on type comparisons. 

LECTOTYPE (by present designation). Male, on slide, deposited in the Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Type labels. " Algerie M. Lucas 67-96 Embia mauritanica Lucas type 1850 " 
(written in the hand of Lucas according to Dr. J. Carayon). 

Type locality fixation. Algeria : Boghar, by present designation. The vial 
which contained the lectotype did not have a specific locality label but it was one of 
three housed in the same museum jar with other vials similarly labelled (in the hand 
of Lucas), one of which also included the additional word " Bogher ". This is taken 
to be an alternate spelling of Boghar, a town in the mountains south of Alger which 
must have been a favourite collecting area of Europeans. Lucas (1859 : 442) refers 
to collecting embiids at Boghar, Medeah Plateau, during April, 1850. 

It is interesting that two of the above vials contained, in addition to males of 
mauritanica, several specimens of a very distinct new species of Embia with apterous 
males. Hereinafter this is named after Lucas. This demonstrates that two or 
more species of the genus may occur in the same habitat and one must take this into 
consideration in making field cultures of females and nymphs. 

Description of lectotype. Appearance : Medium sized, winged, robust, generally unicolorous 
dark brown. Colour details (in alcohol, before slide preparation, probably faded due to more 
than a century of preservation in alcohol) : Cranium dOrsally dark chestnut-brown with faint, 
paler basal maculation ; blending to golden brown at sides before eyes and along lateral clypeal 
margins ; ventrally dark chestnut-brown with yellowish brown gula. Eyes black. Basal 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 287 

antennal segment concolorous with cranium, second paler, all others light brown. Mandibles 
amber-yellow with margins and dentations reddish amber to piceous ; all other sclerotized 
mouthparts medium brown except for darker submentum. Remainder of body and legs various 
shades of brown ; pro thorax and its legs darkest ; membranous regions pale tan. Dimensions : 
Body length 14-5 mm., fore wing length 7-2 mm., breadth 2-1 mm. 

Important structural features : As figured. Left hemitergite (10 L) about as long as broad 
with rounded outer and inner margins ; left process (10 LP) dorso-ventrally flattened and thin 
throughout, exceptionally broad with characteristic form, as figured ; right process (10 RP) 
a rudimentary, small, acute point projected beneath margin of 10 R. Left paraproct without 
ventral nodule ; its process flat, thin, projected meso-ventrad from inner caudal margin of 
paraproct, abruptly produced with sub-parallel sides terminated as an asymmetrical acute 
point. Basal segment of left cercus narrow basally, inner side curved inward before its expansion 
as a rather narrowly rounded subapical inner lobe which bears only a few irregularly-scattered 
peg-like echinulations. 

Female. No available specimens. 

Remarks. E. mauritanica appears to be a variable species probably extensively 
distributed along the Mediterranean slope of Algeria eastward through coastal 




Fig. 3. Embia mauritanica Lucas. Right — Important characters of terminalia of lectotype. 
Left — Important characters of holotype of synonym Embia tunetana Nav&s. Explanation 
of symbols on page 279. 



288 E. S. ROSS 

Tunisia and Tripolitania. In its eastern range it appears to become paler and some 
Tripolitanian specimens are decidedly bicolorous with a brown body and contrasting 
yellowish or golden head. The most distinctive feature of mauritanica is the broad, 
flat, blade-like, left tergal process (10 LP) which varies from an apically-broad form 
with lateral flanges to a narrowly-acute form without flanges. The form of the 
paraproct process is also distinctive in being thin, flattened and from its base 
parallel-sided, not apically twisted. There is considerable variation in the length 
of this process. 

I can find no good characters for regarding tunetana Navas as a valid species. 
The paraproct process is consistently shorter and broader in the holotype of tunetana 
and the head of many Tunisian specimens may be paler. At best, tunetana might 
prove to be a race of mauritanica. However, races of North African Embia cannot 
be defined on the basis of the present limited sampling. 

The series available to the writer are cited and discussed as follows : 

Algeria: Constantine {Eaton) (McLachlan Coll. B.M.N.H.), i $ 21.vi.94, 1 M 
17.V.95. Similar to lectotype but one male has a slight nodule developed on the 
inner base of the left paraproct. This male also has a more darkly pigmented, more 
deeply wrinkled median flap. 

Algeria : La Calle, 4.vii.g6 (Eaton) (McLachlan Coll. B.M.N.H.). 1 <J. Has a 
narrower left tergal process with an elevated, median apical line ; paraproct process 
short and broad as in type of tunetana. 

Algeria : Tarfaia (A. Thery) (Paris Mus.). 1 <J det. as mauritanica by Enderlein. 
Left tergal process narrowly and evenly tapered to apex ; paraproct process elongate, 
asymmetrically, acutely pointed. 

Algeria : Hamman-Meskoutine (W. R. & K. J.), 10 $ collected at various dates 
between May 6 and 17, 1914 (B.M.N. H. Coll.). Series shows minor variation in 
left tergal and paraproct processes and an occasionally a small nodule on the left 
paraproct surface. 

Tunisia : Mateur, 2. v. 43 (G. T. Riegel) 1 $ (C.A.S. Coll.). Has a more golden- 
brown head than Algerian specimens. 

Tunisia : Tunis, 13.vii.43 (G. T. Riegel) 1 $ (C.A.S. Coll.). Larger than Mateur 
specimen ; head as dark as body ; left tergal process very narrow and sharply 
pointed ; paraproct process longer than type of tunetana. 

Tunisia : " Tunisie E. Le Moult " (Navas Coll. Zaragoza). 1 £ probably from 
same lot as type of tunetana. Head as dark as body ; terminalia similar to type of 
tunetana, as figured (Text-fig. 3^) . 

Tripolitania: Horns, vii.1913 (A. Andreini) 2 $ (Genoa Mus.). Somewhat 
smaller and more slender than Algerian series with head decidedly yellowish in 
contrast to brown body. These specimens were identified as E. tunetana by Navas. 

Except for certain pale-headed Tunisian and Tripolitanian specimens, the entire 
series has very dark coloration which appears blackish to the naked eye. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 289 

Embia attenuata sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 4A) 

Holotype. Male, on slide, deposited in the California Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco. 

Type data. Algeria: La Guetna (near Mascara), 6.vi.io,29 (/. C. Bradley). 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Winged ; size, colour and general structure essentially 
the same as in mauritanica, differing in details of terminalia, as follows : Left tergal process 
(10 LP) angled meso-caudad, symmetrically and evenly tapered to apex ; abruptly but smoothly 
curved latero-caudad at apical third and terminated as a needle-sharp, sclerotic point (in 
mauritanica this process generally is broad throughout most of its length and abruptly curved 
outward almost immediately from its base and the apex is broadly acute) . Apical lobe of median 
flap (MF) broadly rounded (in mauritanica this appears to be consistently narrowly rounded). 
Left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) with a large, broad, dome-like, meso-ventral nodule which is 
micro-rugose on its mesal surface (in mauritanica such a nodule is absent) ; paraproct process 
with base broad (half width of sclerotic caudal margin), irregularly-tapered to apex (sides thus 
not extensively parallel, as in mauritanica) . Basal segment of left cercus greatly expanded on 
inner side immediately from inner-base to form an evenly arcuate, semi-circular lobe which is 
more densely echinulate at its base than apically (in mauritanica the lobe is acutely rounded 




Fig. 4, 4A. Embia attenuata n. sp. Important characters of terminalia of holotype. 
4B. Embia lesnei n. sp. Important characters of terminalia of holotype. Explanation of 
symbols on page 279. 

ENTOM. 17, 7. II 



ago E. S. ROSS 

and begins about halfway on the inner side of the cercus), the dorsal surface of the segment is 
slightly concave. Dimensions (on slide) : Body length 12-2 mm. ; fore wing length 6-5 mm., 
breadth 1-75 mm. 

Paratype. One male with holotype data deposited in British Museum (N.H.). 

Female. I have one large, mature female with holotype data but, inasmuch as all other 
North African species of this complex of the genus are known only from male specimens, there 
is no comparative basis for a satisfactory description of species characters. It is doubtful that 
females will exhibit adequate characters for specific differentiation. 

Embia lesnei sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 4B) 

Holotype. Male, on slide, deposited in the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris. 

Type labels. Algeria : " Ain Oulmen " (handwritten on blue paper), " A Ain 
Oulmen 8 Juin 1893," " Museum Paris Algerie P. Lesne — 97 " (last two labels 
printed on cards). 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Winged ; similar to mauritanica, but much smaller 
and apparently generally paler in colour. Most closely related to attenuata but differing in 
terminalia characters, as follows : Left tergal process (10 LP) shorter, with apical point broader 
and much less curved outward. Left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) with ventral nodule more 
abruptly defined and projected laterad, instead of ventrad as in attenuata ; most significant is a 
transverse fold arcuating across the paraproct in line with caudal margin of ventral nodule 
(this fold is absent in mauritanica and attenuata) ; paraproct process narrow at basal origin, 
parallel-sided, curved meso-caudad, its surface finely and longitudinally strigose. Left cercus 
as in attenuata. Dimensions (on slide) : Body length n-o mm. ; fore wing length 5-5 mm., 
breadth 1-5 mm. 

Paratypes. None. 

Female. No specimens. 

Remarks. It may be necessary to refer to Dr. P. Lesne's field notes to determine 
the exact position of Ain Oulmen. His published account (Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Paris, 1895, no. 3, p. 1) of his 1892-93 travels in north-eastern Algeria does not men- 
tion the place. I assume that Oulmene which appears on my map just south of 
Ain Bei'da in N.E. Algeria is the same place. If so, the type localities of attenuata 
and lesnei must have significantly distinct environmental conditions. 



Embia contorta sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 5) 
Holotype. Winged male, on slide, deposited in the British Museum (N.H.). 
Type labels. " Biskra N. Africa Lewis Ahl 1892 ", " McLachlan Coll. B.M. 
1938-674." 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Similar to mauritanica, but larger, robust, winged ; 
uniformly dark brown, almost black. Colour details (dry) : Cranium dark chestnut-brown, 
devoid of pattern, darkest on vertex ; margins of anterior tentorial pits and clypeus pale amber. 



1 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 291 

Eyes black. Basal two antennal segments dark brown, other segments medium brown. Pre- 
clypeal and labral membranes tan ; labrum dark chestnut-brown, blending to amber anteriorly 
and laterally. Mandibles yellow-amber, blending to dark reddish amber laterally and anteriorly ; 
other mouthparts including submentum, medium brown with yellow-tan membranes. Cervical 
sclerites golden brown, surrounding membranes tan. Remainder of insect with sclerites shining 
dark mahogany-brown, prothorax somewhat darker ; head noticeably paler than thorax. 
All legs concolorous with thorax, paleness of femoro-tibial joints confined to membrane. Ter- 
minalia sclerites largely blackish brown except, as follows : caudal margin of left hemitergite and 
process golden, outer margin of process narrowly reddish amber ; median flap pale tan ; elevated 
area of left paraproct blending to pale amber ; margins of hypandrium process narrowly pale 
brown. Dimensions (on slide) : Body length 15-4 mm. ; fore wing length 8-25 mm., breadth 
2-25 mm. 

Important structural features : Cranium broad, quadrate ; sides as broad at caudal angles 
as behind eyes. Terminalia with left hemitergite (10 L) obtusely angulate at outer base of left 
tergal process (10 LP) which has a narrow base and gradually tapers to form a long outwardly- 
curved, parallel-sided process, irregularly tapered apically. Median flap (MF) greatly elongate, 
finely strigose ; pale, translucent amber in colour. Left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) largely 




TERMINALIA 

VENTRAL 



Fig. 5. Embia contorta n. sp. Important characters of terminalia of holotype. 5A. Detail 
of left tergal process. 5B. Detail of left tergal process of variant topotype. Explana- 
tion of symbols on page 279. 



292 E. S. ROSS 

pale, but sclerotic, with a very low, broad ventral nodule ; caudal process narrow at base thence 
expanded medially before attenuating to a slightly twisted truncate tip, process not strongly 
curved ventrad. Basal segment of left cercus broadly, evenly arcuated from inner base to 
apex ; bearing scattered, large echinulations on inner edge. 

Paratypes. Four males on slides deposited in British Museum (N.H.) and the California 
Academy of Sciences. All from Biskra and selected from a larger Biskra series as closely 
matching the size and structural characters of holotype. Date and collector data, as follows : 
i o*> iv.1908 (W. Rothschild) ; 3 $ from McLachlan Collection, {Eaton), with dates : 22. v. 91, 
12.V.94, 13.iv.95. 

Female. Unknown. 

Additional specimens studied. 7 $ from Biskra not matching holotype. Dates 
and collectors, as follows: 1 <$, 22. v. 91 {Eaton, McLachlan Coll., B.M.N.H.) ; 
1 <J, same but 5. v. 94; 1 <$, no date (G. C. C., B.M.N.H.) ; 1 $, no date (Pascoe Coll. 
93-60, B.M.N.H.) ; 1 J, no date (A. Thery, Enderlein Coll., Warsaw) ; 2 <J, " Biskra 
Paa, Sandhoje orkenen 3-1869 Meinert " (retained from larger series in Copenhagen 
Mus.). 

1 $, "Algerie, Touggourt, J. Surcouf 1922" (Paris Mus.), det. as mauritanicaby 
Navas ; 1 <J, " Krauss Sahara Oued Mzab, bei Ghardaza, 19. 4. 1893" (Stuttgart 
Mus.) ; 1 <J, " Tozeur, S. Tunisia G.C.C." (B.M.N.H.). 

Tunisia : Kebili (N. Banks, M.C.Z.). Two males similar to typical contorta 
but having the left tergal process acuminated to a narrow, fine point. One specimen 
has a broad, low, paraproct nodule, the other has no such nodule. 

Remarks. The peculiar shape of the terminalia processes and the broadly-rounded 
lobe of the left cercus clearly indicate that the population of Embia occurring at 
Biskra is specifically distinct from mauritanica. The latter must be a species 
characteristic of the Mediterranean slope of north Africa. However, the series from 
Biskra is highly variable and it is necessary to limit the designation of paratypes to 
specimens matching the holotype. 5 

The Meinert specimens collected in 1869 represent the extremity of divergence from 
the holotype. The body is only n mm. long. The wings are much smaller with 
reduced venation (one specimen has MA unbranched), and the left paraproct has a 
pronounced ventral nodule. It is possible that such specimens represent a second 
species of Embia in the locality. Another possibility is that a dry year, or series of 
dry years, may result in generations of smaller, undernourished individuals which 
exhibit allometric variation in characters used in classification. The problem can 
be settled by the analysis of large series of males reared in cultures from Biskra. 

In addition to the above variable series, I have before me two males from N.E. 
Tunisia which do not quite fit the definition of contorta but seem related to this 
species. Perhaps specialized collecting and rearing of adequate series from N.E. 
Algeria and Tunisia will reveal the existence of a complex of valid species and /or 
races. 

5 It is the writer's policy to regard paratypes as specimens showing the nature of the holotype and not 
necessarily the nature of the type population or species concept. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 293 

Embia sinuosa sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 6) 

Holotype. Male, on slide, deposited in the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris. 

Type labels. " Museum Paris TUNISIE Maknassy C. Dumont 1927 ", " 20.4.27." 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Similar to contorta but smaller than average. Differ- 
ing in details of terminalia, as follows : Left tergal process (10 LP) generally long, slender, only 
slightly outwardly-curved, constricted medially then slightly expanded before its asymmetrically- 
acute apex. Left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) with a prominent, asymmetrical, ventral nodule 
directed latero-caudad and darkly pigmented on caudal face ; paraproct process narrower at 
base than medially, apex acuminate and bent ventrad ; outer caudal margin of paraproct 
sclerotic, incurved. Basal segment of left cercus with inner side symmetrically, obtusely angulate 
with a few scattered echinulations. Dimensions : Body length 11-5 mm., fore wing length 
6-o mm., breadth 1-5 mm. 

Paratypes. None. 

Female. Unknown. 




HEAD 



Fig. 6. Embia sinuosa n. sp. Important characters of holotype. Explanation of symbols 

on page 279. 



294 



E. S. ROSS 



Remarks. This specimen bears the Navas identification label Embia tunetana 
Navas but it is not closely related to this synonym of mauritanica. It is most 
closely related to contorta Ross, but differs in its smaller size ; sinuosity of the left 
tergal process ; the pronounced ventral lobe of the left paraproct ; the smaller, 
ventrally hooked paraproct process (horizontal in contorta) ; and the smaller, more 
angulate, inner lobe of the left cercus. 

Before me is an additional Paris Mus. male labelled : " Tunisie Bou Hedma C. 
Dumont 1929 " " Fevier " " Embia tunetana Nav. P. Navas S. J. det." which 
agrees with the holotype of sinuosa except for its flat, parallel-sided left tergal process 
which is diagonally truncate at its apex. It may represent a distinct species or 
race but it will be best to await access to adequate study series before proposing an 
additional name. 




VENTRAL 



TERMINALIA 

DORSAL 



Fig. 7. Embia maroccana n.sp. Important characters of holotype. Explanation of symbols 

on page 279. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 295 

Embia tharoccana sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 7) 

Holotype. Male, on slide, deposited in the Instituto Espanol de Entomologia, 
Madrid. 

Type labels. " Teng-Tina " [Morocco], " Embia mauritanica Lucas. <$ " (in 
Krauss' hand). 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Small, slender, winged ; generally dark brown with 
head golden brown. Colour details (dry) : Cranium golden brown, clouded anteriorly with 
mahogany-brown; eyes, antennae, and palpi dark mahogany-brown. Remainder of insect dark 
brown except for amber-yellow left paraproct process with a reddish amber apex. Dimensions 
(on slide) : Body length 9-5 mm. ; fore wing length 4-5 mm., breadth i-o mm. 

Important structural features, as figured : Similar to contorta but with head narrower and 
mandibles shorter. Terminalia with caudal margin of left hemitergite (10 L) arcuate instead of 
obtusely angulate ; left process (10 LP) long, smooth-surfaced, not tilted, parallel-sided except 
for slight narrowing at arcuation which occurs at apical third, apex abruptly and broadly acute. 
Ventral surface of left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) transparent, centrally produced as a low, 
conate nodule directed ventro-laterad and covered with micro nodules ; paraproct process very 
broad and parallel-sided at basal half, then abruptly narrowed on inner edge to half of basal 
width, apex slightly tapered and squarely-truncate. Basal segment of left cercus not broadly 
arcuate on inner side, as in contorta, but obtusely triangulate in outline, as figured. 

Paratypes. None. 

Female. Unknown. 

Remarks. E. maroccana can be distinguished from contorta by a comparison of 
terminalia figures. Its occurrence far to the north-west of Biskra, and north of the 
Atlas range, may account for its differentiation. 

Embia tyrrhenica Stefani 
(Text-fig. 8) 

Embia tyrrhenica Stefani, 19536 : 84, fig. 1 ; 1953^ : 1 [biol.] ; 1959a : 622 [biol.] ; 1959c : 3 
[Key] ; 19606 : in [Yugoslavian records]. 

Holotype. Male in alcohol, deposited in the Instituto di Zoologia, Universita di 
Cagliari, Sardinia. 

Type data. Sardinia : " Gonnesa (Sardegna meridionale) ". 

The following synopsis of characters and the accompanying figure are based on a 
paratype from Gonnesa. 

Male. Appearance : Medium sized, alate ; dark mahogany-brown throughout. Cranium 
elongate-quadrate, devoid of dorsal pattern. Antennae almost unicolorous ; basal segments 
slightly darker, 18-segmented (complete). Mandibles very elongate, somewhat emarginate on 
inner-basal half ; distal teeth curled beneath subapicals ; submentum small, moderately 
sclerotized, lateral margins arcuate, not inflexed. Terminalia with left margin of cleft straight ; 
left hemitergite (10L) large, triangulate ; left process (10 LP) very short, broad basally, acutely 
tapered and slightly out-curved distad ; right hemitergite (10 R) large ; median flap (MF) pale 
tan, not very transparent. Left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) devoid of ventral nodule or pro- 
nounced surface sculpture ; caudal margin sclerotic, gradually angled meso-caudad from left 



296 



E. S. ROSS 



side to form outer margin of a caudal process which is straight on inner side and abruptly hooked 
ventrad at apex. Basal segment of left cercus large, sclerotic ; broadly, evenly arcuate on 
inner side from extreme base to apex ; with a few coarse echinulations on extreme edge. Dimen- 
sion (on slide) : Body length 10 mm. ; fore wing length 4-75 mm., breadth 1-25 mm. 

Female. Various shades of mahogany-brown, membranes not distinctly paler than sclerites ; 
without inter-segmental thoracic bands. Accessory gland with very large, amber semifused 
sclerites and two deep fossae beneath vulva with lining sclerotic reddish amber. 

Remarks. Stefani described completely apterous as well as micropterous forms 
of this species from southern Sardinia. Before me are three apterous males from 
Mandas, an interior locality in southern Sardinia (Gonnesa is on the S.W. coast). 
These differ from my three Gonnesa paratypes in having the left tergal process 
(Text-fig. 8b) longer, more acuminate and abruptly curved outward at 90 before 
the apex. Also, the lobe of the left cercus is smaller and more narrowly rounded. 
Close study may reveal that tyrrhenica breaks up into distinguishable populations, 
or even a complex of races or weak species. 

Stefani recorded tyrrhenica from a wide range. He noted that specimens from the 
Rome area identified by Silvestri (1948) as E. savignyi, and specimens from Yugo- 
slavia (Rovigno, Istria and Isola di Veglia nel Quarnero, Krk) identified as E. 
mauritanica by Michieli (1956), fit his concept of tyrrhenica. It is thus likely that 
the species, or its close relatives, may occur in many lowland, coastal areas of Italy, 
and the Balkan Peninsula. 




LPPT P 



Fig. 8. Embia tyrrhenica Stefani. Important characters of terminaliaof male topopara type. 
8b. Left tergal process of paratype from Mandas, Sardinia. 

Explanation of symbols on page 279. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 297 

The RAMBURI Group 

Embia ramburi Rimsky-Korsakow 
(Text-fig. 9) 

Embia ramburi Rimsky-Korsakow 1905 : 434, figs. Friederichs, 1906 : 215 et seq. [biol.] figs. 

Friederichs, 1907 : 270. Krauss, 191 1 : 57, fig. Krausse, 1914 : 103. Rimsky-Korsakow, 

1927 : 148. Silvestri, 1934 : I 3 I » &&• Davis, 1940a : 331, figs. Stefani, 1953& : 90. 
Embia (Monotylota) ramburi Rimsky-Korsakow, 1910 : 153 ; 19126 : 610. 
Monotylota ramburi (Rimsky-Korsakow) ; Enderlein, 1909 : 188 ; 1912 : 65, 115, fig. 38. 

Rimsky-Korsakow, 1912a : 18. Friederichs, 1923 : 11 [biol.] ; 1934 : 4°7> e * se 1- fig s - [biol.]. 

Taborsky, 1938 : 109. Delamare Deboutteville, 1946 : 200 fig. ; 1949 : 24 [biol.]. Ledoux, 

1958 : 5I5» fi g s - [biol.]. 
Embia duplex Navas, 1908 : 50. Enderlein, 1912 : 67 [as syn. of H. solieri in error]. 
Haploembia duplex (Navas), 1918 : 359, fig. 14. Davis, 1939 : 565 [as ? syn. of ramburi]. 
Embia silvanoi Navas, 1908 : 51. Enderlein, 1912 : 65 [as ? syn. of ramburi]. Davis, 1939 : 566 

[as ? syn. of ramburi]. 
Embia kraussi Krausse, 191 1 : 64 ; 1914 : 103 [as syn. of ramburi]. Davis, 1940a : 342 [as 

unrecognizable]. Stefani, 19536 : 92 [as syn. of ramburi]. 
Haploembia {Monotylota) laufferi Navas, 191 8 : 360, fig. 15. Davis, 1939 : 565 [as ? syn. of 

ramburi] . 

Type (of ramburi). Juvenile male, or female, place of deposit unknown. Perhaps 
no type specimen exists. 

Type data. France : Villefranche sur Mer (near Russian Zoological Station) 
collected by Rimsky-Korsakow, 1903. 

The following redescription and accompanying figures are based on a topotypic 
male, one of a series kindly presented by Dr. Renzo Stefani. 

Male. Appearance : Apterous, jet-black throughout, membranes brownish tinged with 
reddish lavender or clouded with smoky black, thus without pale thoracic intersegmental bands. 
Body length : 12-5 mm. (in alcohol). Colour details : Head jet-black except for gula which is 
concolorous with membranes ; cranial surface dull in lustre, micro-rugose ; clypeal region 
especially rugose. All sclerotized body surfaces concolorous with head, micro-rugose. Legs 
uniformly black except for membranes and extreme apex and claws of each terminal tarsal 
segment which are golden brown. Important structural features, as figured. 

Distribution. Southern France, Spain, Italy, and certain islands of western 
Mediterranean. 

Remarks. E. ramburi is the only member of the genus with a heavily sclerotized 
submentum in the male with side margins strongly flexed. It is also characterized 
by its black, sclerotic median flap and the strongly, subterminally-bilobed left 
paraproct, the ventral lobe of which is a sclerotic round nodule. In much of its 
range it shares the habitat only with Haploembia solieri (Rambur). All instars of 
ramburi can be distinguished from those of solieri by the short hind basitarsus with 
only one ventral papilla. It is doubtful that males of ramburi ever are alate. 

Friederichs (1934 : 426) claimed to have hybridized ramburi and mauritanica but 
the identity of the parents is not clear. In any event, mauritanica could not have 
been involved. Most likely the female parent was tyrrhenica which had mated 
prior to contact with a male of ramburi. 



298 



E. S. ROSS 



Discussion of synonyms. Embia duplex Navas, 1908. This name was based on 
specimens from " Chamartin! (Madrid) " and " Zaragoza ". To date these speci- 
mens have not been found in any collection. The original description is too general 




HIND BASITARSUS 



Fig. 9. Embia ramburi R.-K. Important characters of a male topotype. Explanation of 

symbols on page 279. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 299 

for specific, or even sex determination. However, the colour note " castanea " 
suggests that the specimens were not adult males of ramburi which are black. In 
1918 (I.e.) Navas figured the terminalia of " duplex " and cited an additional locality : 
Mongat (Barcelona). This figure almost certainly represents the terminalia of 
ramburi and I suspect that it was made from a Mongat male and not one of the 
original types. Therefore, the synonomy of duplex with ramburi is not yet conclusive 
on the basis of this figure. 

A visit to the type locality of Chamartin (Madrid) might establish the identity of 
duplex, particularly if only one species of the order happens to occur there. Ramburi 
is known from Madrid as recorded below. 

Embia silvanoi Navas, 1908. Like duplex, this species is unrecognizable from the 
original description. The types, probably nymphs, have not been located in any 
collection. It may be possible, however, to identify the species through future 
collecting at the type locality : San Fiel, Spain. 

Embia kraussi Krausse, 191 1 . Apparently no types are extant but the type locality 
is precisely stated : Asuni, Sardinia. The original series was composed of nymphs. 
In 1914 Krausse, without stating his evidence, and apparently without much know- 
ledge of ramburi, placed the name kraussi in the synonomy of ramburi. Stefani 
(19536) accepted this conclusion and later collected at Asuni but informed me that 
he could find only his own species inhabiting the region. Because more than one 
species of Embia occurs at Asuni, and because ramburi is known to occur on Sardinia, 
it is best to continue to place kraussi as a synonym of ramburi instead of regarding it 
without evidence to be conspecific with one of Stefani's Sardinian species. 

Haploembia (Monotylota) laufferi Navas, 1918. The type of this species was from 
" Pardo (Madrid) " and, although stated to be in the Navas Collection deposited in 
Zaragoza, I was unable to find it there. The type was an apterous male and Navas' 
figure of its terminalia, although poor, suggests that laufferi is a synonym of ramburi. 
Further support of this synonymy is an apterous male loaned to me by the Instituto 
Espafiol de Entomologia labelled, " Provincia de Madrid J. Lauffer." This is a 
typical specimen of ramburi. In the same collection there are two mature females 
labelled, "Pardo (M) 21. V.15," which were identified by Navas as Haploembia 
solieri Rambur. However, unlike those of solieri, these females are black and have a 
short hind basitarsus with a single ventral papilla. They may thus be regarded as 
females of ramburi. This generic misidentification is further evidence of the confused 
state of Navas' knowledge of the Embioptera. 

New records. France: Marseille, series of adults matured in culture ii.1963 
(L. Bigot) (C.A.S.). Callian, Dept. Var, v. 1946 (L. Berland), 1 <$, $, and nymphs, 
(Paris Mus.). Spain : Pego Sn. Juan, Prov. Alicante, v. 1959 (H. Coiffait) 1 <$, and 
nymphs (Paris Mus.). Ronda, 2,500 ft. 30. vi. 1925 (Sheppe) 1 $ (M.C.Z.). Madrid, 
No. 19, 1 £ (McLachlan Coll., B.M.N.H.). 



300 E. S. ROSS 

The BIROI Group 

Embia biroi Krauss 
(Text-fig. 10) 

Embia Biroi Krauss, 191 1 : 59, pi. 3, fig. 18. Davis, 1940a : 334, figs. 43-44 [after Krauss]. 
Monotylota biroi (Krauss), Enderlein, 191 2 : 104, figs. 67-68 [quotes Krauss]. Friederichs, 
1934 : 4°9 [ as s Y n - °f ramburi, in error]. 

LECTOTYPE (by present designation) . Male, on slide, deposited in the Magyar 
Nemzeti Museum, Budapest. 

Type labels. "Tunis, Gafsa, 1903. III. 21, leg Biro." "Embia Biroi Krauss; 
Typus! (det. Krauss). " 




HEAD 



LPPT P 



Fig. 10. Embia biroi Krauss. Important characters of a male topotype. (Type lot). 
Explanation of symbols on page 279. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 301 

Description of lectotype. Appearance : Robust, apterous, brownish ; resembling an adult 
female. Colour in alcohol : Almost uniformly chestnut-brown, slightly darker in sclerotic 
areas, paler at extremities of legs and antennae. Cranial pattern conspicuous. Body length 
18-2 mm. 

Important structural features, as figured. Most significant : (1) The elevated promontory 
of the left hemitergite (10 L) above base of left process (10 LP). (2) The peculiar left process 
which is almost parallel-sided to its acute apex and exceptionally dorso-ventrally flat, thin, and 
smooth. (3) The cone-like, sclerotic right tergal process (10 RP). (4) The blunt, short, nodule- 
like left paraproct process. (5) The absence of a left paraproct nodule. (6) Plantar setae of 
hind basitarsi are numerous and dense. 

Remarks. E. biroi is known only from specimens collected by Biro. The type series 
loaned to me for study by the Hungarian National Museum comprised two males and 
a female in alcohol. The loan also included a third male, not mentioned by Krauss, 
which has type data except for the collection data 30 . iii . 1903 . Biro, prior to Krauss' 
study erroneously identified this male as Embia mauritanica Lucas. One of the 
syntype males was prepared on a slide and here designated lectotype. The third 
male was retained, by exchange, in the California Academy of Sciences. 

E. biroi is the largest and most extremely neoteinic of the Mediterranean species of 
Embia. 

Embia nuragica Stefani 
(Text-fig. 11) 
Embia nuragica Stefani, 19536 : 89, fig. 2. 

Holotype. Male, in alcohol, deposited in the Museo di Zoologia, Universita di 
Cagliari, Sardinia. 
Type data. Sardinia : " Sassari (Sardegna settentrionale)." 




lppt P 



Fig. 11. Embia nuragica Stefani. Important characters of terminalia of a male 
topoparatype. Explanation of symbols on page 279. 



302 E. S. ROSS 

The following synopsis of characters and accompanying figure are based on a 
paratype male from Nuoro, Sardinia. 

Male. Appearance : Medium-sized, apterous : head not exceptionally large ; mahogany- 
brown with thoracic membranes whitish except those of pro thorax tinged with purple ; joints 
between thoracic segments appearing as whitish bands. Cranium oval, nymphaform ; uni- 
colorous dark brown, with or without dorsal pattern. Antennae almost unicolorous brown, 
ig-segmented (complete). Mandibles tapered distad, concolorous with cranium ; submentum 
small, uniformly pigmented and weakly sclerotized with non-inflexed, arcuate, lateral margins. 
Terminalia with cleft extended partially behind left hemitergite (10L) which is gradually tapered 
meso-caudad to form a flat, thin, smooth process (10 LP) which is almost straight, parallel-sided 
and not sharply pointed at apex. Median flap (MF) pale, semi-transparent. Left paraproct 
(LCB + LPPT) well sclerotized, surface strongly, transversely wrinkled, but devoid of ventral 
nodule ; inner angle gradually tapered to form a small, acutely-pointed, clear amber, slightly 
bent process. Basal segment of left cercus acutely lobed beginning at distal half ; echinulations 
confined to rounded apex of lobe. Body length : io-o mm. 

Females. Resembling males but larger and lacking the two pale thoracic bands due to 
uniform reddish tan tinge of all body membranes. Sclerotic plates around orifice of accessory 
gland absent (this is a good character for distinguishing adult females from those of tyrrhenica 
which may be sympatric). 

Remarks. E. nuragica is a very distinct species to date found only in several 
localities in south-central Sardinia. Related species should occur in other Mediter- 
ranean regions. The worker is referred to the good original treatment of Stefani for 
additional details. 

The AMADORAE Group 

Embia amadorae sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 12) 

Holotype. Male, on slide, deposited in the California Academy of Sciences, San 
Francisco. 
Type data. Portugal : Amadora (near Lisbon) 10 . v. 1949 (E. Luna de Carvalho). 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Medium-sized, winged, unicolorous dark brown. 
Colour details (in alcohol) : Cranium piceous brown, dorsal pattern obsolete, medial area slightly 
paler. Basal segment of antennae piceous brown, segment II chestnut-brown, all other seg- 
ments yellow-tan. Sclerotized portions of mouth parts, including mandibles, chestnut-brown. 
Body and legs with sclerotic areas various shades of chestnut-brown with piceous sutures and 
margins ; pronotum more extensively piceous ; prothoracic and cervical membranes whitish, 
tinged with rust-red, membranes between pro- and mesothorax cream-white, all other body 
membranes slightly pink. Terminalia with left hemitergite (10 L) piceous brown, process (10 
LP) dark amber margined with piceous ; inner and outer margins of right hemitergite (10 R) 
piceous, otherwise chestnut-brown ; median flap (MF) medium brown ; ventral sclerites chestnut- 
brown with longitudinal mesal streak in hypandrium lobe (HP) piceous ; left cercus with basal 
segment largely dark brown with piceous margins ; right cercus light golden brown except for 
narrow, piceous inner margin and whitish outer-basal margin ; terminal segments yellow-brown 
with dark cream tips. Dimensions (on slide) : body length 11-5 mm. ; fore wing length 5-5 mm., 
breadth i-a mm. 

Important structural features, as figured : Cranium exceptionally broad, quadrate. 
Mandibles elongate with apical teeth strongly curled beneath sub-apicals. Left tergal process 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 303 



{10 LP) rather short, evenly tapered and outwardly arcuate to an acute point. Median flap 
(MF) darkly pigmented. Left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) large, without ventral nodule ; its 
process almost completely absent, reduced to a minute, piceous point beneath caudal margins. 
Basal segment of left cercus massive, abruptly enlarged mesally and maintaining great breadth 
for length of segment, dorsal surface of lobe depressed or concave ; echinulations fine, densely 
concentrated on basal surface of lobe. 

Paratypes. Six topotypic males collected with the holotype. Deposited in the 
California Academy of Sciences, the British Museum, and the Instituto Espanol de 
Entomologia, Madrid. 

These are similar to the holotype except for slight variation in body size and length 
of the left tergal process (extreme length figured). 

Allotype. Female, in alcohol, with holotype data and disposition. Light brown throughout 
with head, antennae, legs, and cerci amber-yellow. Sclerites of accessory gland large, fused 
medially, amber in colour. 6 

6 This description can be amplified when relative importance of characters is known at the time females 
of other species are known. 




Fig. 12 



TERMINALIA 

VENTRAL ' 

Embia amadorae n. sp. Important characters of holotype (B. detail of left 
tergal process of variant paratype). Explanation of symbols on page 279. 



304 E. S. ROSS 

Parallotypes. Two females in alcohol deposited in the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

Remarks. This species is most distinct in the broad, quadrate form of the head, 
the greatly reduced paraproct process, and the form of the left cercus. 

E. amadorae was collected under stones in an exposed rocky ledge area in pasture 
land. Haploembia solieri females were present in the same vial as the type series 
and therefore the two species must occur together in the habitat. H. solieri can 
readily be distinguished in all stages by its possession of two hind basitarsal papillae 
instead of one. 

In the Instituto Espahol de Entomologia there is a male without locality data 
which appears to represent amadorae except for a slightly distinct left tergal process. 
It bears only the identification label " Embia mauritanica Lucas," in the hand of 
H. A. Krauss. In searching Krauss' monograph (1911) I find that he referred to 
only two Madrid Museum specimens, one from Teng Tina (Morocco) , the other from 
Cartagena (Spain). I have studied the former and it became the holotype of my 
Embia maroccana {vide supra). 

It thus is possible that the second specimen is from Cartagena but lost its locality 
label after Krauss' study. 

It is possible that amadorae may prove to be a synonym or, at best, a race of 
hientei Navas when a topotypic series of that species becomes available for study. 



Embia fuentei Navas incertae sedis 
Embia fuentei Navas, 1918 : 358. Davis, 1940a : 343 [as unrecognizable]. 

Type. Alate male, disposition unknown ; perhaps lost. Not in Navas collec- 
tions in Zaragoza or Barcelona. 

Type data. Spain : Pozuelo de Calatrava, Cuidad Real, 1899. 

Remarks. Davis (1940^) regarded fuentei as an unrecognizable species but, in 
view of its precisely designated type locality, this need not always be so. Eventually 
the type locality can be revisited and the nature of this valid species can be based on 
a topotypic series and a neotype designated. 

Although ramburi R.-K. probably is sympatric (it occurs in the Madrid region to 
the north) , fuentei males would be easily distinguished by their alate condition and 
other characters. It seems unlikely that two distinct species of Embia with winged 
males would be sympatric in south-central Spain, a region which, because of its 
relatively cold climate, is marginal for the order. 

As stated before, fuentei may prove to be conspecific with the preceding species, 
amadorae. It also may be closely related to, or the same as, the following new 
species. I anticipate, however, that future studies based on adequate series collected 
on the Iberian Peninsula, and in Morocco, will show these three catagories to be closely 
related members of a larger species or racial complex. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 305 



Holotype. 
Madrid. 



Embia larachensis Ross sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 13) 
Male, on slide, deposited in the Instituto Espanol de Entomologia, 

Morocco : " Larache M. Escalera." 



Type data. 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Medium sized, winged, uniformly dark brown. 
General facies, coloration, and structure similar to amadorae, but differing as follows : Cranium 
and mandibles narrower and more elongate, as figured. Left tergal process (10 LP) more slender 
at base and longer. Median flap (MF) paler, more transparent. Process of left paraproct 
(LCB + LPPT) larger and visible from above on caudal margin of paraproct. Basal segment 
of left cercus incurved at inner-base before its expansion as a well-rounded lobe ; apex of cercus 
more tapered distad ; surface of lobe more coarsely and sparsely echinulate. Dimensions (on 
slide) : Body length 9-5 mm. ; fore wing length 4-5 mm., breadth 1-12 mm. 




HEAD 

Fig. 13. Embia larachensis n. sp. 



TERMINALIA 

DORSAL 



Explanation of 



Important characters of holotype. 
symbols on page 279. 

Remarks. An additional male with identical data is available but the apex of 
the left tergal process is broken off and so it is not designated paratype. This 
specimen is retained in the California Academy of Sciences collection. 

The ALGERICA Group 

Embia algerica (Navas) 
(Text-fig. 14) 
Haploembia algerica Navas, 1930 : 136, p. 45. Davis, 1939 : 566. 
Embia algerica (Navas) ; Davis, 1940 : 332, figs. 35-38 [redesc. type]. 

ENTOM. 17, 7. 12 



306 



i:. S. ROSS 



Holotype. Apterous male, on slide, deposited in the Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Type labels. " Haploembia algerica Nav. P. Navas S. J. det." (green), " Agadir 
24-IV." (pencil) "Type" (red print) "Museum Paris Agadir" (blue), "Miss. 
LeCerf & Talbot Grand- Atlas 28. IV a 9. VI. 1927". 

Condition. Originally glued on card, genitalia placed in vial by Davis. Prepared 
on microscope slide by the writer. 

Redescription of holotype. Appearance : Small, apterous, dull black with pale membranous 
band between pro- and mesothorax. Colour details (dry) : Cranium piceous ; dull due to fine, 
transverse reticulation ; clypeal margin and edges of anterior tentorial pits narrowly brownish ; 
basal segment of antennae concolorous with head, segment II medium brown, III-VI light brown, 
VII-XIV medium brown (apical segments broken off). Remainder of insect, including legs, 
concolorous with head but more shining due to less reticulation ; intersegmental thoracic 
membranes cream-white ; acrotergite, prescutum, and postnotum piceous ; legs piceous basally, 
blending to medium brown distad ; pleural membranes of abdomen purplish brown. Body 
length : 10 mm. (elongated in slide preparation). 

Important structural features : Cranium elongate, rectangulate ; sides behind eyes straight, 
evenly convergent to the arcuate caudal margin. Eyes small, nymphaform. Mandibles 




HEAD 



Fig. 14. Embia algerica Navas. Important characters of holotype. Explanation of 

symbols on page 279. 



EMBIOPTERA OF "^OPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 307 

tapered from, base to apex, apices acute, apical teeth not curled beneath subapicals. Submentum 
well sclerotized ;, lateral margins strongly inflexed, especially toward base ; anterior margin 
weak. 

Terminalia well sclerotized, sclerites well defined and contrasting with membranous areas. 
Left hemitergite (10 L) with outer and basal margins sclerotic, inner-apical margin sclerotized 
but not projected over base of process ; this process (10 LP) almost straight, only slightly 
outwardly-arcuate, long, slender, evenly and acutely tapered from base to extremely sharp 
apex. Right hemitergite (10 R) evenly sclerotized, outer-apical margin broadly, obtusely 
angulate ; its process (10 RP) pointed inward yet visible from above. Median flap (MF) well 
sclerotized, especially at caudal apex, darkly pigmented ; evenly arcuate to form a narrow 
sheath. Epiproct sclerite (EP) very narrow, thread-like, slightly twisted. Left paraproct 
(LCB -f LPPT) heavily sclerotized beneath caudal margin, thence abruptly, weakly sclerotized 
in basal half ; process not visible from above, this process small, sclerotic, located on inner 
angle at juncture of contrasting sclerotization. Basal segment of left cercus basally narrow, 
then abruptly angled mesad to form a lobe which remains broad to segment apex ; lobe flat, 
meso-caudal surface densely echinulate. 

Female. Unknown. 

Remarks. In the Paris Museum I found a second male with data identical to the 
holotype, including the Navas identification label " Haploembia algerica ". This 
has been transferred by exchange to the California Academy of Sciences. It matches 
the holotype in every detail. 

Embia lecerfi sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 15) 

Holotype. Male, on slide, deposited in the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris. 

Type labels. " TAFINGOULT Goundafa 1500 a 1600 m 10 V Miss. LeCerf 
& Talbot Grand Atlas 28. IV a 9. VI. 1927 ". The locality is in Morocco. 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Small, slender, winged ; dark piceous brown with 
head golden brown. Colour details (dry) : Cranium basically golden brown, devoid of definite 
pattern, clouded with dark brown between eyes ; clypeus golden brown. Antennae uniformly 
piceous brown (only 11 segments present). Labrum and other mouthparts dark brown except 
mandibles which are largely golden amber. Remainder of specimen and legs dark piceous brown 
except for a cream- white thoracic band formed by pale membranes between pro- and mesothorax. 
Processes of terminalia and cerci mahogany-brown. Dimensions (on slide) : Body length 
9 mm. ; fore wing length 4 mm., breadth 1 mm. 

Important structural features, as figured : Cranium elongate-oval. Mandibles exceptionally 
short for the genus (almost as in Oligotoma), outer margins broadly arcuated and tapered distad ; 
teeth of equal size and spacing, the apicals not curled beneath subapicals. Submentum evenly, 
moderately sclerotized. Hind basitarsus exceptionally elongate for the genus, more than twice 
as long as broad ; plantar setae few in number, widely spaced. Abdominal terminalia, as. 
figured, of special significance : the long, slender, evenly-tapered, smoothly arcuate left tergal 
process (10 LP) ; position and caudal projection of right tergal process (10 RP) ; well-sclerotized, 
micro-strigose median flap (MF) ; the position and form of the left paraproct process and the 
acutely angulate inner lobe of the left cercus which has coarse echinulations and is somewhat 
concave on its meso-basal surface. 

Paratypes. None. 

Female . Unknown . 

entom. 17, 7 I2§ 



3o8 



E. S. ROSS 




VENTRAL 

Fig. 15. Embia lecerfi n. sp. Important characters of holotype. Explanation of symbols 

on page 279. 

Remarks. E. lecerfi is very closely related to algerica but immediately separable by 
its winged condition, pale coloration, shorter mandibles, more sparsely setose hind 
basitarsi, and its more acutely angulate lobe of the left cercus. 

The SILVESTRII Group 

Embia silvestrii Davis 

(Text-fig. 16) 
Embia silvestrii Davis, 1940a : 333, figs. 39-42. 

Holotype. Apterous male, on slide, deposited in the Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 






EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 309 

Type labels. " Embia silvestrii Davis, Holotype $. Oulad Messelem, Algeria, 
25.V.93." 

Condition. The balsam preparation made and studied by Davis had many of the 
specimen's structures obscured by muscle tissue shrivelled within the specimen. 
A new slide preparation which reveals the additional details is described and figured 
at this time. 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Rather small, apterous, head proportionately large, 
elongate ; general colour very dark brown. It is possible that this specimen originally had a 
pale band at each thoracic joint. Dimensions (on slide): Body length 9 mm. ; cranial length 
(clypeal to caudal margin) 1-4 mm. ; width (behind eyes) 1-25 mm. 

Important structural features : Cranium elongate-oval, sides at first subparallel and feebly 
arcuate, then convergent and evenly arcuate across caudal margin. Eyes small, nymphaform. 
Mandibles elongated, somewhat tapered towards apex ; outer-apical margins rounded ; distal 
teeth not abruptly curved ventrad. Submentum slightly wider than long, heavily sclerotized, 
lateral and anterior margins sclerotic and inflexed ; anterior margin evenly, inwardly arcuate. 
Left hemitergite (10 L) with all but inner-basal margin sclerotic, not projected across base of 
process (10 LP) which arises on the inner-apical angle, sides subparallel but sinuous. Process 
of right hemitergite (10 RP) small but well sclerotized, produced as an acute, ventrally-directed 
spine. Median flap (MF) elongate, sheath-like, about as well sclerotized as right hemitergite 




Fig. 16. Embia silvestrii Davis. Important characters of holotype. Explanation of 

symbols on page 279. 



310 E. S. ROSS 

(10 R) but more so anteriorly. Left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) sclerotic, transversely wrinkled 
but devoid of processes or nodules of any sort. Basal segment of left cercus distinctive ; narrow 
and tubular at extreme base then abruptly expanded on inner margin to form a massive, broadly 
arcuate, finely-echinulate lobe. 
Female. Unknown. 

Remarks. The form of the left cercus and left tergal process, and the simple 
nature of the left paraproct, readily distinguish silvestrii from all other known species. 

Embia lucasi Ross sp. n. 
(Text-fig. 17) 

Holotype. Male, on slide, deposited in the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris. 

Type labels. " Mus. Paris Bogher M. Lucas 67-96 " " Embia mauritanica Lucas 
(Type) 1850 ". 

Locality interpretation. " Bogher " apparently is another spelling for Boghar, a 
small town south of Alger in Alger province, Algeria. It also is the fixed type locality 
of E. mauritanica Lucas. 

Description of holotype. Appearance : Medium sized, apterous ; generally dark mahogany- 
brown with broad pale bands between thoracic segments. Colour details (in alcohol) : Cranium 
dark mahogany-brown with paler basal pattern and four small paler spots in a transverse line 
between eyes. Clypeus and sides before eyes golden brown. Basal antennal segment mahogany- 
brown, II light brown, others tan becoming darker distad (16 segments present). Labrum 
and mandibles mahogany-brown, other mouthparts medium brown. Pro thoracic sclerites and 
legs dark mahogany-brown ; cervical and other posterior membranes cream-white. First 
acrotergite and both spinasterna amber, surrounding membranes and anterior margin of meso- 
scutum cream-white ; these pale areas combining to form a conspicuous broad pale annulation 
between pro- and mesothorax. Other thoracic segments and legs dark mahogany-brown except 
for pale amber postnotum, and cream -white adjacent membranes and anterior margin of meta- 
scutum. These combine to form a second, somewhat narrower, pale thoracic band. Abdomen 
dark mahogany-brown with membranes almost concolorous. Dimensions (on slide) : Body 
length 11-5 mm. 

Important structural features, as figured : Head oval, caudal extremity well rounded ; 
mandibular teeth well spaced, the apical teeth not curled beneath the subapicals ; submentum 
well sclerotized. Terminalia with medial cleft of tenth tergite relatively broad basally and 
extended latero-basad behind left hemitergite (10 L) which is unusually small with weak margins ; 
left process (10 LP) dorso-ventrally thin, symmetrically projected from 10 L, elongate, sides 
extensively parallel, outer side flared out before the apex which is rounded, spatulate and weakly 
sclerotized. Median flap (MF) rather short ; strongly, longitudinally furrowed. Left paraproct 
(LCB + LPPT) devoid of caudal process or ventral nodule. Basal segment of left cercus very 
narrowly tubular at base, then abruptly inflated distad as a well-rounded inner lobe ; inner 
echinulations very dense, even, fine. 

Paratype. Topotypic male deposited in the California Academy of Sciences. 

Females. With coloration paralleling that of male. 

Additional record. Algeria: Cherchell, i.ix.48 (B. Malkin) , 4 nymphal males 
and females. The pale thoracic bands, and appearance of the terminalia forming 
beneath the derma of late penultimate males, gives hint that this series represents 
lucasi. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 311 

Remarks. Lucasi is one of the most distinct species of the genus and immediately 
recognized by its simple left paraproct and blunt left tergal process. The peculiar 
thoracic banding aids superficial recognition. 

The species is named after the celebrated collector who was the first to record 
observations of Embioptera in the field. 




~-LCB -t LPPT 
LP 



10 RP 
UN ALIA VENTRAL 



Fig. 17. Embia lucasi n. sp. Important characters of holotype. Explanation of symbols 

on page 279. 



CLEOMIA Stefani 
Cleomia Stefani, 19536 : 93. 

Type-species. Cleomia guareschii Stefani, 1953, by original designation. 

Distribution. Sardinia and Balearic Islands. 

Diagnosis. Males superficially indistinguishable from apterous males of Embia. Abdominal 
terminalia very distinct, as follows : left tergal process (10 LP) short, truncate Avith minute, 
acute, ventro-apical subprocess ; median flap (MF) sclerotic with apex narrowly-acute and 



312 



E. S. ROSS 



curved mesad ; epiproct sclerite (EP) large, broad basally and curved to right beneath MF ; 
left paraproct (LCB + LPPT) with caudal, setose, membranous lobe very large and its process 
short, acute and completely ventral ; most important, the basal segment of the left cercus is 
complex and multilobed, as figured. 




%,£ 



10 L 



10 LP 



MF 



10 R 



HEAD 




EPIPROCT SCLERITE 




LEFT TERGAL PROCESS 





TERMINALIA 




DORSAL 




H 




T HP ^m^^^ 




■'■■ RC B®fe^ fi^"*- arm 




' • :v : ^iS w' ' ; a^^ ^^j^m 


It 


Vj - ;-'-,'f1iitfm lcb -f lppt 








J 10 RP ' MF [ J 


»■■■■ 


J TERMINALIA 1 ■, j/ 

VENTRAL V-^WS 


' '' '.'T^C 



Fig. i8. Cleomia guareschi Stefani. Important characters of a male topoparatype. Ex- 
planation of symbols on page 279. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 313 

Nymphs and females not readily distinguished from those of Embia. 

Remarks. Only one species of this remarkable genus is known. It seems im- 
probable that it is confined to its recorded range and collectors should be alert to 
the possibility of finding it, or additional species of the genus in such places as Spain 
and North Africa. 

Cleomia guareschi Stefani 
(Text-fig. 18) 

Cleomia guareschi Stefani, I953& : 93. fi g- 4 ; ^S^ : 2I 3 [genitalia and copulation] ; 1953^ : 1 
[biol.] ; 1959c : 3 [record]. 

Holotype. Male, in alcohol, deposited in the Istituto di Zoologia, Universita di 
Cagliari, Sardinia. 

Type data. Southern Sardinia : S. Bartolomeo, Cagliari (R. Stefani). 

Additional records. Sardinia : Gesico (Stefani) ; Balearic Islands : Mallorca 
(Stefani, 1959c). 

Discussion. This species can be recognized by its generic characters and reference 
to Text-fig. 17. The adequate original description may be consulted for additional 
information. 

Family OLIGOTOMIDAE Enderlein 7 

OLIGOTOMIDAE Enderlein, 1909 : 190. 

Type genus. Oligotoma Westwood, 1837, by original monotypy. 

Distribution. Tropical and warm-temperate regions of Old World : EUROPE, 
Mediterranean region, ASIA, Indonesia, Papua, AUSTRALIA. Absent in 
Africa south of Atlas Mountains and New World, but often represented in such 
regions by artificially-spread species. 

The only natural occurrence of Oligotomidae within the regional scope of this 
paper is the peculiar genus Haploembia Verhoeff. An artificially-spread species of 
Oligotoma has been recorded from Israel, Egypt, and Libya. 

OLIGOTOMA Westwood 8 

Embia {Oligotoma) Westwood, 1837 : 373. 
Oligotoma Westwood ; Burmeister, 1839 : 770. 

Type-species. Embia (Oligotoma) saundersii Westwood, 1837, by original mono- 

typy- 

Distribution. Endemic to Indian subcontinent and possibly south-western Asia, 
but not south-eastern Asia. Several species have been widespread in commerce 
and are very abundant in the area of introduction. One of these species, nigra, 
is well established in the south-eastern Mediterranean region. 

7 Complete bibliography not included at this time. 

8 Synonymy complete. Citations incomplete. 



3*4 



E. S. ROSS 



Oligotoma nigra Hagen 9 
(Text-fig. 19) 

Embia nigra Hagen, 1866 : 221 [nom. nud.]. 

Oligotoma nigra (Hagen), 1885 : 174. 

Embia californica Banks, 1906 : 1 [Type : Male nymph, Los Angeles, California]. Davis, 

19406 : 364 [as syn. oLnigra], 
Oligotoma mesopotamim Esben-Petersen, 1929 : 8 [Type : Male, Baghdad, Iraq]. Davis, 

1940& : 364 [as syn. of nigra]. 

Lectotype (designated by Davis, 1940&). Male, deposited in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Type data. Egypt : Island of Rhoda, Cairo. 

Diagnosis. 0. nigra is the only species of Oligotoma recorded from the Mediterranean region. 
It thus can easily be distinguished by generic characters. The males always are alate, rather 
slender in form, dark brown, and wing vein MA is unbranched. Alate males of all other species 
of the order in the region here covered have this vein branched. The terminalia are very similar 
to those of Haploembia but are distinct in having a sclerotic, talon-like hook on the left paraproct. 
All stages of nigra are separable from those of Haploembia by the absence of a second hind 
basitarsal ventral papilla. The inexperienced worker will have difficulty, however, separating 




TERMINALIA 
HEAD DORSAL 

Fig. 19. Oligotoma nigra Hagen. Important characters of a male from Khartoum, 
Sudan. Explanations of symbols on page 279. 

9 Synonymy complete. Citations incomplete. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 315 

nymphs and adult females of nigra from those of Embia because of the similar number of basi- 
tarsal papillae. However, the only species of Embia known to be sympatric with nigra is 
savignyi Westwood, which has light brown to golden adult females in contrast to the uniformly 
blackish brown coloration of adult females of nigra. Nigra females also are smaller and more 
slender in body proportions. 

General distribution. Northern India westward through Pakistan, Afghanis- 
tan, Iran, Iraq, Arabia, and Israel to the Nile Valley ari Sudan. The most 
western record in the Mediterranean region is in Tripoli. A complex of related 
species, including nigra itself, occurs in northern India and this may be regarded as 
nigra's region of origin. From this centre the species must have spread westward 
in man's ancient and modern commerce. More recently the species has become 
established in south-western United States, north-western Mexico, and arid inland 
regions of eastern Australia. 

Mediterranean records. Egypt : Island of Rhoda, Cairo, (M.C.Z.) ; Heliopolis, 
1 pair, i.x.21 (H. St J. B. Philby) (B.M.N.H.) ; Libya: Tripoli, males at light 
(B.M.N.H.) ; Israel : Jericho, 5 males at light, 9 . ii and 9-1 1 . vii . 1929 (/. Tapukhi) 
(B.M.N.H.); Jericho, 1 male, 28. v. 18 (E. E. Austen) (B.M.N.H.); Near Jaffa, 
1 male, 2.ix.i8 (E. E. Austen) (B.M.N.H.). The collector must expect to encounter 
this species almost anywhere in North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean region. 

HAPLOEMBIA Verhoeff 10 

Embia (Haploembia) Verhoeff, 1904 : 201. 

Haploembia Verhoeff ; Enderlein, 1909 : 188. Davis, 1939 : 561. 

Dityle Friederichs, 1907 : 272 [type sp. : Embia solieri Rambur]. Davis, 1939 : 561 [as syn. of 

Haploembia] . 
Gynembia Ross, 1940 : 664 [type sp. : Gynembia tarsalis Ross]. Stefani, 1955 : 114 [as syn. of 

Haploembia'] . 

Type-species. Embia solieri Rambur, 1842, by original monotypy. 

Distribution. Mediterranean and Black Sea regions. Parthenogenetic form 

of type-species introduced into Canary Islands, Madeira, and S.W. United 
States. 

Diagnosis. Nymphs and adults distinct from all other Recent species occurring within geo- 
graphic scope of this paper in the possession of two instead of one hind basitarsal papillae. 
Males always apterous ; head gross, eyes small ; mandibles very elongate and tapered distad, 
apices extending well beyond labral margins, bases broad and often dorsally carinate ; sub- 
mentum broader than long, sclerotic, margins infiexed. Terminalia as in Oligotoma, with tenth 
hemitergites basally fused ; left process (10 LP) narrow, twisted ; right process (10 RP) acutely- 
triangulate ; epiproct (EP) large, fully exposed. Left paraproct (LPPT) fused to left side of 
hypandrium process (HP), thickened caudally but not developed as a distinct process. Left 
cercus-basipodite not forming a complete ring or mesally-lobed. Basal segment of left cercus 
enlarged but not developing a distinct lobe, surface devoid of echinulations. 

Females : Similar to most Embia females but paler, lacking sclerotization in genitalic region, 
and possessing a second hind basitarsal papilla. 

10 Synonymy complete, citations incomplete. 



316 



E. S. ROSS 



Remarks. Haploembia males show a high degree of neoteny, which must con- 
stitute an adaptation to the long summer dry season prevalent in its range, which is 
ecologically marginal for the order. One species, solieri, has been widely dispersed 
in man's Mediterranean commerce and it would be difficult to determine the region 
of origin for the species. The recent discovery of so striking a species as palaui 




HIND BASITARSUS 



TERMINALIA 

VENTRAL 



Fig. 20. Haploembia solieri (Rambur). Important characters of a male topotype. Ex- 
planation of symbols on page 279. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 317 

Stefani (1953) in the western Mediterranean region indicates a possibility that addi- 
tional species will be discovered as more remote regions of the circum -Mediterranean 
area are thoroughly collected. 

A number of unrelated species of the order from diverse regions of the world have 
been assigned to the genus but these have been removed and the well-defined concept 
is limited to the three species which can be identified by use of the following key : 

Key to Species of Haploembia (Males) 11 

1 Very large (body length greater than 15 mm.) ; prothorax and legs as dark as re- 

mainder of insect ........... 2 

- Smaller (body length less than 13 mm.); prothorax yellowish, paler than remainder 

of insect ............ solieri 

2 Mandibles with baso-lateral margins elevated, carina te; left paraproct with caudal 

lobe simple ............ palaui 

- Mandibles with baso-lateral margins not elevated ; lobe of left paraproct very large 

and bilobed .......... megacephala 

Haploembia solieri (Rambur) 
(Text-fig. 20) 

Embia solieri Rambur, 1842 : 313. Walker, 1853 : 531. Brauer and Loew, 1857 : 34. Hagen, 
1866 : 283. McLachlan, 1877 : 376. Girard, 1879 : 296. Lucas, 1880 : 97. Girard, 1881 : 
136. Lucas, 1882 : 185 ; 1883 : 26. Hagen, 1885 : 193. Grassi, 1889 : 6. Saussure, 1896 : 
340. Grassi and Sandias, 1897-98 : 39. Navas, 1900 : 8. Enderlein, 1903 : 430. Leger, 
1904 : 365. Rimsky-Korsakov, 1905 : 432. Jakobson-Bianki, 1905 : 501. Friederichs, 1906: 
218. Navas, 19C8 : 49. Kusnezov, 1910 : 223. Rimsky-Korsakov, 1910 : 153. 

Haploembia solieri (Rambur) ; Verhoeff, 1904 : 201. Enderlein, 1909 : 188. Krauss, 1911 : 50, 
figs. Rimsky-Korsakov, 1912a : 17 ; 19126 : 610. Enderlein, 1912 : 67, fig. 39. Schulze, 
1915:40. Navas, 1918:80 [Majorca record]. Friederichs, 1923:11; 1934:409. Tabor- 
sky, 1938:110. Davis, 1939a : 561, figs. 1-4. Delamare Debouteville, 1946:201, figs. 
Stefani, 19536 : 84 ; 1953c : 210 [copulation, genital organs], fig. 1 ; 1953a* : 7 [cannibalism] ; 
1954:121 [parthenogenesis]; 1955:110, fig. 1 [systematics] ; 19560:169 [parthenogenesis]; 
19566: 127 [parthenogenesis]. Michieli, 1956: 90. Ross, 1957 : 51, figs. [California]. Gilyarov, 
T 957 : 95- Michieli 1958:525. Stefani, 19590:622 [parthenogenesis]; 19596:1 [partheno- 
genesis] ; 1959c : 3 [key] ; 19590" : 105 [parasitism and parthenogenesis] ; 1960a : 87 [para- 
sitism] ; 19606 : no [records] ; 1960c : 277 [parasitism and parthenogenesis] ; 1961 : 36 
[systematics]. 

Embia (Dityle) solieri (Rambur) ; Friederichs, 1907 : 272. 

Embia taurica Kusnezov, 1903 : 208 [Type locality : Crimea] ; 1904 : 138. Redikorzew, 
1908 : 83 [eye]. 

Embia (Dityle) taurica Kusnezov ; Friederichs, 1907 : 271. 

Haploembia taurica (Kusnezov) ; Krauss, 1911 : 53. Enderlein, 1912 : 68, 102. Taborsky, 
1938 : 122. Davis, 1939a : 562. Stefani, 1953 : TI 3 [ as SVT1 - OI solieri]. 

Embia grassii Friederichs, 1906 : 227 [Type locality : Sicily, probably Catania, no desig. type]. 
Davis, 1939 : 561 [as syn. of solieri]. 

Dityle grassii (Friederichs), 1907 : 270. 

Embia (Dityle) grassii Friederichs ; Krauss, 191 1 : 51 [as syn. of solieri]. 

Embia (Haploembia) grassii Friederichs ; Stefani, 1955 : IT 4 C 35 svn - OI solieri]. 

11 H. solieri has a parthenogenetic form which cannot be keyed out at present. Its nymphs and 
females should be smaller and more pale, yellow-brown than those of palaui and megacephala. The 
latter is known only from its holotype. 



318 E. S. ROSS 

Haploembia grassii (Friederichs) ; Enderlein, 1912 : 69. Taborsky, 1938 : 113, figs. 

Embia cephalotes Navas, 1908 : 50 [Type locality : Spain : " Orihuela (Alicante)," types lost?]. 

Enderlein, 1912 : 67 [as syn. of solieri]. Navas, 1918 : 359 [as syn. of solieri]. Davis, 1939a : 

565 [as prob. syn. of Embia ramburi]. Stefani, 1955 : 118 [as prob. syn. of solieri]. 
Haploembia codinai Navas, 1922 : 126 [Type locality : Morocco : Ceuta, male in Barcelona 

Mus.]. Davis, 1939a : 565 [as syn. E. ramburi?]. Stefani, 1955 : 114 [as syn. of solieri]. 
Gynembia tarsalis Ross, 1940 : 664 [Type locality : Clayton, California, female in Calif. Acad 

Sci.]. 1944 : 496- Stefani, 1955 : 114 [as syn. of solieri]. Ross, 1957 : 56 [as syn. of solieri] _ 

Type. Juvenile specimen, sex undeterminable, deposited in the Institut Royal 
des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles. 

Type labels. France : " Marseille " (on gold card), " Embia Solieri Ramb," 
" Haploembia Solieri Ramb. Type $ det. Enderlein," " Coll. Selys," " Type " 
(red card). The first two labels appear to be in Rambur's hand ; the others were 
added later by other persons. 

Remarks. I have examined the above type specimen and found it to be a small 
nymph (sex undeterminable) lacking its head, prothorax and all appendages. There- 
fore, there is no basis for confirming or disputing its identity. However, the current 
use of the name is well established and the identification of the species may be con- 
sidered settled. 

We are indebted to Stefani (1955) for confirming the synonymy of taurica and 
grassi by reference to topotypic male specimens. Stefani also suppressed codinai 
of Ceuta, Morocco by examination of the holotype. The synonymy of cephalotes 
is not quite settled and will depend on an elucidation of the Embioptera fauna 
occurring at the type locality : Orihuela (Alicante), Spain. There remains the 
possibility that cephalotes is a synonym of palaui Stefani which is here reported 
from south-eastern Spain, or that it is a species of Embia. 

The name Gynembia tarsalis Ross was proposed at a time when the parthenogenetic 
form of solieri was as yet unknown in Europe. Although Gynembia is clearly a 
synonym of Haploembia, the species name tarsalis remains available if ever the 
parthenogenetic form is regarded as a subspecies of solieri, or a distinct species. 

The following brief description and associated figures are based on a male from 
Villefranche, near Nice, France. 

Male. Appearance : Apterous with large head and small terminalia, generally dark brown 
with yellow-brown prothorax and legs. Colour details (in alcohol) : Cranium dark chestnut- 
brown with faint pattern in the somewhat paler caudal region ; gula and margins of occiptial 
foramen golden brown. Eyes black, surrounded by narrow pale ring. Antennal segments I 
and II concolorous with cranium, all other segments tan with reddish brown apices. Anteclypeal 
membrane purple-white. Labrum dark chestnut-brown. Mandibles amber, dorso-basal flanges 
and dentation piceous ; submentum light chestnut-brown, other sclerotized mouthparts golden 
tan ; basal segments of labial palpi medium brown. Prothorax and its legs amber with rust-red 
mottling. Meso- and metathorax and abdomen dark reddish brown with slight metallic lustre, 
membranes dark purple ; meso- and metathoracic legs yellow-brown ; with hind femora medium 
brown. Abdominal terminalia and cerci medium brown with ferrugineous mottling. Dimen- 
sions : body length 11-5 mm. Important structural features as figured. 

General distribution. Old World : Coastal regions of Portugal, Canary Islands, 
Madeira, Spain, Morocco, southern France, Italy, islands of Tyrrhenian Sea, 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 319 

Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Crete, Bulgaria, southern Russia, Turkey, and 
Egypt. New World (by introduction) : California, Arizona, and Texas. 

It is probable that solieri is as yet unrecorded from other Mediterranean regions, 
such as North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean littoral. The species range 
must have been artificially extended in man's ancient and modern commerce and 
thus it may be difficult to determine its region of endemicity, or origin. 

New records. Portugal: Casores, 4.vi.4i, nymphs, (Wygodzinsky) (C.A.S.) ; 
Amadora (near Lisbon), 10.vi.49, 2 females (Luna de Carvalho) (C.A.S.) . Canary 
Islands, nymphs, (B. Malkin) (C.A.S.). Madeira: Norto Santo ii.63, nymphs, 
(R. W. J. Uffen) (C.A.S.). Egypt: Minshat el Ikwa, Aga, Daqahliya Prov., 
13.xi.53, nymph (H. Hoogstraal), deep in nest of Arvicanthus sp. (C.A.S.). Greece : 
Athens (Pascoe), adult $ (McLachlan Coll., B.M.N.H.). Italy : S. Basilia Mottola 
(Toronto), i.vi.09 (Andreini) (Genoa Mus.) ; Nicolosi, Mt Rossi, x.25 (Dudich) 
(Budapest Mus.). Crete : Resurgence D'Almuros, nr. Condia, adult $, under stone 
(K. Lindberg) ; Mt Ida, Antro Javis 1200-1500, adult $, (Biro) (Budapest Mus.) ; 
Ins. Dhia, 1906, 25. v. 29, adult <$ (Bird) (Budapest Mus.). Spain : Nr. Grazalema, 
2,500 ft., 29.vii.25, cork oak woods (W. M. Wheeler) (M.C.Z.). Turkey : adult <$ in 
plant quarantine at New York in cargo from Turkey (U.S.N.M.). 

Parthenogenetic form. Curiously, certain islands of the western Mediterranean 
Sea are populated by a form of Hapioembia which reproduces exclusively by partheno- 
genesis. To date no males have been found within its range and the females will 
not mate with males of solieri when the opportunity is artificially afforded in labora- 
tory cultures. Although consistent small coloration and structural differences 
exist (Stefani & Contini, 1961) between this parthenogenetic form and the usually 
bisexual form of solieri, which occurs elsewhere (" forma anfigonica " of Stefani), 
it is not regarded as specifically, or even racially, distinct from typical solieri. 

According to Stefani & Contini, the bisexual form, or typical solieri, has females 
with generally darker pigmentation of sclerites and membranes ; the micro-sculpture 
of the lower, longitudinal depression of the hypopharynx is finer ; the lacinia have 
distinct form and setation ; the egg has a shorter form with a thicker rim to the 
operculum. There also are differences in oviposition, maturation of eggs, chromo- 
somes, and resistance to parasitism by Diplocystis clerci. 

Stefani (1959, i960) noted that Diplocystis parasitism may cause male sterility and, 
inasmuch as there is a great range or percentage of rudimentary and accidental 
parthenogenesis in bisexual populations of solieri, parasitism gradually might foster 
reproduction of the species without the necessity of males. Such " accidental 
parthenogenesis " may become constant on islands where the genetic stock is more 
limited and cut off from the chances of repopulation of the region with bi-sexual 
stocks surviving in contiguous territory. 

Distribution of parthenogenetic form. Islands of Tyrrhenian Sea : Corsica, 
Sardinia, Elba, Giglio, Argentario, Capri. Atlantic islands : Canary Islands, 
Madeira. New World : California, Arizona, S.W. Texas. 

It is probable that the Mediterranean distribution of parthenogenetic solieri has 
been artificially increased by man. Certainly its occurrence on certain Atlantic 



320 E. S. ROSS 

islands and in the New World must have resulted from a spread in commerce. 
Formerly (1940, 1944), I considered the possibility that the New World distribution 
was relict, a remnant of a natural, ancient Holarctic distribution. I have since aban- 
doned this theory in favour of the idea that the species was carried in cargo and 
ballast of early Spanish sailing ships, which regularly stopped in the Canary Islands 
en route to colonies in the Americas. It is surprising, however, that the Mediter- 
ranean life zone of central Chile did not receive solieri by this means inasmuch as 
Valparaiso must have been a regular stopping point during voyages to California. 
Haploembi solieri has become the subject of much cytological research and the 
reader interested in this field should consult numerous works (not here cited) pub- 
lished by Dr. Renzo Stefani of Cagliari, Sardinia. 

Haploembia megacephala Krauss 

Haploembia megacephala Krauss, 191 1 : 53, figs. Enderlein, 1912 : ioi, fig. [after Krauss]. 
Davis, 1939a : 562, figs, [after Krauss]. Stefani, 1955 : 114, fig. 2 [redesc. type]. 

Holotype. Male, in alcohol, deposited in the Naturhistorische Museum, Vienna. 

Type labels. " Plason 72. Syrien." " Dictyoploca (Embia) megacephala Krauss 
Type! Syrien." I assume that " Plason 72 " in the first label represents the name of 
the collector and the year 1872. The second label is in Krauss' handwriting. 

The following is my redescription of this type : 

Appearance : Large, robust, apterous, with large head and small terminalia ; general colour 
medium brown with a pale band between each thoracic segment, head golden brown. Colour 
details (in alcohol) : 12 Cranium dorsally and ventrally golden brown with pattern obsolete 
Eyes black. Basal antennal segment pale straw-yellow, other segments cream-white to apex. 
Clypeo-labral membranes whitish ; labral sclerite golden brown ; mandibles concolorous with 
cranium at outer base, thence blending to straw-yellow, dentations reddish amber ; other 
mouthparts pale tan, submentum golden amber. Pronotum cream-white anterior to transverse 
sulcus, blending to rust-brown behind ; cervical sclerites cream-yellow ; prosternum rust-brown, 
all surrounding membranes cream-white. First acrotergite, adjacent membranes, and spina- 
sternum cream-white. Mesonotum rust-brown with faint, paler maculation ; postnotum, 
anterior margin of metanotum, and lateral membranes cream-white ; meso- and metathoracic 
pleurites and sternites rust-brown, their whitish surrounding membranes tinged with pale 
greyish lavender. All legs uniformly golden brown. Abdominal terga I through IX uniformly 
rust-brown, pleural membranes pale greyish lavender ; sternites golden tan ; left hemitergite 
and base of its process reddish brown, apex of process becoming pale amber ; right hemitergite 
rust-tan, inner margin reddish amber, caudal process straw-yellow ; hypandrium golden tan 
darker at sides ; dorsal lobe of left paraproct golden amber ; cerci entirely rust-tan. Dimensions 
(in alcohol) : body length (including head) 16-25 mm., head length (clypeal margin caudad) 
3-0 mm. 

Important structural features : Cranium very large in proportion to body, oval ; sides evenly 
arcuate and narrowly rounded behind ; anterior tentorial pits with sclerotic posterior carinae 
extended mesad and meeting to form a shallow V ; clypeus very short and slanted ventrad ; 
anterior margin curving laterad to tentorial pits lateral clypeal margins thus absent. Labrum 
laterally membranous, i.e., the sclerite not occupying full width of labrum as in palaui. Man- 
dibles exceptionally narrow and long (extending well beyond labral margin) ; apical tooth of 

12 One may expect that the colour tones are consistently pale due to long preservation in alcohol. 



EMBIOPTERA OF EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION 321 

each mandible large, subapical teeth reduced to a small rudiment on each mandible ; dorso- 
basal carina, so prominent in palaui, obsolete or absent. Submentum very large and broad ; 
sides evenly arcuate ; anterior margin broadly, evenly, inwardly arcuate ; outer-apical angles 
acute. Body, legs, and terminalia very similar to palaui except, as follows : left tergal process 
more irregular in shape, abruptly bent downward at base then sharply bent to the right, thence 
straight until apical twist to the left ; apical lobe of left process very large, elevated ; shaped 
like a grape seed, obscuring tip of left process ; left cercus very narrow at base, inner margin at 
first concave then gradually expanded to form a large, evenly-rounded, subapical lobe. 
Female. Unknown. 

Remarks. This species is known only from the unique type. It is most closely 
related to palaui Stefani, but differs in several characters, especially in its reduced 
mandibular carinae and in the much larger and bilobed dorsal lobe of the left para- 
proct. Davis, on the basis of Krauss' misleading illustration, erroneously regarded 
the left paraproct lobe as a development of the left tergal process which it overlaps. 

Haploembia palaui Stefani 

Haploembia palaui Stefani, 1955 : 116, fig. 3 ; 1959a : 622 [parthenogenesis] ; 1959& : 6 [partheno- 
genesis] ; 1959c: 3 [key]. 

Holotype. Male, in alcohol, deposited in the Instituto di Zoologia, Universita di 
Cagliari, Sardinia. 

Type data. " Palma de Mallorca (Baleari) leg. J. M. Palau." 

Remarks. Stefani has adequately described and figured this species. Its range 
may overlap that of solieri but palaui can readily be separated by its much larger 
size, its more uniformly dark coloration {solieri has the prothorax and legs pale), and 
its greatly elevated mandibular carinae. Actually, palaui is most closely related to 
megacephala, occurring at the opposite end of the Mediterranean Sea. Megacephala 
is distinguished by its reduced mandibular carinae and greater lobing of the left 
paraproct. 

Recorded distribution. Palma de Mallorca. Greek Archipelago : Ktenia (rock) 
east island of Nasso (O. Wettstein) (one J Vienna Mus.). 

The above records suggest that palaui had been carried about in man's Mediter- 
ranean commerce. A thorough embiid survey of the circum-Mediterranean region, 
especially of eastern regions, will be required to understand the palaui-megacephala 
complex. It is possible that differences between the two " species " have resulted 
from centuries of inbreeding of the progeny of a limited number of parents introduced 
on to a particular island or into a particular region. 

New Records : Spain : " La Canada (Almeria) vi.1942 Zarco " 2 males (Madrid 
Mus.) ; " Mazarron " (west of Cartagena in Murcia) 2 males (Madrid Mus.). 

The above records indicate that we may expect to find palaui in many other 
coastal regions of Spain and perhaps in North Africa as well. 

The two males from La Canada and one from Mazarron have more than half of 
the anterior portion of the cranium golden with golden streaks extending into the 
caudal brown area. The other specimen from Mazarron has a uniformly brown 



322 E. S. ROSS 

cranium. The Spanish specimens differ from my topotypic specimen of pcdaui in 
having much less pronounced carination or longitudinal elevation of the mandibles 
and there are consistent differences in the form of the cranium and submentum. 
When the palaui-megacephala complex is more adequately sampled and studied the 
importance of such variation will be better understood. For the present it is best to 
identify these Spanish specimens as pcdaui. 

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p. 222). 




A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 

TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



i. Masner, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. £5. 

2. Nixon, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 ; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. £6. 

3. Watson, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera) . Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. £4 4s. 

4. Sands, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- £3 5*- 

5. Ahmad, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156; 
475 Text figures. November, 1965. £2 i$s. 

6. Okada, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae & Drosophilidae. 
In press. 



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I 

F CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS 

A REVISION OF 

MYRSm&4 WATERSTON. I. 

(MENOPONIDAE : MALLOPHAGA) 



T. CLAY 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 8 

LONDON: 1966 



r# 



CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS A REVISION O] 

MYRSIDEA WATERSTON. I. 

(MENOPONIDAE : MALLOPHAGA) 



2 4 JAN 1961 



BY 

T. CLAY 



British Museum (Natural History) 



Pp. 327-395 ; 2 Plates, 78 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 8 

LONDON: 1966 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 17, No. 8 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1 966 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 3 January, 1966 Price £1 10s. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS A REVISION OF 

MYRSIDEA WATERSTON 

(MENOPONIDAE : MALLOPHAGA) I. 

By T. CLAY 



CONTENTS 

Introduction ....... 

Characters of taxonomic importance . 

Variation ....... 

The Species, Subspecies and Local Population 
Myrsidea from the Turdinae .... 

Taxonomic Characters of the Turdinae-infesting Species 

Measurements ...... 

Key to Species-groups ..... 

Notes ......... 

i. Types of species described by Ansari, 1956 

2. Myrsidea J 'us comarginata (Osborn) . 

3. Genera described by Zlotorzycka, 1964 . 
Acknowledgments ...... 

host-parasite list ...... 

References ....... 

Tables I-VIII 



Page 

329 
334 
334 
335 
337 
338 
340 
340 
385 
385 
387 
388 

389 
385 
39o 
39i 



SYNOPSIS 

In this part the genus Myrsidea as a whole and the characters of taxonomic importance for 
the separation of species and species groups are discussed. Previous attempts to subdivide the 
genus are considered. The species parasitic on the avian subfamily Turdinae are revised, fifteen 
known species being re-described and five new species described. There is a key to the species 
groups and a list of hosts and parasites. 



INTRODUCTION 

Myrsidea comprises a large number of species parasitic on the Passeriformes, Ram- 
phastidae, Capitonidae and Trogonidae. Although the species are diverse and show 
many distinguishing characters, this genus has suffered as badly as any of the genera 
of Mallophaga from inadequate descriptions so that many of the species, even those 
in recent publications, are unrecognizable. For this reason it is impossible to revise 
the known species or to describe new ones without examining the types. I have been 
fortunate through the kind assistance of many individuals and institutions in being 
able to see the majority of types still in existence and specimens from the type hosts 
of many of the species of which the types are lost or never existed. 



ENTOM. 17, 8 



M 



33° 



T. CLAY 



MYRSIDEA Waterston, 1915 

Myrsidea Waterston, 191 5 : 12. Type-species : M. victrix Waterston. 

Acolpocephalum Ewing, 1927 : 88. Type-species : A. brevipes Ewing. 

Australmenopon Conci, 1942 : 30. Type-species : Menopon cinerea Thompson, syn. n 

Allomyrsidea Conci, 1942 : 31. Type-species : Myrsidea struthidea Thompson. 

Corvomenopon Conci, 1942 : 31. Type-species : Menopon robsoni Cummings. 

Ramphasticola Carriker, 1949 : 305. Type-species : R. hirsuta Carriker. 

Alcediniphilus Ansari, 1951 : 189 (s.g.). Type species : Myrsidea (Alcediniphilus) kuluensis 

Ansari. syn. n. 
Myrsidella Eichler, 1951 : 49. Type-species : Myrsidea consimilis (Piaget), sens. Eichler. 
Densidea Zlotorzycka, 1964 : 171. Type-species: Myrsidea rustica (Giebel). syn. n. 
Vulgidea Zlotorzycka, 1964: 172. Type-species: Myrsidea cucullaris (Nitzsch). syn. n. 

Type-species : L. proterva Zlotorzycka. syn. n. 

177. Type-species : L. abhorrens Zlotorzycka. syn. n. 

179. Type-species : E. celeripes Zlotorzycka. syn. n. 
: 182. Type-species : N. usitata Zlotorzycka. syn. n. 

Menoponidae without notch or slit in the dorso-lateral margins of the head ; without sclerotized 
processes (" oral spines ") arising near base of maxillary palpi ; head sensilli 3-5 (Clay, 1961 : 575) 
apparently absent ; outer mid-dorsal head setae and posterior dorsal setae (e) absent (Clay, 1962, 
fig. 4. d.e.) ; gular plate characteristic (Text-fig. 1). Pronotum without the two dorsal setae 
lying on or near the transverse carina (Clay, 1962, fig. 4, dps. 1 and 2) ; posterior margin of 
pronotum with six or more long setae ; prosternal plate well developed with two anterior setae. 
Mesothorax with notum, pleura and sternum fused to form a strongly sclerotized ring round the 
body (PI. I, fig. 6) ; mesonotum well defined with only two anterior setae (Clay, 1961 : 573, fig. 
3 and Text-fig. 3, a.) ; mesosterum heavily sclerotized, with 2 + 2 setae. Femur III without 
combs of spine-like setae but with thick or sparse brushes of setae. 

Other characters which may prove of generic value are the greater length and 
thickness of the posterior pair of gular setae compared to the rest; the small size of 



Liquidea Zlotorzycka, 1964 : 173. 
Lanimenopon Zlotorzycka, 1964 : 
Eichlerinopon Zlotorzycka, 1964 : 
Neomyrsidella Zlotorzycka, 1964 




Fig. 1. Myrsidea thoracica. $ head and prosternal plate, f, first seta and 1, last seta of latero- 
ventral head fringe ; P, dorsal pair of setae on last segment of maxillary palp. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 331 

the outer occipital setae compared to the long stout inner pair and the empodium 
(Keler, 1952 : 575, fig. 3). This last structure, found on tibia II and III is fan- 
shaped (Text-fig. 8). It is possible that the form of the empodium may form a 
generic character in the Menoponidae ; unfortunately it is a delicate structure and is 
usually shrivelled in mounted specimens. The euplantula (Keler, 1952 : 576, fig. 6) 
found on the first tarsal segment with two hyaline spine-like setae is similar to that 
figured by Keler and probably shows little difference throughout the Menoponidae. 
While the aster of spine-like setae or group of long setae at each postero-lateral corner 
of sternite II is found in most species this may be entirely absent, being replaced by 
evenly spaced stout setae on the posterior margin as in some species of Menacanthus, 
for instance. Myrsidea is a most distinctive genus, the strongly sclerotized ring-like 
mesothorax and the presence of only two anterior mesothoracic setae being unusual 
characters in the Menoponidae ; these two features together with the characters of 
the lateral margin and setae of the head separate it from all other genera. Until 
more is known about which of the characters of this genus are likely to be of phylo- 
genetic importance it is perhaps wiser not to postulate its possible affinities. 

In the majority of species the females show some modifications of the abdominal 
terga and less commonly of the meso- or metanotum ; these range from slight 
convexity of the posterior margin of two or three of the anterior tergites of the 
abdomen as in M. incerta (Text-fig. 30) to the extreme cases as in M. buxtoni Water- 
ston in which tergite I is absent and II reduced to a small sclerite each side of the body. 
Thus, in some groups the females are markedly different, while the males can only be 
separated with difficulty or not at all. There is no obvious explanation why Myrsidea 
should have this tendency in the female to modification of the metanotum and 
abdominal terga, unknown to this extent anywhere else among the Menoponidae. It 
would seem to have little functional advantage as far as the environment is con- 
cerned as the two sexes are found on the same feathers and species in which the 
females have the abdomen little or greatly modified may be found on the same host 
(M. obovata (Piaget) and M. sjoestedti (Kellogg) on Corvusalbus). It might however 
prevent cross breeding between closely related forms in a genus in which secondary 
infestations may have been common, and thus prevent wasteful hybridization (Clay, 
1949 : 290). 

These modifications of the female abdomen appear to be of little phylogenetic 
importance (Clay & Hopkins, i960 : 48) and other characters must be found by which 
related species can be grouped. As discussed elsewhere (Clay, 1962 : 194 and 1951 : 
173) it seems reasonable to consider the characters common to populations from 
related hosts as ones of possible phylogenetic value, especially if these are characters 
which do not appear to be directly adaptive to the environment. Species of Myrsidea 
grouped together on the characters of the male genital sclerite are frequently found to 
be parasitic on a group of related hosts. For instance, all the species from the 
Hirundinidae have a characteristic sclerite (PI. I, fig. 2) and also resemble each 
other in the shape of the head, the division of the mesonotum and the presence of two 
long, one medium and one short setae on pleurite VIII. However, in the female these 
characters are not always sufficient to distinguish the species from those occurring on 



332 



T. CLAY 



other host families. Many of the species on the Corvidae have a characteristic male 
genital sclerite (PI. I, fig. 3) and this is frequently associated in both sexes with eight 
or more setae on the posterior pronotal margin, with at least one long seta on the 
metapleurite, with two long and one short setae on pleurite VIII and at least one long 
seta on pleurite VII. Some species from the Corvidae with the typical genital 
sclerite do not have the other characters so that females may not be identifiable as 
belonging to the group. Males from the Laniidae have the genital sclerite and the 
eight or more long pronotal marginal setae as in the species parasitic on some of the 
Corvidae. Examples of other groups identifiable by the male sclerite are the thoracica 
group (see below) and the species from the Icteridae. Thus, while most species are 
more easily identified in the females, the males may show the characters necessary for 
phylogenetic grouping. Males and females of a species may have few characters in 
common and only one sex may be identifiable, it is therefore unsatisfactory to des- 
cribe new species based on only one sex. 

Attempts have been made to subdivide the genus : Acolpocephalum was erected 
for a nymph of Myrsidea. Australmenopon was erroneously placed in Austro- 
menopon by Hopkins & Clay (1952 : 44) who had seen only the original descriptions 
and figures of Menopon cinerea ; however a single male of this or a similar species 
from Corcorax shows that it has the characters of Myrsidea listed above and can be 
included in that genus. Allomyrsidea was based on the original description of M. 
struthidea, the male genitalia of which are unlike any other, but this character alone is 
rarely useful for generic separation. Corvomenopon was based on the female of a 
single species, M. robsoni, the characters used for separation being the modifications 
of the thorax and the dorsal chaetotaxy. However, as already shown these secondary 
sexual characters are not satisfactory for generic separation and result in genera in 
which the males are not generically identifiable. Myrsidella was based on a single 
female from Corvus comix identified by Eichler as M. consimilis (Piaget), but which 
from the figure of part of sternite II was probably M. isostoma (Nitzsch) from Corvus 
frugilegus. This species has a group of elongated setae instead of a typical aster of 





Figs. 2-4. z.M.dbi&ae. <£ antenna, m, the two mushroom-like sensillae. 3. M. carrikeri. 
$ pronotum. a, minute anterior mesothoracic setae. 4. M. sultanpurensis . 9 meta- 
sternal plate and sternite I. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



333 



spine-like setae at each postero-lateral corner of sternite II ; otherwise it has the 
characters typical of the corvine-infesting Myrsidea and there seems to be no ad- 
vantage in separating it generically. Ramphasticola Carriker was erected for a group 
of species from the Ramphastidae in which the mesothorax of the females is greatly 
enlarged ; in the males it is normal ; the chaetotaxy of sternite II and the female 
mesothorax are similar to some of the species from the Corvidae. This is another 
group based on the secondary sexual characters of the females and its generic recog- 
nition seems unnecessary. It is difficult to know what to say about the erection of 
six new genera for species of European Myrsidea (see Zlotorzycka, 1964) except it is 
unfortunate that the author published these when knowing so little about the 
characters of so few species of the genus and having so few specimens, the hosts of 
which in some cases are obviously incorrect (see note p. 388). 




7 

Figs. 5-8. M. thoracica. 5-7. <$ legs. 5. First, ventral. A, part of anterior margin of 
femur, dorsal ; d, first outer dorso-lateral tibial seta ; v, second outer ventro-lateral 
tibial seta ; t, postero-ventral tibial seta. 6. Second and 7. third leg, ventral, tarsus 
omitted. 8. Empodium of third leg of nymph from Turdus merula. 



334 T. CLAY 

CHARACTERS OF TAXONOMIC IMPORTANCE 

The following characters have been found useful in separating species : i. Shape of 
head ; this is liable to distortion in mounting, especially the shape of the anterior 
margin. 2. Degree of reduction of hypopharynx. 3. Head setae : number in 
latero-ventral fringe and on temples ; length of labial seta 5 (Text-fig. 1) ; ratio of 
length of seta 10 to 11* ; number of gular setae*. 4. Shape of prosternal plate. 
5. Number of long setae on posterior margin of the pronotum. 6. Presence or 
absence of a median division in the mesonotum. 7. Length and number of meta- 
pleural setae*. 8. Shape of metasternal plate and the number of metasternal setae*. 
9. Number of outer lateral ventral and dorsal* setae of first tibia (Text-fig. 5). 10. 
Number of setae in femoral brush*. 11. Length* and thickness* of post-spiracular 
setae. 12. Number and length of metanotal and abdominal tergo-central setae, 
especially those of VII- VIII*, and of pleurite VIII*. 13. Presence or absence of 
setae on sternite I. 14. Form of sternite II and thickness, number* and lengths* of 
the setae at the postero-lateral corners. 15. Presence or absence of anterior setae on 
pleurites and centrally on tergites and on sternites III-VII ($) and III-VIII (<£). 
16. Form of thorax and abdominal terga in female. 17. Form of spermatheca and 
sculpturing of genital chamber. 18. Number* and form of setae on vulval margin 
and in anal fringe. 19. Number of internal anal setae of male. 20. The male 
genitalia : these may differ in the shape of the endomeral plate and parameres, but 
both these structures are constant in large groups of species and the most useful 
character, as already emphasised (Clay & Hopkins, i960 : 50), is the form of the 
sclerite in the genital sac. 

These characters are the minimum which should be given in the description of new 
species ; there are probably others which may prove useful and in addi+ion there are 
the more obvious ones found in the occasional species such as groups 01 setae in 
unusual positions, as on the thoracic nota of M . robsoni or the presence of irregular 
pigmented patches between some of the tergites in M. ishizawai. 

VARIATION 

Many of the characters listed above (marked with *) show variation and cannot be 
used alone to distinguish species, if only a few specimens are available. As in other 
species of Menoponidae, size and range of the number of setae may be constant for a 
number of specimens, with the occasional one being quite atypical : in species of 
Myrsidea for instance, where the number of tergo-central setae of VII or VIII is 
usually 2 + 2, one specimen may have 2 + 4, or where the total number is 7 or more, 
one specimen may have 2 + 2 ; this makes identication of some of the males difficult. 
The three anterior spine-like setae usually found each side of the pronotum show 
variation in length in the Myrsidea species from the Turdinae : for example the most 
posterior of these varies in the male from 0-024-0-032 mm. (thoracica), 0-018-0-024 
(incerta), 0-024-0-040 (carrikeri) 0-036-0-050 (antiqua), 0-040-0-052 (elegans) and in 

* These numbers and measurements may show some variation, so that differences must be outside the 
range of variation of the species being compared. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



335 



the female : 0-024-0-032 (incerta), 0-028-0-048 {simplex) ; in one female of simplex this 
seta on one side measures 0-028 and on the other 0-036 mm. The lengths of the setae 
in the aster, which have been used for generic separation (see p. 389, for rustica) also 
show variation : in females of thoracica from Turdus merula 39 inner setae of the 
aster vary from 0-048-0-080, mean 0-059, S.D. = 0-0086 mm. and in the male 18 
vary from 0-048-0-060, mean 0-056, S.D. = 0-0042 mm. (see also below p. 346 under 
measurements). Although in some species the lengths of these setae may be of 
specific value, small differences based on few specimens cannot be used for specific 
separation. Other examples of variation are given in the descriptions of the species. 

THE SPECIES, SUBSPECIES AND LOCAL POPULATION 

These categories have been discussed elsewhere, in the Philopteridae (Clay, 1958 : 
132) and in the Menoponidae (Clay, 1962 : 197), but recent publications (Carriker, 
1963 : 293 and Zlotorzycka, 1964 : 167-168) suggest that certain points need re- 
emphasis. The Mallophaga, being obligate parasites which normally do not leave 
the host except to pass to another of the same species during its breeding period, have 





Figs. 9-16. Setae of pleurite VIII of $ Myrsidea species. 9. incerta. 10. devastator. 
11. indigenella. 12. regius. 13. rohi. 14. varia. 15. carrikeri. 16. antiqua. i, inner 
seta, next to sternite ; o, outer seta. 



336 



T. CLAY 



naturally formed a number of isolated populations. This has encouraged a super- 
ficial taxonomy in which populations from different hosts have been automatically 
named as distinct taxa on character differences which are variable or non-existent. 
Some of these may prove to be valid taxa but are quite unrecognizable on the pub- 
lished data. When a taxon is recognized on slight differences in absolute measure- 
ments, shape of head or abdomen or number of setae based on a single specimen this 
need not be taken seriously, but there are populations which can be shown to differ 
statistically by even the crudest methods. To quote Mayr (1951 : 93) : " In the past, 
certain authors have tried to name every population [of birds] that differs in average 
characters. That this policy is nonsense has been made clear by the population 
geneticists who have shown that no two populations of sexually reproducing animals 
are exactly alike in the frequencies of polymorph genes and the means of multi- 



17 




18 






Figs. 17-22. 17-19. Setae of pleurite VIII of § Myrsidea species. 17. elegans. 18. 
ishizawai. 19. sultanpurensis . 20-22. Myrsidea regins. $, Last tergum to show varia- 
tion in chaetotaxy. p, inner posterior seta. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 337 

factorial characters." An example may be taken from the insects : Hinton (1940) 
showed that in some species of Elmidae (Coleoptera) mean size of certain structures 
differed in populations from different altitudes ; differences in mean size in populations 
from different hosts is of course common throughout the Mallophaga (Clay, 1962 : 
198). At present it is not possible to say whether the differences are genetic or 
environmental as discussed by Hinton for the Elmidae (1940 : 220), but it is certain 
that the systematics of the group will not be clarified by giving names to all such 
populations. Detailed quantitative analysis as shown in Kim, Brown & Cook 
(1962 : 134) suggest that it may be possible to identify most individuals of such 
populations but this must be based on large series from a number of different hosts 
and all the material must be subjected to the same treatment: Kim et al. (1963 : 144) 
showed that there were differences between populations of lice from different host 
animals of the same species, location and sex and as a result state : "a large number 
of specimens from one or two host animals will not furnish a firm foundation for 
inference concerning ectoparasite population differences ". The results of such 
detailed analysis are of the greatest interest in the study of evolution and host- 
parasite relationships, but do not warrant the proliferation of names which would 
result from recognizing taxonomically such populations. It is therefore again strongly 
recommended when populations differ only in the mean of numbers of setae or 
measurements or in proportions of certain structures, especially when these follow 
the character gradients correlated with the size of the host (Clay, 1962 : 200), that they 
should be included in one taxon, the name of which is followed by sensu lato to 
indicate that it contains one or more local populations. 



MYRSIDEA FROM THE TURDINAE 

Specimens of Myrsidea have been seen from the following genera of Turdinae (as 
in Mayr & Paynter, 1964) : Stizorhina (one species), Cercomela (C. sordida formerly 
Pinarochroa) , Myrmecocichla (one species), Myiophoneus (one species), Zoothera (five 
species) Catharus (six species) and Turdus (17 species). If the species of Mallophaga 
are grouped according to the form of the male genital sclerite (see above) , then those 
from Stizhorhina fraseri, Turdus, Catharus and Zoothera gurneyi form one group ; 
those from Zoothera dauma and Myiophoneus caeruleus another, females only are 
known from Zoothera monticola, marginata and mollisima ; the species from Cercomela 
sordida and Myrmecocichla formicivora differ from each other and from the previous 
groups in the character of the male sclerite. The specimens from these last two hosts, 
from Turdus albicollis and the females from the three species of Zoothera (see above) 
are inadequate for description. 

Species of Myrsidea are known from only a small proportion of the species of the 
Turdinae and as there is difficulty in assessing affinities in this genus and as the possi- 
bility must be accepted that there is some geographical as well as host distribution 
(Clay, 1964), it is probably wiser not to attempt any deductions of host relationships. 
One point of interest is that there are only two species of Myrsidea on seven species of 
Old World Turdus (see p. 385), six of these being parasitized by one species, while in 



338 T. CLAY 

the New World six species of Catharus have five species of Myrsidea and eight species 
oiTurdus have 10, two of the host species (T.fumigatus and T. grayi) being parasitized 
by different species in different parts of their range. It is difficult to explain the 
presence of M. antiqua on Turdus fumigatus in Trinidad. 



TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS OF THE TURDIN AE-INFESTING SPECIES 

The characters listed below have been found in all the species of Myrsidea from the 
Turdinae examined and will not be repeated in the descriptions of the species and 
species group. These characters are not of course restricted to the species parasitic 
on this group of birds, but may be found throughout the genus. 

i. Antenna as in Text-fig. 2 ; the two mushroom-like sensillae (m.) are close 
together near the posterior end of the anterior margin (the position of these may 
prove to be of taxonomic value in the Menoponidae) . The antennal segments, 
especially the last, are liable to distortion in mounted specimens and the differences 
used in the key by Ansari (1956 : 164) are caused by this. Maxillary palp with the 
pair of setae on the dorsal surface of the last segment as in Text-fig. 1, P. The 
relative lengths and form of these two setae may be of taxonomic value in some 
genera (see Numidicola). 



jrlWW 



m 



'until' ""n 1 tut* 
Ilium ,mm" '" ri Mf , 



/T'ffr. Mm'"''"""" ,ffi '"""' '""'"' """" 








tags 

m 



rrrrrii' 

'fiifiinn 

Ulti 1 1 1 1 . . . ... 



"mm i|f , '""""" ii'» r ifin 



•iinri'' "iiiiminii 



'iiirn" " 'p, 

"tin. "iMliltl 

'""firm "" " 

"•IMMFI Iiihi J\-S 

23 24 

Figs. 23-24. Comb-like projections from surface of genital chamber. 23. Myrsidea antiqua. 

24. M. abidae. 

2. Thorax as in Text-figs. 3, 27. Pronotum with three anterior lateral spine- 
like setae each side showing individual variation in length (see above under Variation, 
P- 334) I posterior margin with 6 or 8 long stout setae. Mesonotum undivided. 
Posterior margin of metanotum with one long stout seta each end (not included in 
setal counts) and a varying number of central setae. Each metapleurite with 2-7 
short to medium spine-like setae, never with one or more long stout setae. First 
tibia with 3 outer ventro-lateral setae (Text-fig. 5, v), a varying number of outer 
dorso-lateral setae (Text-fig. 5, d) and with the postero- ventral tibial seta long (Text- 
fig. 5, t). 

3. Tergite I has a small anterior seta each side not included in the setal counts. 
On tergites II-VIII there is a seta (the associated post-spiracular seta) which is 



REVISION OFMyi?S/D£^ 339 

usually spine-like and shorter than any other of the tergal setae and lies near the post- 
spiracular seta anterior to the line of the tergocentral setae. On tergite I there may 
or may not be (in the same species and on different sides of one specimen) a lateral 
seta differentiated from the rest of the marginal setae in size and position ; therefore 
in the counts of the tergocentral setae of I all the marginal setae except the post- 
spiracular are included, but in those of II-VIII the seta associated with the post- 
spiracular seta each side is not. The last apparent tergum (IX-XI), referred to as IX, 
has in both sexes one short fine seta and one long stout seta each side and 1 + 1*, 
occasionally 1 + 2, inner posterior setae of varying lengths (Text-fig. 20, p). 

4. Sternite II always has two short lateral anterior setae (Text-fig. 26, a) each side, 
usually close together but occasionally separated ; these are not included in the 
counts of the anterior setae. Sternite II has a well marked aster of stout spine-like 
setae each side, the number of setae varying from 2-6. In most species the range is 
3-5 as in thoracica females from Turdus merula, in which 52 asters have a mean of 
3-98 spines ; in sultanpurensis females there are rather more, range : 4-6, mean (18) 
5-5. Sternites III-VII have a line of marginal setae and none to many anterior 
lateral setae, which on some segments form a definite brush. The marginal setae of 
the brush may be distinguished from the central setae by being more spine-like and 
sometimes separated by a definite gap. In other cases the marginal line of setae may 
be continuous and the differences between the setae so slight that the division is a 
matter of opinion. For this reason in the Tables 1 1 1- VI, " Marginal Setae " include 
all the setae along the posterior margin of the sternite and " Lateral Anterior Setae " 
include the rest of the setae in the brush. In examples of setal number and arrange- 
ments given in the text the following formula is used : a -{- m (a) + c + a + m (a) , 
where (a) denotes the anterior setae in the brush, (m) the marginal setae of the brush 
and (c) the central sternal setae. In the female there is a single plate from the anterior 
margin of VII to the edge of the vulva, with the line of setae of VII clearly visible, 
the rest of the setae between these and the vulval setae are given as a single count 
under VIII-IX ; sternites III, IV or V to VI and the anterior margin of VII may be 
strongly arched giving a characteristic appearance to the abdomen ; there is a long 
stout seta each side of the anal sclerite ; ventral anal fringe with short seta centrally 
(Text-fig. 26). Comb-like projections of the inner surface of the genital chamber as 
in Text-fig. 24, with the exception of one species (M. antiqua, Text-fig. 23). In the 
male there is a single plate from sternite VIII to the end, with the line of setae of VIII 
clearly visible ; the setae on the plate below this are given as a single count ; posterior 
to the plate there is a long stout seta each side and the posterior margin of the abdo- 
men has three or four terminal setae and 8-10 minute setae along the internal 
opening of the anus. 

5. Pleural setae of I-VII show considerable intraspecific variation in number and 
length ; those of I— II at least, being short and spine-like ; pleurite VIII normally 
with three setae, but some specimens may have four on one or both sides. When 
there are three, the central one is always long and stout and the inner is usually 
longer than the outer (Text-fig. 9) although in some species the ranges of the two 

* X + X setae throughout the paper denotes the setae on the two sides of the body. 



340 T. CLAY 

overlap (e.g. regius) ; there is some intraspecific variation in the lengths of these two 
setae but the differences between some species are constant both in absolute length 
and in the ratio between the lengths of the outer and inner setae ; in the available 
material of some species only one or two setae are measurable and although little can 
be based on this, the measurements are included in Tables VII and VIII. 

MEASUREMENTS 

These are included as an assistance to identification, not as an intrinsic character 
of the species, as no detailed statistical analyses have been made. Such analyses are 
not possible in most cases owing to the paucity of material and are not necessary at 
this stage of the taxonomy of the genus in view of the conviction that populations 
which are only separable statistically should not be recognized as discrete taxa. 

All measurements are given in millimetres and the number of structures measured 
in brackets. Total length : anterior margin of head to end of last tergum (mid-line), 
omitting anal fringe in female. Length of abdomen : anterior margin of tergite I 
to end of last tergum. The frequent distortion in mounted Menoponidae makes the 
measurements of metathoracic and abdominal width useless as the metapleurite and 
pleurites may or may not be included, therefore the metanotum and tergum V have 
been measured. Phase contrast has been used in the measurement of setae which 
enables the fine tips to be seen. The spine-like setae of the asters of sternite II may 
have these fine tips broken off, making a difference in measurements in the region of 
o-oo8 mm. 

Note : — - In the Text-figures, setae shown by dotted lines were broken or missing in 
the specimen drawn and have been taken from the other side or from another speci- 
men. Text-figs. 25-40 and 42-47 are drawn to the same scale. 

Key to Species Groups 

1 Hypopharynx reduced ; sternite I with setae . . . sultanpurensis (p. 382) 

- Hypopharynx fully developed ; sternite I without setae ..... 2 

2 Number of outer dorsolateral setae of first tibia over 14; post-spiracular seta III 

long; $ genital sclerite as in Text-fig. 72 .... ishizawai (p. 378) 

- Number of outer dorsolateral setae of first tibia under 10; post-spiracular seta III 

markedly shorter than II ; 5* genital sclerite otherwise ..... 3 

3 Long setae on posterior margin of pronotum normally 4 + 4; $ tergite I with median 

anterior emargination ........ carrikeri (p. 369) 

- Long setae on posterior margin of pronotum normally 3 + 3 ; ? tergite I without 

median anterior emargination ...... thoracica (p. 340) 

The THORACICA Species Group 

1 . Number and position of head setae as in Text-fig. 1 ; there is individual variation in the 
lengths of setae 10 and II, but the small number of setae measured show that in the majority of 
species 10 is a little under or over half to two-thirds the length of 1 1 (ratio 10/1 1 : 0-47-0-77) . In 
M. emersoni sp. n., 10 is relatively longer (10/11 : 0-80-0-94) an d m simplex shorter (10/11 : 
0-38-0-42). These setae were not measured in M. rohi, -destructor, indigenella and varia. The 
shape of the head is similar in thoracica, emersoni, keniensis, devastator, indigenella, regius, varia 
and montana (PI. II, fig. 7 ; Text-fig. 1) ; similar in incerta, pricei, simplex and destructor (PI. II, 
fig. 5) ; abidae as in PL II, fig. 4 ; rohi as PL II, fig. 6. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



34i 



2. Gular setae 3-7 each side showing variation both between individuals and on the two sides 
of the head ; total setae average 9-12. 

3. Hypopharynx fully developed. 




Fig. 25. Myrsidea thoracica. $ dorsal. 



342 T. CLAY 

4. Pronotum normally with 3 + 3 long posterior marginal setae, occasional specimens with 
2 + 4 or 3 + 1. 

5. Metasternal plate normally with 3-4 setae each side, occasionally 2 or 5 on one side. 

6. First tibia with under 10 outer dorso-lateral setae (Text-fig. 5, d). 

7. Post-spiracular setae III, V, VI considerably shorter and finer than II. 

8. Sternite I without setae. 

9. Male internal opening of anus with 8 minute setae. 

10. Spermatheca pear-shaped or spherical with thickened rim (PI. I, fig. 4). In thoracica 
(from T urcius merula) it is joined to the genital chamber by a long hyaline tube with a terminal 
sclerotized portion (PI. I, fig. 5). 

11. Male genitalia with form of endomeral plate and parameres constant (PI. I, fig. 1) ; 
apparent differences in shape of parameres probably due to distortion during preparation of the 
specimen. Male genital sclerite characteristic with a broad flattened plate tapering to a rounded, 
flattened, or bulbous end. The terminal part of the sclerite is divided into two by a lateral arm 
each side, the posterior section varying considerably in length in different species. In mounted 
specimens the arms are found in all positions and it is not possible to say what is their true size 
and shape ; the shape as shown in the figures is of no significance and cannot be used for specific 
determination. 

Myrsidea thoracica (Giebel, 1874) 
(PI. I, figs. 1, 5, 6 ; Text-figs. 1, 5-8, 25-27, 64) 

Type host : Turdus v. viscivorus Linn. 

Menopon thoracicum Giebel, 1874 : 287. Host : Turdus viscivorus. 

This species, the first Myrsidea to be described from one of the Turdinae, resembles 
incerta and emersoni in the female in having tergum I unmodified, but differs in the 
form of tergum II (Text-fig. 25). The male is distinguished by the details of the 
abdominal chaetotaxy and genital sclerite (Text-fig. 64). 

0. and (J (from Turdus viscivorus). Setae of latero-ventral fringe : 11 -12. Range of central 
marginal setae of metanotum : $, 8-10, mean (5) 8-8 ; <J, 6-9, mean (7) 7-4. Outer dorsal setae 
of first tibia : $, 5-7, mean (10) 6-i ; <J, 5-7, mean (14) 60. Setae of femoral brush : $, 17-24, 
mean (10) 20-6 ; o*, 13-22, mean (14) 17-2. Female abdominal sternites not markedly arched 
(Text-fig. 26). 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. In the female, post-spiracular seta VII is shorter and finer than VIII. 
There is some individual variation in the lengths of the post-spiracular setae III and V-VII ; 
Text-fig. 25 was drawn from a female in which these setae are unusually short. Range of the 
lengths (in mm.) of six of these setae in $ : III, 0-20-0-27 ; V, 0-16-0-20 ; VI, 0-16-0-23 '. VII, 
0-24-0-31 . Tergocentral setae : $, Text-fig. 25 and Table I ; the outer tergocentral setae on VIII 
are usually approximately the same length as the inner, in one female out of four this seta on one 
side is appreciably shorter, being about two-thirds the length of the inner. £ setae Table II. 
Sternal setae : $ (Text-fig. 26), II, 7-1 1 anterior, mean (5) 8-6 ; 15-18 marginal, mean 16-8 ; 
III-IX, Tables III-IV. <$ (Text-fig. 27), II, 5-8 anterior, mean (7) 6-3 ; 10-14 marginal, mean 
(7) 12-1 ; III-IX, Tables V-VI. In both sexes 3-4 setae in aster ; sternite III sometimes with 
1-2 anterior median setae. 

In addition to these specimens from the type host (Turdus viscivorus), others 
conspecific with M. thoracica have been seen from the following hosts : Turdus 
boulboul, T. merula, T. chrysolaus, T. obscurus and T. ruficollis. All these agree with 

* Numbers in brackets denote number of specimens. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



343 



typical thoracica in the characters of the female tergites and male genital sclerite. 
Females from Turdus merula have the longer post-spiracular setae on VII (0-34-0-40) 
as in the specimens from T. boulboul (see below) and the relative lengths of the tergo- 
central setae of VIII vary as in specimens from the type host, but the outer seta is 
usually shorter than the inner and may be only a third of the length of the latter. 
They average rather smaller than those from the type host, range of head breadth : 
0-52-0-54, mean (14) 0-53 ; in the males there appear to be no significant differences. 




26 



Fig. 26. Myrsidea thoracica. $, ventral, a, anterior lateral setae of sternite II. 
entom. 17, 8 15 



344 T. CLAY 

The host is rather smaller, wing length : 126 mm. compared to 151 mm. in T. vis- 
civorus. Six males and seven females from Turdus obscurus average somewhat 
smaller than those from the type host, range of head breadth : $, 0-49-0-51, mean 
(7) °'5° an d cT> °'45-°'46, mean (6) 0-455 ; the size of the host is smaller, wing length : 
122 mm. There is only one measurable post-spiracular seta VII among the females 
and this falls within the range of typical thoracica. Five females from T. chrysolaus 
are similar to those from T. obscurus in breadth of head : 0-49-0-51, mean (3) 0-50 ; 
host wing length : 125 mm. ; length of post-spiracular seta VII is within the typical 
range. Two females (head breadth : 0-54) from T. ruficollis do not appear separable 
from specimens from the type host. There is no advantage in separating these 
populations taxonomically and all should be included in M. thoracica. 

One male and eight females from T. boulboul present a rather different problem as 
they show a number of small character differences from the available specimens from 
T. viscivorus. These include a larger number of abdominal setae on some segments : 
tergites I-VII ($), for instance, although the breadth of these is similar in the 
specimens from T. viscivorus and boulboul, those from the type host have a total of 
73-82 tergocentral setae, mean (4) 76-5 and those from boulboul 82-95, mean (4) 89-2 ; 
the tergocentral setae of VI in the former total 11-13, mean (5) 12 and the latter 13- 
16, mean (8) 14-7. The setae in the brush on the third femur ($) number in specimens 
from the type host 17-24, mean (10 femora) 20-6 and in those from T. boulboul : 
24-32, mean (16) 28-4, the number of setae of only one femur in these eight specimens 
overlap with the typical population ; the length of the third femur although showing 
some overlap averages smaller in specimens from the type host : 0-25-0-27 mm., 
mean (10) 0-26 and those from T. boulboul : 0-27-0-30 mm., mean 0-28. In only one 
female from T. boulboul are the post-spiracular setae measurable and of these only III 
(0-27 mm.) is within the range of the typical population ; V is 0-256, VI, 0-260 and 
VII 0-380. The lengths of the longest spine in the female aster overlap but those 
from the type host average less: 0-056-0-076, mean (9 spines) 0-069 an( i m those from 
T. boulboul : 0-070-0-094, mean (9) 0-085. O n the available material, size as shown 
by length and breadth of head, breadth of prothorax, metanotum and tergite IV and 
total length and length of abdomen (these last two are unreliable measurements) 
appear to be similar in specimens from the two hosts. The size of the two hosts based 
on wing length measurements are similar, although the wings of T. boulboul appear 
to average slightly less. However, even in the small numbers available from T. 
boulboul the characters show some overlap with those of specimens from the type and 
other hosts and as our present knowledge of thoracica sens. lat. is based on a small 
number of populations represented by few individuals, the single male and eight 
females from T. boulboul are included in thoracica sens. lat. with the other specimens 
discussed above. 

Material examined. From Turdus v. viscivorus Linn., 7 $, 5 $, 5 nymphs. British 
Isles: Somerset, 1 <J, 1 ?, v. 1934 (R. Meinertzhagen, no. 916) ; Yorkshire, 1^,1$, 
5 . iii . 1956 ; Scotland, Arran, 2 <$, 2 $, 24.viii.1925 (/. Waterston) ; Co. Mayo, 3 $, 
1 $, 5 nymphs, i.1947 {R. Meinertzhagen, no. 16407). 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



345 




Fig. 27. Myrsidea thoracica. $, dorsal and ventral. 



346 T. CLAY 

From Turdus m. merula Linn., 24 <$, 33 $, British Isles : various localities, B.M. 
(N.H.). 

From Turdus c. chrysolaus Temminck, Formosa: Chao Chou, 5 $, 6.iv.ig6o 
(R. E. Kuntz), E.C. 

From Turdus obscurus Gmelin, 6 g, 7 $. Malaya : Mt. Brinchang, 5 <$, 3 $, 
16.iii.1963. Formosa : Lin-tou, 1 <£, 5 $, 22.iv.1961 (7?. is. Kuntz), E.C. 

From Turdus ruficollis atrogularis Jarocki, India: Rajputana, 2 $, i.1936 (i?. 
Meinhertzhagen, no. 4763), B.M. (K.H.). 

From Turdus boulboul (Latham), Nepal, i <$, 8 $, x.1935 (i?. Meinertzhagen, 
no. 4540), B.M. (N.H.). 







Measurements 










Specimens from Type Host 










? 




$ 






A 




A 


f 




•* f 




"\ 


Length 




Breadth Length 
Range Mean 

(5) 




Breadtli 
Range Mean 

(8) 


r* 


o-39 




fo-36 




Head< • 36 




o-33 " 






u 


0-56 


o-53-o-56 0-55 


Lo-49 


0-47-0-50 0-49 


Prothorax 


o-34 




0-29 




Metanotum 


0-48 




0-38 




Abdomen 1 • 1 1 


0-64 


0-79 


o-53 




Total 1-96 




1-54 







Lengths of spines in aster $ : 1st (outer) 0-024-0-032 (11) ; 2nd 0-040-0-054 (11) ; 3rd 0-044- 
0-060 (10) ; 4th (inner) 0-058-0-080 (10), mean 0-065. 

Specimens from Turdus merula 



Number of spines in aster 
Length of inner spine 



? 

.A. 






6 

A 




( 

Range 


Mean 


r 

Range 


Mean 


3-5 (52) 
0-048-0-080 (39) 


4 
0059 




3-4 (16) 
0-048-0-060 (18) 


3-8 
0-056 


Myrsidea emersoni sp. 


n. 






(Text-figs. 


28, 65) 









Type host : Turdus migratorius Linn. 

This species is similar to thoracica from which it is distinguished in the female by 
the form of the abdominal terga and in the male by the genital sclerite which is 
swollen distally. 

$ and (J. As in the description and figures of thoracica with the differences shown in Text-figs. 
28 and 65 and as follows : head seta 10 is longer : $, 0-090-0-094 mm. compared with 0-064-0-072 
in thoracica, ratio of 10/n : 0-82-0-94 in emersoni compared with 0-57-0-67 in thoracica. The 
ranges of the number of setae in the brush of the third femur overlap but the new species has a 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



347 



higher average ($, range 21-28, mean (8) : 25-1 ; <$, range 18-25, mean (9) : 217). The ranges 
of the numbers of the tergal and sternal setae overlap but more material may show differences in 
the means ; the post-spiracular setae as in thoracica, but in the female VII is long as in the popula- 
tion from Tardus merula. As in thoracica there may be a few anterior median sternal setae : 
5 $, III, 1-3 ; 5 (J, III, 1-3 ; VI, 1 ; VIII, 1. In the female the two posterior setae on tergum IX 
are short and fine (as in Text-fig. 28} and in the male the central tergocentral setae of VIII are 
longer than in thoracica ; in the latter these setae reach to or just beyond the end of the abdomen 
and in M. emersoni the part beyond the end of the abdomen is at least as long as the part from the 
setal base to the end of the abdomen. Measurements of the two species are similar except that the 
head breadth of the five males of emersoni averages somewhat larger (range, 0-50-0-52 mm., 
mean : 0-51). 

Material examined. 5 <$, 5 $ from Turdus migratorius, U.S.A. as follows : Alaska : 
Juneau, 3 <$, 2 $, 6.viii.i95o, (R. B. Williams, 50-10847). Maryland, Beltsville, 




Fig. 28. Myrsidea emersoni. $ dorsal. Holotype. 



348 T. CLAY 

i S> 3 ?, 28.vii.1947 (F. 2?. Smith, 53-7683) ; Silver Spring, 1 <J, 18. v. 1942 (F. C. 
Bishop, 31649, 42-5786). 

Holotype $ and allotype <$ in U.S. National Museum (slide 46, B) from Turdus 
migratorius, Maryland, Beltsville, 28.vii.1947 (F. R. Smith, 53-7683). 

Paratypes 4 <$, 4 $ with the data as given under material examined. 

This species is named in honour of Dr. K. C. Emerson to whom I am indebted for 
the loan of much material. 

Myrsidea keniensis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 29) 

Type host : Turdus abyssinicus abyssinicus Gmelin. 

This species is distinguished in the female by the form of the anterior tergites 
(Text-fig. 29). No constant characters have been found for separating the three 
available males from those of thoracica. 




29 



Fig. 29. Myrsidea keniensis. $, dorsal. Holotype. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 349 

$ and <J. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : 10-11, mean of 10 sides : 10-2. Central 
setae of metanotum : 2 <j>, 4 + 5, 6 + ?4 ; 3 (J, 2-4 each side. Outer dorsal setae of first tibia : 
5 + 5. Setae of femoral brush : 2$, 21 + 17, 22 + 23; 6*. range in six legs : 15-21, mean 
17-3. Female sternites V-VI slightly arched. Male genital sclerite appears indistinguishable 
from that of thoracica. 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Tergocentral setae : see Tables I— II. In the female, sternite II has 
5 anterior setae, 12-13 marginal setae and 4 + 4 in the aster. In the male, II has 5-7 anterior 
setae, 1 1 marginal setae and 4 + 4 spines ; range of longest spine (4) in each aster : 0-082-0-096 
mm. Sternal setae of III-IX as follows : $, III, 5 (2) + 12 + 5 (1) ; IV. 12 (6) + 9 + 10 (3) ; 
V, 16 (8) + 9 + 12 (5) , VI, 10 (5) + 8 + 10 (4) , VII, 3 + 2 + 3 + 3 ; VIII-IX, 5 + 5 ; 
vulval setae, 14-15 : <J, III, 4 (1) + 12 + 5 (1) ; IV, 12 (6) + 9 + 14 (7) ; V, 14 (8) + 9 + 14 
(8) ; VI, 12 (6) + 8 + 11 (5) ; VII, 4 + 8 + (1) ; VIII, 3 + 3 ; IX, 7 + 5. 

Material examined. 3 <$, 2 $ from Turdus a. abyssinicus (= Turdus olivaceus 
abyssinicus) , Kenya, i.1936 (R. Meinhertzhagen, no. 6149), B.M. (N.H.). 

Holotype $ (slide no. 6149a), allotype J (slide no. 6149b). 

Paratypes : 1 $, 2 <$ from the type host with the above data. 





Measurements 








A 




r \ 

Length Breadth 


r \ 
Length Breadth 


Head^ 


[0-37-0-38 
o-34-o-35S 


f °-34 
o-33-°-34S 


I 2 

Prothorax 


L°-53-o-55 
0-31-0-32 


^0-47-0-48 
• 29-0 • 30 


Metanotum 

Abdomen 

Total 


0-43-0-44 
0-79-0-87 0-59-0-61 
1-51-1-63 


0-35-0-37 
0-72-0-74 0-49 
1-38-1-42 



Myrsidea incerta (Kellogg, 1896) 
(PI. II, fig. 5 ; Text-figs. 9, 30, 48, 66) 
Type host : Catharus ustulatus (Nuttall). 

Menopon incertum Kellogg, 1896 : 533, pi. 73, f. 2. Host : Spinus tristis and Turdus ustulatus 

from Palo Alto, California. 
Myrsidea scabiei Ansari, 1956 : 167, fig. 4. Host : Hylocichla ustulata. syn. n. 

The description of this species was based on specimens taken from the two hosts 
given above. In the collection of the Division of Entomology, University of Cali- 
fornia, there are two slides labelled types of Menopon incertum from Spinus tristis and 
Turdus ustulatus respectively. The slide labelled Turdus ustulatus is marked 
"fig'd", meaning that one of the specimens was figured in the original description; 
further there are no males among the specimens from Spinus, but two males in those 
from Turdus. For these reasons a female on the Turdus slide is selected as lectotype 
thus fixing the type host of Myrsidea incerta as Catharus ustulatus. 

The specimens are in poor condition, having lost many of the setae and two are 
headless, the figure of the female (Text-fig. 30) has, therefore, been made from a 



35Q 



T. CLAY 



specimen from the type host from British Colombia. The description (including 
variation) is based on the type series of incerta and scabiei and on other specimens 
from the type host. This species is distinguished in the female from all others con- 
sidered here by the slight modification of the abdominal terga, the posterior margins 
of I and II being only slightly convex (Text-fig. 30). The male is distinguished by 
the genital sclerite (Text-fig. 66) and the tergal chaetotaxy (Text-fig. 48). 

$ and <J. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : 9-1 1, mean (17) 10-2. Central setae of metano- 
tum : §, 3 + 3, 4 -f- 4, or 4 + 5 ; <$, 3 + 3 or 3 + 4. Outer dorsal setae of first tibia : 27 $, 
10 <J, 4. Setae of femoral brush : $, 13 - 17, mean (26 legs) 15-2 , <J, 12-16, mean (8) 13-4. 
Abdomen with sclerites well pigmented ; female abdominal sternites III-VI slightly arched. 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Post-spiracular setae VII varies somewhat in length and may be the 
same as III or somewhat longer, but is always markedly shorter and finer than VIII. Range of 
tergocentral setae : $, see Table I ; £, owing to the poor condition of specimens it is not possible 
to give an accurate count of the variation, but it appears to be as follows : I, 2-4, each side of 
abdomen ; II, 2-5 ; III-IV, 3-5 ; V-VI, 2-4 ; mean of total for each tergite : I (4) 6-5 ; II 
(4) 7-5 ; III (4) 7-8 ; IV (3) 8-5 ; V (5) 6-8 ; VI (4) 575. VII-VIII in all available males have 




Fig. 30. Myrsidea incerta . $, dorsal. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



35i 



2 + 2 with lengths as shown in Text-fig. 48. In most specimens the first tergocentral setae each 
side is short and rather spine-like. Sternal setae : $, II, 4-6 anterior ; 1 1-14 marginal ; setae in 
aster normally 4 + 4 but range in 19 specimens : 3-5. III-IX see Tables III-IV. £, H» 4~5 
anterior ; 10-12 marginal ; aster 13 + 4 (4), 3 + 3 (2). Ill, 0-3 lateral anterior setae each 
side; 8-10 marginal setae. IV, 2-4 lateral anterior, 11-14 marginal. V, 3-6; 12-14. VI, 
2-4; 10-14. VII, 0-1; 6-1 1. VIII, 4-6. IX, 4-6. 

Material examined. 6 <$, 17 $ from Catharus ustulatus, U.S.A. : California, Palo 
Alto, 3 $, 7 $ syntypes of incerta (V. L. Kellogg), Division of Entomology, University 
of California (2 <$, 6 $) and U.S. National Museum (1 <$, 1 $). U.S.A. : various 
localities, 1 <$, 5 9, U.S. National Museum and E.C. Canada : British Columbia, 
Mandarte Is., 1 $ (G. J. Spencer). Mexico : Tres Zapotes, 2 $, 4 <j>, types of M. 
scabiei (M. A. Carriker, no. 15), C.C. These last specimens are on two slides, one 
with 1 ^, 2 $ has pencil tick denoting male holotype and female allotype. As the 
latter cannot be identified the two females on this slide must be considered as 
paratypes. 

From Turdus minimus bicknelli (Ridgway), U.S.A. : Elmhurst, New York, 
1 $, 21. v. 1934 (M. V. Beats). 

LECTOTYPE of M. incerta (Kellogg) by present designation : $ on slide 
marked " fig 'd" in the University of California with data as given above. 



Head^ 

Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 
Total 



Measurements 

9 

Lectotype 



Length 



0-30 



0-77 
1-42 




Range head length 0-29-0-32, mean (10) : 0-30 
Range head breadth 1: 0-32-0-35, mean (11) : 0-33 
Range head breadth 2: 0-43-0-46, mean (11) : 0-45 



Paralectotype 



Length 
0-30 



o-66 
1 -27 




0-27-0-30, mean: 0-29 
o • 29-0 -32, mean : 0-31 
0-39-0-42, mean : 0-41 



Type host 



Myrsidea pricei sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 31, 49) 
Catharus guttatus (Pallas) . 



This species resembles M. incerta, from which it is distinguished in the female by 
the shape of the first two abdominal terga (Text-fig. 31) and in the male by the lengths 
of the outer tergocentral setae of VII-VIII (Text-fig. 49). Both male and female 
average somewhat larger and the number of setae in certain groups average more. 

$ and <J. As described for incerta with the following differences : In the small number of 
specimens available, both sexes average larger ; range of head length of female : 0-320-0-340, 



352 



T. CLAY 



mean (6) 0-325 ; head breadth 1 : 0-350-0-370, mean 0-360 ; head breadth 2 : 0-460-0-490, mean 
0-470. In the male head length : 0-290-0-310, mean (4) 0-300 ; head breadth 1 : 0-320-0-330, 
mean 0-325 ; head breadth 2 : 0-410-0-440, mean 0-422. Central setae of metanotum $, 
8-10 mean (6) 9-3 ; <$, 4-9, mean (4) 7. Number of setae in third femoral brush : §, 15-20, 
mean (18) 16-2 ; <$, 14-17, mean (8) 15-25. Male genital sclerite similar to that of incerta, 
possibly more swollen posteriorly, but it is difficult to be certain on the available material. 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Tergocentral setae : see Tables I and II. The outer tergocentral 
setae each side of VII and VIII in the male are about half the length of those in incerta and the 
setae of pleurite VIII are longer (see Tables VII and VIII). Sternal setae as in incerta. 

Material examined. 6 $, 14 $, 2 nymphs in the U.S. National Museum from 
Catharus guttatus, U.S.A. as follows : New York : Elmhurst, 1 <$, 3 $, 18. x. 1930 ; 
1 $,31. x. 1930; 2$, 27. xi. 1930; 1 (J, 1 $, 19. x. 1936; I (J, 1$, 17.X.1937; 1 S, 
21. x. 1937 (M. V. Beats). Minnesota: Cass Lake, 1 nymph, 13. v. 1930 (0. L. 
Austin). N. Carolina : Graingers, 2 <$, 3 $, 1 nymph, i.iv.1933 (Peters & Lunz). 
Georgia : Valdosta, 3 $, 22. xi. 1935 (B. V. Travis). 

Holotype $ and allotype <$ in U.S. National Museum, Washington (slide no. 26819, 
37-2682) from Catharus guttatus from U.S.A. : New York, Elmhurst, 19.x. 1936 
(M. V. Beats). 



31 




Fig. 31. Myrsidea pricei. $, dorsal. Holotype. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 353 

Paratypes : 5 $, 13 $ with data as given above under material examined. 

This species is named in honour of Professor Roger D. Price, who together with his 
collaborators, is producing important revisions of Mallophagan genera. 

Myrsidea destructor Ansari, 1956 
(Text-figs. 32, 50, 67) 

Type host : Catharus m. mexicanus (Bonaparte). 

Myrsidea destructor Ansari, 1956 : 166, fig. 2. Host : Catherus m. mexicanus [sic]. 

This is one of the smaller forms and is distinguished in the female by the characters 
of the anterior abdominal tergites (Text-fig. 32). The differences between the male 
and that of devastator, which in the characters of the tergal chaetotaxy and genitalia it 
resembles most nearly, are given under that species. 



32 

Fig. 32. Myrsidea destructor. $, dorsal. Allotype. 



354 



T. CLAY 



$ and <J. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : 9-10. Central marginal setae of metanotum 6 + 6 
($), 4 + 4 and 4 + 5 (<£). Outer dorsal setae of first tibia in all specimens 4. Setae of third 
femoral brush : 14 + 14 ($>), 13 + 13 (2 <J). Female abdominal sternites V-VI strongly arched. 
Male genital sclerite in both males is distorted but appears to be slightly swollen distally (Text- 
fig. 67). 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Post-spiracular setae VII in female shorter and finer than VIII but 
longer than VI, in male VII is longer and stouter than in female, but not as long and stout as 
VIII. Tergocentral setae of single female as in Text-fig. 32 ; in two males : I, 12; 11. II, 11 ; 
10. Ill, 10 ; 9. IV, 10 ; 12. V, 9 ; 10. VI, 10 ; 10. VII, 4 ; 4. VIII, 4:4; Text-fig. 50 
for lengths of posterior setae. Sternal setae in single female : II, 3 + 3 anterior, 16 marginal 
and 4 -f 4 in aster ; III, 5 (1) + 12 + 5 (1) = 20 marginal ; IV, 8 (2) + 9 + 9(4) = 20 marginal ; 
V, ?9 (?3) + 9 + 9 (3) = ?2i ; VI, 8 (3) + 8 + 8 (4) = 17 ; VII, 2 (o) + ?2 + 2 + ? 3 (1) 
= ?8 marginal ; the specimen is not in sufficiently good condition to see the posterior setae. 
Sternal setae of male paratype : II, 5 anterior, 13 marginal and 4 + 4 in aster ; III, 5 (o) + 11 + 
6 (2) = 20 marginal ; IV, 10 (4) + 10 + 8 (4) = 20 ; V, 10 (4) + 8 + 9 (4) = 19 ; VI, 8 (3) 
+ 9 + 8 (3) = 19 ; VII, 3 (o) + ?2 + 4 + 3 (1) = ?8 ; VIII, 6 ; IX to end, 8. 

Material examined. Holotype male and allotype female from Catharus m. 
mexicanus. Mexico : Vol. San Martin, 16. iv. 1940 (M. A. Carriker no. 754), M.C. 
1 $ paratype on slide with same data (and " paratype " written in ink). 





Measurements 

















A 






f 
Length 


Breadth 


r 

Length 




Breadth 


HeadJ 


0-30 


fo-33 


0-27 




fo-30 


I 2 

Prothorax 

Metanotum 


■• 


l°-4 2 
0-25 

o-33 


•• 




L°-39 
0-24 
0-31 


Abdomen 
Total 


0-72 
i-35 


0-50 


0-50 
1-08 




0-42 



Myrsidea devastator Ansari, 1956 
(Text-figs. 10, 33, 52, 68) 

Type host : Turdus s. serranus Tschudi. 

Myrsidea devastator Ansari, 1956 : 167, fig. 3. Host : Turdus s. serranus. 

This species is distinguished in the female by the form of the anterior terga and the 
large number of setae on terga I-II (Text-fig. 33) . The male resembles M. destructor 
in the sparse setae of terga VTI-VIII, but is larger. 



$ and o*. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : 10-1 1. The long lateral seta of the metanotum 
is missing on both sides in one female and on one side in one male ; central setae : °-, 18-21 ; 
<3\ 10-13. Outer dorsal setae of first tibia 4. Setae of femoral brush : $, 22-26, mean (14) 
2 4*3 »' 6*» J 9 (3)- I n the holotype male the second and third legs are deformed and have abnormal 
chaetotaxy. Female abdominal sternites V-VI strongly arched. Male genital sclerite swollen 
distally (Text-fig. 68). 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



355 



Abdominal Chaetotaxy. In the female, post-spiracular seta VII is shorter and finer than VIII, 
in the male it is similar to VIII. Tergite I— II in female with numerous long setae each side, 
some of which are anterior to the marginal row ; on I some of the more lateral ones are stout and 
somewhat spine-like. Tergocentral setae : $, Table I ; on VII-VIII the outer seta of the two 
is longer than the inner and in some specimens the two central setae on the posterior margin of 
IX are shorter than shown in Text-fig. 33 and vary in length on the two sides. 2 <J, I, 14-18 ; 

II, 15-16; III, 12-14; IV, 13; V, 11-13; VI, 9; posterior segments Text-fig. 52. Sternal 
setae : $, II, 12-15 anterior, 21-22 marginal, setae in aster usually 4 + 4, range 2-4 ; £, 5-8 
anterior, 15-17 marginal, 3-4 in aster. In both sexes the innermost seta in aster is long (see 
measurements). Female : III, 6 (o) + 7 + 8 (1) ; IV, 18 (10) +5 + 19 (12) ; V, 17 (10) +9+17 
(9) ; VI, 13 (7) + 8 + 13 (7) ; VII, 4 (1) + 3 + 3 + 4 (1) I VIII-IX, 9 + 8 ; vulva, 15. <J, 

III, 5 (o) + 9 + 5 *<>) ; IV, 14 (7) + 6 + 12 (6) ; V, 14 (7) + 7 + 16 (9) ; VI, 12 (5) + 6 + 13 
(6) ; VII, 7 (2) + 5 + 5 (2) ; VIII, 2 + 3 ; IX, 5 + 4. On sternites II-V there is a definite 
gap between the central and lateral marginal setae, also sometimes on VI-VII. Pleural setae 
VIII usually 3 + 3 but two of the ten females have 4 + 3. 




Fig. 33. Myrsidea devastator. $, dorsal. Allotype. 



356 



T. CLAY 



Material examined. 2 $, n $ (C.C.) from the type host, Tardus s. serranus, from 
the type locality, Peru : Palambla, as follows : £ holotype, 2 $ paratypes (allo- 
type $ not marked) on type slide, 23. vi. 1933 (M. A. Carriker, no. 6719) ; 2 $ 
paratypes, 23 . vi . 1933 (M. A . Carriker, no. 6718) ; 1 <$, 6 $ on slides with data as that 
of holotype but not seen by Ansari. Utcubamba, 1 $, 24.lv. 1932 (M. A. Carriker, 
no. 4807), C.C. 







Measurements 












$ 
a 








r 

Length 

A 




Breadth 

A 




( 

Paratype 


Range 


r 
Paratype 


Range 


f 1 

Head^ 


o-34 


(6) 
0-32-0-35 




fo- 3 8 


o-37-o-39 


Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 
Total 


0-92 
1 -72 


0-85-0-95 
1-60-1-73 




L 0, 54 
0-32 
0-51 
o-57 


0-51-0-54 
0-30-0-33 

o-47-o-53 
• 56-0 • 60 


Aster (7), Sternite II. 










Outer 
Inner 


0-034- 
0-092- 


-0-042. Mean 
-0-116. Mean 


•038 
• 101. 










6* 








r 

Length 

A 




1 
Breadth 

A 




r 
Holotype 


Topotype 


r 
Holotype 


Topotype 


Head-^ 


0-31 


0-32 




f°-34 


o-35 


I* 

Prothorax 








l°-4° 
0-28 


0-48 
0-28 


Metanotum 








0-36 


0-38 


Abdomen 
Total 


o-73 
1-42 


o-73 
1-42 




0-47 


0-50 



Myrsidea indigenella Ansari, 1956 
(Text-figs, n, 34, 54, 69) 

Type host : Turdus maranonicus Taczanowski. 

Myrsidea indigenella Ansari, 1956 : 165, fig. 1. Host : Turdus maranonicus. 

This species is distinguished in the female by the characters of the anterior ab- 
dominal terga (Text-fig. 34) and in the male from the two previous species by the 
greater number of tergocentral setae on VII and if constant, by 5 not 4 outer dorsal 
tibial setae. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



357 



$ and (J. The single female has abnormal setae on one side of the prothorax (3 + 1), meta- 
notum and metasternal plate (2 + 3). It has not been possible to find the measurements of the 
head of the male holotype as given in Ansari (1956 : 165) and hence the cephalic index as given 
in the first couplet of the key to the species ( : 164) ; specimens of other species show similar 
proportions and are not separable on this character. Setae of latero-ventral fringe 11 + 11. 
Female metanotum lacks the long seta on one side ; central setae 12+4; male 4 + 5. Outer 
dorsal setae of first tibiae in single female probably 5 + 6 and in the male 5 on at least one side. 
Setae of femoral brush : 22 + 23 (?) ; 19 + 20 {$). Female abdominal sternites IV-VI 
arched. The genital sclerite (Text-fig. 69) in the single male is distorted but the terminal 
portion is long and apparently not swollen distally. 




Fig. 34. Myrsidea indigenella. $, dorsal. Allotype. 



358 



T. CLAY 



Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Tergal setae in single female as in Text-fig. 34. In male tergo- 
central setae : I, 12 ; II, 10 ; III, 14 ; IV, 13 ; V, 13 ; VI, 12 ; VII, 9 ; VIII, 4. Terminal 
segments as in Text-fig. 54. Sternal setae in female : II, ?4 anterior, 16 marginal and 4 + 3 in 
the aster ; III, 8 (3) + 9 + 5 (1) = 18 marginal ; IV, 14 (7) + 9 + ? ; V, 15 (8) + 9 + 15 (8) 
= 23 ; VI, 10 (4) + 9 + 8 (3) = 20 ; VII, 4 (1) + 2 + 3 (1) = 7 ; VIII-IX, ? + 5 ; vulva, 
6 + 7. In the male : II, 8 anterior, 16 marginal, 4 + 4 spines ; III, 6 (1) + 12 + 5 (1) = 21 
marginal ; IV, 11 (5) + 9 + 12 (6) = 21 ; V, 11 (6) + 10+13 (7) = 2I ; VI, 10 (5) + 7 + 
11 (5) = 18 ; VII, 5 (1) + 7 + 2 (o) ; VIII 5 + 5 ; IX, 8. There is no trace in the single male 
of the long seta usually found each side of the ventral posterior margin. 

Material examined. Holotype $, allotype $ from Turdus maranonicus from Peru : 
Tamborapa, 12.vii.1933 (M. A. Carriker, no. 6950), C.C. This slide is labelled 
" Holotype, Allotype " but without specific name. 







? 






<J 








A. 






A 






r 
Length 




Breadth 


t 

Length 




Breadth 


fl 






fo- 3 8 






f°-34 


Head^ 


o-35 




\ 


o-33 




\ 


I* 






L°-53 






l°-46 


Prothorax 






0-30 






0-29 


Metanotum 






o-45 






0-38 


Abdomen 


0-90 




o-57 


o-75 




0050 


Total 


1-66 






1-44 







Myrsidea abidae Ansari, 1956 
PI. II, fig. 4 ; Text-figs. 2, 24, 35, 51, 70) 

Type host : Turdus fumigatus aquilonalis (Cherrie) . 

Myrsidea abidae Ansari, 1956 : 171, fig. 7. Host : Turdus fumigatus aquilonalis. 

This species is distinguished in the female by the form of the abdominal terga 
(Text-fig. 35) and in the male by a combination of the characters of the tergocentral 
chaetotaxy and genital sclerite. 

2 and cJ. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : 2, 11-12 ; $, 10-11. Central marginal setae 
of metanotum : 2, 12-13 ; 6*> 8-10. Outer dorsal setae of first tibia 5-6. Setae of femoral 
brush : 2. 2 3 _2 4 '> 6*. 17-18. Female abdominal sternites VI-VII arched. Male genital 
sclerite (Text-fig. 70) with long terminal portion not swollen distally. 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Tergocentral setae of female allotype and paratype : I, 11; 9. 
II.ii; 12. 111,17; 16. IV, 21 ; 16. V, 19; 22. VI, 19; 16. VII, 14; 11. VIII, 4 ; 
4. Of male lectotype and paratype : I, 14 ; 10. II, 15 ; 12. Ill, 17 ; 15. IV, 18 ; 15. 
V, 18; 15. VI, 18; 14. VII, 14; 11. VIII, 7; 4. Including 5 specimens from British 
Guiana, the range of tergocentral setae in the male on VII is 9-14, mean (7) 11 -6 and on VIII is 
4-7, mean (6) 4-8. Posterior segments as in Text-fig. 51. Size of central gap in line of tergo- 
central setae varies between the two specimens and on different segments. Sternal setae : 2» 
II (including British Guiana specimens), 5-10 anterior, 14-20 marginal and 4-5 in aster ; III-IX 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



359 



in Tables III and IV. <$, II, 8 anterior, 17 marginal and 4 + 4 in aster ; III-IX in Tables V and 
VI. The division between the marginal setae of the brush and the central setae is not always 
well marked. 

Material examined. 2 <$, 2 9, 3 nymphs on type slide (ticked by Ansari) from 
Turdus fumigatus aquilonalis, Venezuela: La Punta, 7.^.1910 (M. A. Carriker, 
no 6946), C.C. From Turdus f. fumigatus Lichtenstein, from British Guiana, 
Kanuku Mts., Rupununi, 6 <$, 5 $, 21 and 24.ii.1961 (T. Clay, nos. 152, 169), B.M. 

(N.H.). 




35 





— •*• 'tL 

1 V- 

1 1 

A 


# H II // 1 t&- 

• mil f ITT 

t 'Mil A / 1 

• ■ v 'w / / 

' "/// 

; 1 mi 

1 
! 1 
■ / 
• 1 


1 

1 
1 



Fig. 35. Myrsidea abidae. $, dorsal. Allotype. 



entom. 17, 8 



16 



3 6o T. CLAY 

LECTOTYPE by present designation : <$ selected from two on type slide. Allotype : 
$ as designated by Ansari : 172 : " female, central row ". 









Measurements 


















6* 

A. 






( 
Length 




^ 
Breadth 


r 
Length 




Breadth 


HeadJ 


0-29 




fo-39 


0-31 




fo-33 


Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 
Total 


o-95 

1-74 




L°-54 
o-33 
o-43 
065 


0-71 

i-37 




[0-46 
0-29 
0-42 
0-49 



Myrsidea regius Ansari, 1956 
(Text-figs. 12, 20-22, 36, 53, 71) 

Type host : Turdus fumigatus obsoletus Lawrence. 

Myrsidea regius Ansari, 1956 : 174, fig. 9. Host : Turdus fumigatus obsoletus. 

This species is distinguished from abidae in the female by the characters of the 
anterior abdominal terga (Text-fig. 36) and in the male by the details of the genital 
sclerite and usually by the length of the two central setae on tergite VIII. 

$ and $. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : 1 1-12. Central marginal setae of metanotum : 
$, 6-7 each side ; mean of total (including Trinidad specimens) (6) 12-7. <J, 5-6 each side 
(4-6 including Trinidad specimens) ; mean of total (6) 10-7. Outer dorsal setae of first tibia : 
5-6. Setae of femoral brush : <j>, 20-22, mean (8) 20-9 ; <$, 18-20, mean (6) 19-2. Female 
abdominal sternites V and VI arched. Male genital sclerite (Text-fig. 71) with long terminal 
part somewhat tapering distally. 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Tergocentral setae, $ (five specimens including one from Trinidad), 
I, 11-12, mean n-6; II, 11-14, mean 12 ; III, 13-18, mean 16-4 ; IV, 16-20, mean 18-2 ; V, 
15-21, mean 18-6 ; VI, 17-20, mean 18-8 ; VII, 17-18, mean 17-2 in 4 Costa Rica specimens, 
14-18, mean 16-5 in 4 Trinidad specimens ; VIII, 10-13, mean (8) ii-i. The inner posterior 
setae on the last tergum vary in size and number (Text-figs. 20-22). One of the topotype males 
shows a greater number of tergocentral setae, especially on segments IV-V on which the central 
gap is eliminated, and on some sternal segments ; the chaetotaxy of this specimen is given 
separately from the holotype, paratype and 4 Trinidad specimens, in case it should prove to be a 
straggler from another host. Tergocentral setae : 6 <$, I, 9-1 1 , mean 10-2 ; II, 1 1-1 2, mean 11-5; 
III, 12-16, mean 14-0 ; IV, 12-17, mean 14-5 ; V, 12-16, mean 15-2 ; VI, 14-18, mean 15-7 ; 
VII, 11-16, mean 13-5 ; VIII, 6-10, mean 8-7. Topotype male I, 16 ; II, 15 ; III, 20 : IV, 26 ; 
V, 26 ; VI, 23 ; VII, 20 ; VIII, 11. This specimen also differs from the holotype in having the 
central setae of VIII much shorter and similar to those of abidae, although one of the Trinidad 
males approaches it in this character ; however, in all the Trinidad specimens these setae reach 
beyond the end of the abdomen. Except for the holotype all the rest of the specimens from the 
type locality have these setae broken. Before deciding on the status of this single specimen 
further material is required to assess the amount of variation of these characters. Sternal setae : 
$, II, 10 anterior, 16 marginal and 5 + 5 in the aster (range 4-5) ; III-XI see Tables III and IV. 
(J, II, 11 anterior, 15 marginal and 4 + 4 spines ; III-XI see Tables V and VI. Abnormal 






REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



361 



topotype male : II, 22 anterior, 18 marginal and 4 + 4 spines ; III, 10 (5) + 17 + 11 (5) = 
28 marginal ; IV, 14 (7) + 15 + 15 (8) = 29 ; V, 15 (6) + 13 + 19 (11) = 30 ; VI, 14 (7) + 12 
+ 16 (8) ; VII, 6 (1) + 5 + 4 + 5 (1) = 18 ; VIII, 12 ; IX, 14. Pleural setae of VIII may be 
3 + 3. 3 + 4 or 4 + 4 (?) and 3 + 3 or 3 + 4 (<?). 

Material examined. 4 $, 5 $ from the type host individual Turdus fumigatus 
obsoletus, Costa Rica : Juan Vinas, 12. v. 1907 (M. A. Carriker, no. 3321), C.C. as 
follows : holotype £, allotype $ ; paratypes 1 $, 1 $ ; topotypes 2 £, 3 $ (not seen by 
Ansari). From the same host, Costa Rica : Quapiles, 4 $, iii. 1903 (M. A. Carriker), 
C.C. From Turdus fumigatus aquilonalis (Cherrie), Trinidad : Cumuto, 7 $, 9 9, 
3. v. i960 (J. H. G. Aitken, TRVL, 4321), B.M. (N.H.) and TRVL. 3 $ from a 
Turdus n. nudigenis, Trinidad : Aripo Valley, 14.1.1961 (T. Clay, no. 29) belong to 
this species. 




36 



Fig. 36. Myrsidea regius. $, dorsal. Allotype. 



362 



Head 



{: 



Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 
Total 



T. CLAY 
Measurements 



Length 



Range (8) Mean 
o-34 0-33-0-35 33-9 



0-90 
1 -64 



? 
-A— . 



0-38 



Breadth 

t A -1 

Range (8) Mean 



0-53 0-51-0-55 

o-33 
044 
0-59 



53 



HeadJ 

Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 
Total 



Length 

.A. 



Range (7) Mean 



0-31 0-30-0-32 0-31 



0-65 
1-32 



6* 



o-34 



Breadth 



Range (7) Mean 



0-48 0-45-0-48 o 
0-29 

o-35 
0-48 



47 



Myrsidea varia Ansari, 1956 

(PL II, fig. 7 ; Text-figs. 14, 37, 55, 73) 

Type host : Tardus ignobilis debilis Hellmayr. 

Myrsidea varia Ansari, 1956 : 172, fig. 8. Host : Turdus ignobilis debilis. 

This and the next two species (simplex and rohi) are placed together as in all three 
the male genital sclerite has the posterior portion short and enlarged distally. It is 
distinguished in both sexes by the greater number of outer lateral dorsal setae on the 
first tibia ; in the female by the form of the anterior terga ; in the male by the details 
of the genital sclerite, the greater length of the inner tergo-central seta on VIII and 
from rohi also by its larger size. 

$ and $• Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : $, 11 ; $, 10-11. Central marginal setae of 
metanotum: $,5 + 6; o*. 4~5 eacn side. Outer dorsal setae of first tibia: $, 6 + 6; ^,6 + 5. 
Setae of femoral brush : $, 22 + 21 ; 3 q\ 16-18. Female abdominal sternites VI-VII arched. 
Male genital sclerite (Text-fig. 73), with posterior part shortened and greatly enlarged. 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Post-spiracular seta VII is missing in the single female, in the male it 
is long and similar to VIII. Tergo-central setae : $, Text-fig. 37 ; 36*. I. 10-14. mean 11-7 ; 
II, 8-1 1, mean 9-7 ; III, 10-12, mean 11-3 ; IV, 11-14, mean 12-3 ; V, 11-12, mean 11-7 : VI, 
9-12, mean 11 ; VII, 7-8, mean 7-3 ; VIII in all specimens 2 + 2 ; the central seta each side is 
usually longer and stouter than the one next to it. Lengths of setae of posterior segments as in 






REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



363 



Text-fig. 55. Sternal setae : $, II, 8 anterior, 16 marginal and 4 + 4 in aster ; III, 6 (1) + 12 
+ 5 (1) = 21 marginal , IV, 14 (7) + 10 + 15 (8) = 24 ; V, 13 (6) + 7 + 15 (8) = 21; VI, 
9 (4) + 7 or 8 + 9 (4) = 17 or 18 ; VII, 4 (1) + 2 + 2 + 3 = 10 ; VIII-IX, 5 + ? ; vulva, 13. 
cj, II, 6-8 anterior, 12-16 marginal and 3-4 setae in aster ; III-IX see Tables V and VI. 

Material examined. Holotype male, allotype female and two male paratypes from 
Turdus ignobilis debilis, Peru : Huacamayo, 26.vii.1931 (M. A. Carriker, no. 4200), 
C.C. 




Fig. 37. Myrsidea varia. $, dorsal. Allotype. 



364 T. CLAY 









Measurements 












? 






<J 








A, 






_^\_ 






f ' 




\ 


r 




> 




Length 




Breadth 


Length 




Breadth 


r* 






fo-37 






fo-34 


Head^ 


o-34 




1 


032 




\ 


I* 






L°'5i 






L°"46 


Prothorax 






0-30 


. . 




0-28 


Metanotum 






0-44 






0-36 


Abdomen 


o-88 




o-57 


0-70 




o-45 


Total 


1 -64 






i-37 







Myrsidea rohi Ansari, 1956 
(Plate II, fig. 6 ; Text-figs. 13, 38, 56, 74) 
Type host : Catharus g. gracilirostris Salvin. 

Myrsidea rohi Ansari, 1956 : 170, fig. 6. Host : Catharus g. gracilirostris. 

This species is distinguished in the female by the great enlargement of the first 
abdominal tergum (Text-fig. 38) ; in the male from that of simplex by the details of 
the genital sclerite and from varia by the smaller size, details of the posterior chaeto- 
taxy of the abdomen, the smaller number of setae in the femoral brushes and the 
genital sclerite. 

$ and o*- Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : $, 8-9 ; g, 9-10. Central marginal setae of 
metanotum : $, 14-17 ; 6*> 8-10. Outer dorsal setae of first tibia : 4. Setae of femoral brush : 
$, 11-12 ; o*> 10-12. Female abdominal sternites V-VI arched. Male genital sclerite (Text- 
fig. 74) similar to that of varia but smaller. 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Post-spiracular seta VII in female shorter and finer than VIII, in 
male VII is somewhat longer than in female but still shorter and finer than VIII. Tergocentral 
setae : 2 $, I, 12 and 19. II, 15 and 18. Ill, 13 and 15. IV, 11 and 14. V, n and 12 + ?. 
VI, 9 and 13. VII, ? and 4 + 4. VIII, 2 + 2 and 2 -f 2 ; tergites I— II have a few anterior 
setae each side (Text-fig. 38), these are included in the counts of the tergocentral setae. $, 
Table II ; there is a well marked central gap in the line of setae and the central seta each side is 
usually marked off from the rest by a definite gap (Text-fig. 56). Sternal setae : 2 $, II, 6 and 7 
anterior ; 15 and 16 marginal ; 4 + 4 spines. III-XI as in Tables III and IV. $, II, 5 and 7 
anterior (2) ; 10-12 marginal, mean (3) 11 ; spines 4 + 4 in all specimens. III-XI see Tables 
V and VI. 

Material examined. 2 <$, 1 $ on type slide from Catharus g. gracilirostris, Costa 
Rica : Vol. Irazu, iv.1902 (M. A. Carriker, no. 4), C.C. 

The holotype is not marked but in the original description it is stated that it has 12 
setae in the femoral brush and as only one of the males has this number (on one side) , 
this specimen has been labelled holotype ; the single female is the allotype. 1 3, 
1 $, 2 nymphs (1 headless) on a second slide with the same data were seen by Ansari 
and the male and female are his paratypes. The other male and female paratypes 
listed by Ansari have not been seen. 



Head- 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 

Measurements 






Length Breadth 



0-27 



0-29 



I 2 




L° - 39 


Prothorax 




0-25 


Metanotum 




o-37 


Abdomen 


o-68 


0-50 


Total 


1 -27 





365 



r 
Length 




Breadth 


■» 




Range (3) 


fo-28 


Range (3) 


0-26 


0-25-0*26 


\ 








[0-36 


0-36-0-37 






0-23 








0-32 




o-6o 




o-39 






Fig. 38. Myrsidea rohi. $, dorsal. Paratype. 



366 



T. CLAY 



Myrsidea simplex Ansari, 1956 
(Text-figs. 39, 57, 75) 
Type host : Catharus fuscater mentalis Sclater & Salvin. 
Myrsidea simplex Ansari, 1956 : 168, fig. 5. Host : Catharus fuscater mentalis. 

This species is distinguished in the female by the pointed first tergite and form of 
terga II-I V (Text-fig. 39) and in the male from varia and rohi by the shape of the 
genital sclerite. 

$ and (J- Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : 4 $, 9-1 1 ; <$, 10 -f 9. Central marginal setae 
of metanotum : $, 14-16, mean (4) 14-75 ; 1 o*» 5 + 5- Outer dorsal setae of first tibia : 4. 




Fig. 39. Myrsidea simplex. $, dorsal ; thorax from paratype, abdomen from allotype. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



367 



Setae of femoral brush: $, 11-14, mean (10 legs) 12-8; 1 <$, 13 -f 14. Female abdominal 
sternites II-VI strongly arched. Male genital sclerite widest at posterior margin (Text-fig. 75). 
Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Post-spiracular seta VII in female as short and fine as VI, in the 
male it is somewhat longer and stouter, but short and finer than VIII. Tergocentral setae : 
5 $, I, 14-18, mean 16-2 ; II, 15-19, mean 16-8 ; III, 18-20, mean, 19 ; IV, 19-23, mean 21 ; 
V, 18-23, mean 20-8 ; VI, 12-16, mean 14-2 ; VII, 4-7, mean 5-4 ; VIII always 2 + 2. On 
segments I-VI there may be 1-4 anterior setae each side, these have been included in the above 
counts. <J, I, 4 + 4, II, 6 + 5 ; III, 7 + 6 or 7 ; IV, 5 + 5 ; V, 6 + 5 ; VI, 3 + 4 ; VII, 
3 -f 2 ; VIII, 2 + 2 ; there is a marked gap between the setae of the two sides and on IV-VIII 
the central setae are definitely separated from the rest (Text-fig. 57). Sternal setae : $, II, 
5 anterior, 14-16 marginal and 4 + 4 in aster ; III-XI, Tables III and IV ; there is a marked 
gap between central setae and those of the brushes. $, II, 9 anterior, 15 marginal and 4 + 4 in 
aster ; III, 3 (o) + 10 + 4 (o) ; IV, 10 (5) + 7 + 10 (4) ; V, 9 (3) + 8 + 9 (3) ; VI, 9 (3) + 8 
+ 8 (3) ; VII, 4 (1) + 7 + 4 (1) ; VIII, 4 + 4 ; IX-XI, ?8. 

Material examined. Holotype male, allotype female and two female paratypes 
from Catharus fuscater mentalis, Peru : Oconeque, 3^.1931 (M. A. Carriker, no. 
3301), C.C. There is also another slide 3301 with the same data in the Carriker 
collection (not seen by Ansari) with 1 <$, 2 $. The two females are conspecific with 
simplex, but the male differs in the form of the genital sclerite and in having the post- 
spiracular seta VII long and stout ; it is possibly a straggler from another host. 







Measurements 


9 

A 








t 

Length 
Range (4) 


Mean 




Breadth 
Range (4) 


\ 
Mean 


HeadJ 

Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 
Total 


0-30 

0-76 
1-50 


• 290-0 • 300 


0-297 

6* 


r°-34 

i.°'47 

0-28 
0-42 
o-53 


o-33-o-34 

0-45-0-47 
0-26-0-28 


o-333 

0-460 
0-270 




f ~ 




^ 








HeadJ 


0-27 


fo-3i 










Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 
Total 


0-62 

I -22 


l°-42 
0-25 
0-32 
0-42 







Myrsidea montana sp. n. 

(PL I, fig. 7 : Text-figs. 40, 41, 58) 

Type host : Zoothera gurneyi otomitra (Reichenow). 

This species is distinguished in the female by the form of the anterior abdominal 
terga (Text-fig. 40) and the presence of anterior median setae on sternites III-VI 
the male by the elongated genital sclerite. 



in 



368 



T. CLAY 



§ and £. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : 10-12, mean (10), ii-i ; seta 10 usually over 
half length of 11 (ratio 10/n $, 0-535-0-615; <$, 0-575-0-695). Central marginal setae of 
metanotum 2 $, 6 + 8, 6 + 6 ; <$, 3-5 each side, mean of total (8) : 7. Outer dorsal setae of 
first tibia ; 2 $, 6 + 6, 7 + 6 ; <$ (16 legs), 5-6, mean 5-8. Setae of femoral brush : 2 $, 
? + 19 ; 22 + 24 ; <J (14 legs), range 16-24, mean 19. In the female terga II and III are 
divided medianly by the prolongation of I, in the holotype (Text-fig. 41) a small part of the inner 
end of II appears to be separated by a distinct suture (a.), but this is not apparent in the other 
female. Sternites V-VI in female strongly arched. Male genital sclerite with part posterior to 
the arms elongated (PL I, fig. 7). 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Tergocentral setae : $, Text -fig. 40 ; $, Table II. Sternal setae : 

2 $, II, 4 anterior, 17-19 marginal and 4 + 4 and 4 + 5 in the aster, the inner seta in both sexes 
is long (see measurements) ; sternites III-IX : 1 $, III, 17 (12) + 17 + 16 (11) ; IV, 17 (11) + 
16 + 18 (12) ; V, 16 (8) + 15 + 15 (8) ; VI, 9 (3) + 11 + 9 (4) I VII, 3 (1) + 8 + 3 (2) ; 
VIII, 7 + 6 ; IX, 7 + 8 ; 2 $, 14 and 16 vulval setae. 10 <$, II, 2 anterior, 12-16 marginal and 

3 + 4 (1) and 4 + 4 (9) in the aster ; III-IX, Tables V and VI. Both females have anterior 




Fig. 40. Myrsidea montana. $ dorsal. Holotype, 






REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



369 



median setae, countable in only one specimen : sternite III, 18, IV, 16, V, 6 ; VI, 6. In the 10 
males, one is damaged, 5 have no anterior setae ; 4 have the setae as follows : III, 2:1:4:0; 
IV, 3:2:0:1; V, 1 : o : o : o. Pleural setae of a varying number of segments III-VII have 
1-3 rather long inner setae reaching to or beyond the end of the next pleurite. Pleurite VIII : 
$, 4 + 4, 3 + 3, <$, 3 + 3 setae. 

Material examined. 10 <^, 2 $ from Zoothera gurneyi otomitra, Tanganyika : 
Amani, vii.1935 (R. E. Moreau), B.M. (N.H.) No. 4313. 

Holotype female and allotype male (slides 4313 a. and 4313 b.). 

Paratypes : 9 <$, 1 $ (slides no. 4313) from type host with data as given above. 




Fig. 41. Myrsidea montana. $, parts of tergites I-1 1 1 enlarged. Holotype. 

Measurements 











9 










<J 














A 










A 












r 
Length 




Breadth 


r 
Length 






Range 




Breadth 
Mean 


f 1 










fo-37 


f° 


■32 










Head^ 






0-32 




\ 


0-30^ 












b 










L°'50 


1° 


43 





•42-0-43 




0-427 (6) 


Prothorax 










0-32 





28 










Metanotum 










o-43 





34 










Abdomen 






0-83 




o-59 


0-54 


44 










Total 






i-55 






I-IQ 












Inner spine 


of St. 


II 


0-144-0-] 


48(3) 


0-094-0- 


t28, 


mean (16 )o- 


108 


: S.D.o-oi 



The CARRIKERI Species Group 

1-3. As in thoracica group. Shape of head similar within the group (PI. II, fig. 3). 

4. Pronotum normally with 4 + 4 long posterior marginal setae. 

5-6. As thoracica group. 

7. Post-spiracular setae VII long but noticeably shorter and finer than VIII. 

8-1 1. As thoracica group. 



37° T. CLAY 

The four species comprising this group may not form a natural assemblage but for 
convenience are placed together on the number of pronotal marginal setae and the 
deep emargination of the anterior margin of tergite I. M. antiqua is separated in the 
female from the other three species and from all other species discussed here by the 
form of the comb-like projections of the inner surface of the genital chamber (Text- 
fig. 23). The females are distinguished from each other by the shape and size of 
tergites I— III ; aitkeni sp. n. differs only slightly from antiqua in these characters but 
is easily distinguished by the internal thickening of the genital chamber. When it is 
possible to examine undistorted male genital sclerites, antiqua, carrikeri and elegans 
are separable on the characters of these structures ; those of aitkeni and antiqua 
appear to be indistinguishable, in fact it seems doubtful if males of these two species 
can be separated. In the material examined, elegans males have a greater number of 
tergocentral setae : totals on I-VII, 157-181 compared to 1 14-140 in carrikeri, 103- 
120 in antiqua and 97-126 in aitkeni. Thus, it is probable that a male with more than 
150 setae on I-VII is elegans. 



Myrsidea carrikeri (Eichler, 1943) 
(PL II, fig. 3 ; Text-figs. 3, 15, 42, 59, 76) 

Type host : Turdus grayi casius (Bonaparte) . 

Menopon thoracicum var. majus Carriker, 1903 : 187, nee Menopon major Piaget, 1880. Host : 

Merula grayi. 
Menacanthus carrikeri Eichler, 1943 : 59 [nom. nov. for Menopon majus]. 
Myrsidea carrikeri (Eichler) ; Ansari, 1956 : 175, fig. 11. 

The original description of majus, which amounted only to measurements of one 
female, was based on one female from Merula grayi and one from Tanagra cana. 
The female from the former host has been labelled type by the author ; this specimen 
will here be designated as lectotype, thus fixing the type host as Turdus grayi casius. 
In addition to the female lectotype the descriptions and figures given here are based 
on 6 <$ and 4 $ from the type host from Costa Rica. 

$ and <J. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : 10-12, with one female with 13 on one side. 
Central setae of metanotum each side : $, 6-8, mean (5) 7-6 ; <$, 5-7, mean (6) 6-i. Outer setae 
of first tibia 5-7. Setae of femoral brush : $, 21-28, mean (9 legs) 24-2 ; cj, 17-22, mean (8 
legs) 19-1. Female abdominal sternites not markedly arched. Male genital sclerite elongated 
and flattened distally (Text-fig. 76). 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. In the female, post-spiracular seta VII is somewhat shorter and finer 
than VIII but not markedly so. Tergocentral setae : Tables I and II ; in the female the inner 
seta each side of VIII is usually longer than the rest ; the inner posterior setae of the last tergum 
may be 1 + 1 short (2 $) as in Text-fig. 42, 1 long -f 1 short (1 §), 2 + 1, all short (1 $). In the 
male the central gap in the line of setae on II-VII may be present or absent. Sternal setae : 
5 $, II, 12-22 anterior mean 17-4 ; 18-21 marginal mean 19-6; 4-5 in aster; III-XI, (Tables III 
and IV); <$, II, 10-12 anterior (2), 16 marginal (2) and 3-5 in aster (6); III-XI, (Tables V 
and VI). Pleural setae of VIII, 3 + 3 (3 $), 3 + 4 (2 $) ; 3 + 3 (6 <£). 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



37i 



Material examined. 1 ?, labelled type of Menopon thoracicum majus Carriker from 
T urdus gray i casius, Costa Rica : Juan Vinas, iii.1902 (M. A. Carriker, no. 14), C.C. 
From same host, Costa Rica : Guapiles, 6 <$, 4 ?, iii.1903 (M. A. Carriker), C.C. ; 
2 J, 1 $ of this lot seen by Ansari (1956 : 176). 

LECTOTYPE of Myrsidea carrikeri by present designation : $ labelled 
Menopon thoracicum majus type with data as given above. 




42 



Fig. 42. Myrsidea carrikeri. $, dorsal. Lectotype. 



372 



Head 



{; 



T. CLAY 

Measurements 



Length 



Range (5) Mean 
0-35 0-34-0-36 0-35 



Prothorax 




Metanotum 




Abdomen 


0-94 


Total 


1-79 


HeadJ 


°-33 


U 




Prothorax 




Metanotum 




Abdomen 


0-71 


Total 


i-43 



0-33 0-30-0-33 (5) 0-32 



Breadth 



Range (5) Mean 

0-39-0-41 0-406 

0-56-0-58 0-570 

o-34-°-35 o-346 

0-50-0-51 0-508 

o • 64-0 -67 o • 660 



0-34-0-36 0-350 

0-47-0-50 0-486 

0-29-0-31 0-300 

0-36-0-38 0-370 
0-50(1) 



Myrsidea antiqua Ansari, 1956 
(PL I, fig. 4 ; Text-figs. 16, 23, 43, 60, 77) 

Type host : Turdus g. grayi Bonaparte. 

Myrsidea antiqua Ansari, 1956 : 174, fig. 10. Host : Turdus g. grayi. 

In the original description the type material was said to have come from " Turdus g. 
grayi Bonaparte, Mexico (Tlacotalpan Costa Rica), Carriker 212a and 212b February 
15, 1940." Amongst the material seen by Dr. Ansari are two slides with this wording 
on the label except for " Costa Rica ", presumably added to the text in error. In 
addition there is a third slide in the Carriker collection, not seen by Dr. Ansari, with 
the same data and number (212) ; the two specimens on this slide presumably came 
from the same host individual as the type material. 

$ and (J. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : $, 11-12 ; <J, 11-13. Central marginal setae 
of metanotum : 3 $, 6-8 each side ; 4 <$, 5-6. The available specimens have rather more 
metapleural setae than in the other species of this group : 9, 3-7 each side, mean (23 sides)* 
4-8 compared with carrikeri mean (8) 3-7 and elegans (1)4 + 3 ; 6*» 3 _ 6, mean (19)* 4-1 compared 
with carrikeri mean (6) 3-25 and elegans (10) 2-7. Outer dorsal setae of first tibia 5-6. Setae of 
femoral brush : $, 22-24, mean (5) 23-2 ; <$, 19-22, mean (7) 20-7. The inclusion of 4 legs from 
the Trinidad specimens gives a range in the male of 17-22, mean (11) 20-2. Female abdominal 
sternite VI arched ; sculpturing of genital chamber unlike any other found in the species from 
Turdinae (Text-fig. 23). Male genital sclerite long and narrow (Text-fig. 77). 



* Includes Trinidad specimens from Turdus fumigatus. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



373 



Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Post-spiracular seta VII as in carrikeri. Tergocentral setae : 
Tables I— II ; if the Trinidad males are included, the range is as follows : I, 11-15 ; II, 13-17 ; 
III, 15-17 ; IV-V, 14-21 ; VI, 12-20 ; VII, 11-18 ; VIII, 5-10 ; there is little difference in the 
means. In the male the line of setae on I-VII may be continuous without a central gap ; the 
two central setae on VIII vary somewhat in length between specimens and on the two sides of 
the same specimen ; they usually reach beyond the end of the abdomen. Sternal setae : 3 $ 
II, anterior 9-12, mean 10-7 ; marginal 15-16, mean 15-7 ; 4 + 4 in aster ; III-IX in Tables 
III-IV. The sternal setae may have a central gap on V, VI or VII. 4 <$, II, anterior 8-10, 
mean 9-25 ; marginal 12-16, mean 13-75 '< 4 + 4 setae in aster ; III-IX in Tables V-VI. The 
line of sternal setae is continuous and the marginal setae of the lateral brushes distinguished only 
by a difference in the setae, not always obvious on all segments ; on VII the similar setae form a 
continuous line, with 1-2 anterior setae laterally ; on VIII the line may or may not show a 
central gap. 

Material examined. Holotype <$ ; allotype $ ; paratypes 2 <$, 1 $ ; topotypes 
1 <£, 1 $ from Turdus g. grayi, Mexico : Tlacotalpam, 15. ii. 1940 (M. A. Carriker, 




43 



Fig. 43. Myrsidea antiqua. $, dorsal. Allotype. 



374 



T. CLAY 



no. 212), C.C. From Turdus fumigatus aquilonalis (Cherrie), Trinidad : Cumuto, 
3 <$, 8 $, 17. v. i960 (T. H. G. Aitken, TRVL 4380) ; Vega de Oropouche, 5 $, 1 <j>, 
15.xii.1959 (T. H. G. Aitken, TRVL 3742 and 3737) ; Arima Valley, 1^,1$, 
10.iii.1961 (T. Clay, no. 192), B.M. (N.H.). 





Measurements 








(Including Trinidad Specimens) 






9 

A 








f 

Length 

A 


Breadth 

A 




r ^ 
Range Mean 


f 

Range 


Mean 


Head^ 

Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 
Total 


0-33-O-36 0-35 (11) 

0-85-0-91 (4) 
1-62-1-74(4) 

A 


Co -39-0-41 

L0-53-O-56 
0-32-0-35 

o-45-o-5o 
0-62-0-65 (3) 


0-40 (10) 

o-55 (10) 
o-34 (11) 
0-48 (10) 




( 




(10) 


HeadJ 

Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 
Total 


0-30-O-33 0-3I (IO) 

0-70-0-76 (4) 
I-38-I-43(4) 


fo -35-0-36 

^0-47-0-50 
0-29-0-31 
0-36-0-39 
0-50-0-53 (4) 


o-356 

0-483 
0-308 
o-374 



Myrsidea aitkeni sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 44) 

Type host : Turdus n. nudigenis Lafresnaye. 

$ and cJ. Number of setae of latero-ventral fringe, metanotum, first tibia and femoral brush fall 
within the range of those of M . antiqua. The metapleural setae average fewer : $, 3-5, mean (22 
sides) 3-9 ; <J, 2-5, mean (13) 3-5. The female genital chamber has the thickening normally found 
in the species from the Turdinae (Text-fig. 24) and differs from that in antiqua. The male 
genital sclerite appears similar to that of antiqua. The abdominal terga in the female differ 
slightly from those of antiqua (Text-fig. 44). 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Post-spiracular VII as in other species of this group. The range of 
tergocentral setae in the female is so large that it cannot be used for specific separation : I, II- 
14 ; II, 9-18, III, 9-28 ; IV, 13-28 ; V, 15-27 ; VI, 15-27 ; VII, 11-24 : VIII, 8-14. Range 
and mean of tergocentral setae in male : I, 12-15, mean (5) 13 ; II, 11-15, mean 13-6, III, 
15-21, mean 18-2 ; IV, 15-19, mean 17-6 ; V, 16-21, mean 17-8 ; VI, 15-19, mean 16-8 ; VII, 
12-16, mean 14 ; VIII, 7-10, mean 8-2. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



375 



Material examined. 18 <$, 24 $ from Turdus n. nudigenis, Trinidad : Cumuto, 
26. iv. i960 (TRVL 4294, 4309), 3. v. i960 (TRVL 4320), 10. v. i960 (TRVL 4354), 
17. v. i960 (4383) ; Caroni River, 4.L1961 (5259) ; Sangre Grande, 5.xii.i958 
(2118, 2123, 2127, 2128, 2130), (T. H. G. Aitken). 4 $ from a Turdus fumigatus 
aquiloncdis (Cherrie), Trinidad : Arima Valley, 28. i. 1959 (T. H. G. Aitken, 2285a) 
also belong to this species. 

Holotype $, allotype <$ on slide No. 686 from Turdus n. nudigenis, 26. iv. 1964, 
TRVL4309 with data given above, B.M. (N.H.). 

Paratypes: 17 J, 23 $ from Turdus n. nudigenis with above data. The males are 
included although at present indistinguishable from those of antiqua, as females of 
this latter species have not been found on T. nudigenis. 

This species is named in honour of Dr. T. H. G. Aitken of the Trinidad Regional 
Virus Laboratory, Port of Spain, who has contributed so much towards the study of 
the ectoparasitic arthropods of Trinidad. 




44 



Fig. 44. Myrsidea aitkeni. $, dorsal. Holotype. 



ENTOM. 17, 8 



17 



37 6 



T. CLAY 



Myrsidea elegans Ansari, 1956 
(Text-figs. 17, 45, 61, 78) 

Type host : Turdus r. rufiventris Vieillot. 

Myrsidea elegans Ansari, 1956 : 176, fig. 12. Host : Turdus r. rufiventris. 

The description of this species was based on four males ; in addition there are in 
the Carriker collection and not seen by Dr. Ansari, one male and one female with the 
data, including the number 16456, as given on the slide with the paratypes ; it can be 
assumed that these two specimens came from the same host individual as the 
paratypes. 




Fig. 45. Myrsidea elegans. §, dorsal. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



377 



$ and (J. In the available material the number of gular setae averages somewhat higher than 
in the previous species ; 10-12, mean (4) 10-75. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : $, 11 ; 
<J, 10-11, mean (5) 10-9. Central marginal setae of metanotum : <j>, 6 + 6 ; 5 <$, 6-8 each side. 
Outer dorsal setae of first tibia : 5-6. Setae of femoral brush : $, 19 + 20 <J, 19-21, mean fio) 
19-8. Posterior abdominal sternites of female only weakly arched. Male genital sclerite similar 
to that of carrikeri but tapers to rounded distal end (Text-fig. 78). 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Post-spiracular setae as in carrikeri but III is missing on both sides 
of the single female. Tergocentral setae of single female shown in Text-fig. 45 ; <J, I, 18-22, 
mean (3) 19-60 : II, 23-24, mean (4) 23-25 ; III, 22-27, mean (5) 24-80 ; IV, 27-28, mean 27-20 
(5); V, 24-28, mean (5) 26-40; VI, 23-29, mean (5) 25-40; VII, 20-23, mean (5) 22-00; VIII, 
5-6 + 5-6, mean (3) n-66. On segments II-VIII there may be one or two anterior setae each 
end ; these have been included in the above counts. On I-VII there is little or no gap in the 
line of setae. Sternal setae : $, II, 23 anterior, 20 marginal and 5 + 4 in aster : III, 11 (4) 

+ 15 + 13 (8) ; iv, 16 (9) + 10 + 15 (8) ; v, 14 (7) + 15 + 16 (9) ; vi, 10 ( 4 ) + 10 + n 

(5) ; VII, 4 (1) + 5 + 6 + 5 (1) ; VIII-IX, 10 + 9 ; vulva 5 + 5- 6*. II. 8-10 (2) anterior, 
17-18 (3) marginal and 4 + 4 in aster ; III-XI, Tables V and VI. 

Material examined. Syntypes : 2 <$ from Turdus r. rufiventris, Bolivia : Samai- 
pata, 28.x. 1937 (M. A. Carriker, No. 16243) ; 2 <$ from the same host and locality, 
4.XI.1937 (M. A. Carriker, No. 16456), C.C. 1^,1? (not seen by Ansari) on slide 
numbered 16456 with the same data as above, C.C. On Slide No. 16243 with a pencil 
tick denoting holotype, are two males, one of which is damaged ; the undamaged male 
is designated as lectotype below. 



LECTOTYPE of Myrsidea elegans by present designation 
with data as given above. 



<3 on Slide No. 16243 











Measurements 












A 














t 
Length 




Breadth 


Length 
Range (2) 




Breadth 
Range 


Mean 


f 1 

Head^ 

Prothorax 
Metanotum 
Abdomen 


°-35 
0-91 




r - 4 i 

\o- 5 8 

o-34 
0-50 
o-66 


0-30-0-32^ 
• 66-0 • 73 


^0-32 

[0-48 
0-27 
0-36 
o-53 


°-32-o-35 

• 48-0 • 50 
0-27-0-30 
0-36-0-37 


o-33o (3) 

0-490 (4) 
0-285 (4) 
0-365 (4) 


Total 


1.71 






I-3I-I-45 









The ISHIZAWAI Species Group 



1 . Head as in thoracica group but the number of lateral fringe setae average more and there 
are 2-4 instead of one short straight seta between the end of the lateral fringe and the long ventral 
seta on each temple. 

2. Number of gular setae average more. 
3-5. As in thoracica group. 

6. Outer dorso-lateral setae of first tibia over 14. 

7. Post-spiracular setae III medium to long. 
8-9. As thoracica group. 

PNTOM. 17, 8 18 



378 



T. CLAY 



10. Spermatheca thin-walled and collapsed in mounted specimens. 
ii. Male genital sclerite characteristic (Text-fig. 72). 



Myrsidea pullula (Piaget, 1890) based on a single male from Oriolia berneieri has a 
genital sclerite similar to that of ishizawai, but differs in characters 2 and 6. 



46 




Fig. 46. Myrsidea ishizawai. $, dorsal. Lectotype. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



379 



Myrsidea ishizawai Uchida, 1926 
(PI. II, fig. 1 ; Text-figs. 18, 46, 62, 72) 
Type host : Zoothera dauma (Latham). 
Myrsidea ishizawai Uchida, 1926 : 8, fig. 2. Host : Oreocinchla dauma aurea. 

This is the only species known in this species group and the differences between it 
and the thoracica group have been enumerated above. The following description is 




47 



Fig. 47. Myrsidea sultanpurensis. $, dorsal. Holotype. 



entom. 17, 8 



380 T. CLAY 

compiled from two males and three females from Japan, including one male and two 
female syntypes. 

$ and $. Setae of latero- ventral head fringe : 13-14 each side ; gular setae : 6 + 6 (2 $), 
7 + 7 (1 $) ; 5 + 6 (1 (J), 6 + 6 (1 (J). Central setae of metanotum : 3 $, 5-6 each side ; 2 $, 
3-5 each side. Outer setae of first tibia ; 3 $, 17-21 ; 2 <$, 16-20. Setae of femoral brush ; 3 $, 
37-41 ; 2 $, 30-32. Female with abdominal sternites not markedly arched and with irregular 
pigmented patches present between the tergites of segments II— VI. Male genital sclerite of 
characteristic form (Text-fig. 72) and unlike those of the thoracica group. 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. This species differs from all others from the Turdinae in having 
post-spiracular III long and similar to those of II and IV ; V and VI are long but markedly 
shorter than IV (Text-fig. 46). Tergocentral setae : 3 $, I, 10 ; II, 9-13 ; III, 11-12 ; IV, 12- 
16 ; V, 15-17 ; VI, 12-15 I VII, 6-7 ; VIII, 4 ; the two inner posterior setae of IX are long ; 
2 <J, I, 8-9 ; II, 8-1 1 ; III, 10 ; IV, 10-11 : V, 10-12 : VI, 6-10 ; VII, 4 ; VIII, 4. Marginal 
setae of sternal brushes separated from central sternal setae ; brushes III-V with numerous 
setae. Sternal setae : 1 $. II, 8 anterior, 22 marginal and 4 + 4 in the aster : III, 18 (12) + 15 
+ 14 (8) ; IV, 27 (18) + 11 + 27 (19) I V, 29 (21) +8 + 24 (17) ; VI, 13 (6) + 7 + 14 (7) ; 
VII, 3 (1) + 3 + 3 + 2 (o) ; VIII-IX, 6 + 5. The vulval setae of the three females range from 
12-15. Range of setae in six brushes (including marginal setae) on each of the following sternites 
of the three females : III, 14-20 ; IV, 26-35 J v > 2 4~33- 2 6*. H, 6 and 7 anterior, 18 and 16 
marginal and 4 + 4 in aster ; III, 16 (10) + 14 + 17 (12) and 12 (6) + 12 + 11 (5) ; IV, 26 (17) 
+ 10 + 24 ( J 5) and 2I ( x 4) + " + 2 3 ( x 5) I v - 2 5 ( x 7) + 10 + 2 7 (19) and 25 (18) + 9 + 22 
(15) ; VI, 20 (13) +9+19 (11) and 17 (10) + 8 + 18 (11). VII, 8 (5) + 8 + 6 (3) and 
4 (1) + 6 + 2 (1); VIII, 2 (1) + 4 (1) + 4 (1) + 1 and 1 (o) + 4 (1) + 2 + 1 (o). IX, 4 + 4 
and 4 + 5- 

Material examined. Syntypes : 1^,2$ from " Toratsugumi " = Zoothera dauma. 
Japan : Subashiri, Fuji, 14. v. 1924. From the same host, Japan : Oyama, 1 <£, 1 $, 
23. iv. 1956, B.M. (N.H.). 

LECTOTYPE of Myrsidea ishizawai by present designation : $ slide with original 
label and data as given above. 

4 <$, 4 $ from Tardus d. dauma from Assam agree with the type specimens in the 
form of the head, female abdominal tergites, male genitalia and number of outer tibial 
setae ; they differ in the post-spiracular setae being shorter and thinner ; in averaging 
fewer setae in the femoral brushes and on the abdominal tergites and sternites. For 
instance, the total numbers of tergocentral setae on segments I-VII in the three 
females from Japan are : 79, 85 and 86 mean 83 and in four females from Assam the 
numbers are 65, 67, 72, 76, mean 70 ; in the two males from Japan : 52 and 63, mean 
57-5 and from Assam : 41, 51, 61, mean 51. In the female the number of setae in the 
sternal brushes of IV (including the marginal setae) ranges from 26-35, mean 30 in 
the Japanese specimens and from 20-27, mean 23-3 in the Assam specimens and on 
sternite V, 24-33, mean 28-5 in the Japanese specimens and 21-29, mean 27-6 in the 
Assam specimens. There seem to be no constant differences in size. These differen- 
ces are based on a small number of specimens and no material has been seen from the 
other fourteen subspecies of Zoothera dauma listed in the Checklist of Birds of the 
World, 1964, some of which may show intermediate characters. It is considered 
therefore that these specimens from Assam should be included in Myrsidea ishizawai 
Uchida, sens. lat. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



38i 



Material examined. From Zoothera d. dauma (Latham), Assam : Kohima, 4 <$, 4 $, 
28. i. 1952 (R. Meinertzhagen, No. 19880) B.M. (N.H.). 





Measurements 






(Specimens from 


Japan) 




? 

A 




A 




Length Breadth 


Length Breadth 


Head^ 


fo- 4 i-o- 4 3 
0-38 J 




f 0-39-0- 40 
0-36-0-37 *> 


I* 

Prothorax 


^0-58-0-61 
0-38-0-39 




o-35 


Metanotum 
Abdomen 


0-53-0-57 
1-10-1-24 0-73-0-80 




0-43-0-44 
0-81-0-85 0-61-0-62 


Total 


1 • 99-2 -17 




1-59-1-64 




Figs. 48-51. Terminal segments of male abdomen of Myrsidea species. 48. incerta, dorsal 
and ventral. 49. pricei, dorsal. 50. destructor, dorsal and ventral. 51. abidae, dorsal. 



382 T. CLAY 

The SULTANPURESIS Species Group 

i. Number and position of head setae as in the thoracica group except for the extra ventral 
setae on the temples as in ishizawai ; seta 10 is usually less than half the length of 1 1 . The outer 
occipital setae are somewhat longer than in the other groups. 

2. Number of gular setae average more than in the thoracica group. 

3. Hypopharynx reduced (to same degree as in Buckup, 1959 : 261, fig. 15). 

4. As in thoracica group. 

5. Metasternal plate with more setae, some of which are placed posteriorly (Text-fig. 4). 

6. As in thoracica group. 

7. Post-spiracular seta III long. 

8. Sternite I with setae. 

9. Male internal anal setae 10. 
io-ii. As in ishizawai. 

Characters 1, 2, 7 and 10-11 above suggest that the affinities of this species lie with 
ishizawai ; for convenience it is separated on the reduction of the hypopharynx 
(probably not of phylogenetic value, see Clay, 1962 : 220), the presence of setae on 
sternite I and the small number of outer dorso-lateral setae on tibia I. 

M. kuluensis Ansari was based on a male and female taken from a kingfisher. 
There seems little doubt that the types, although in poor condition and the male 
genital sclerite distorted, are sultanpurensis ; the specimens were collected within 
two days at the same locality as sultanpurensis and possibly came from the same host 
individual. 

M . mikadokiji Uchida (1917 .' 183) known only from the single male type may belong 
to this group ; it was taken from Calophasis mikado, a game bird, so that its true host 
is unknown. It differs from the male of sultanpurensis in having fewer gular setae 
(5 + 4) and probably slightly in the characters of the genital sclerite, but this is 
distorted. It is not possible to place this species without females and further males. 



Myrsidea sultanpurensis Ansari, 1951 
(PI. II, fig. 2 ; Text-figs. 4, 47, 63) 

Type host : Myiophoneus caeruleus temminckii Gray. 

Myrsidea sultanpurensis Ansari, 195 1 : 183, fig. 22. Host: Myiophoneus caeruleus temminckii. 
Myrsidea (Alcediniphilus) kuluensis Ansari, 1951 : 190, fig. 25. Host : Ceryle lugubris guttulata. 
[Error] syn. nov. 

This is the only known species in the species group and it is at once distinguished 
from all previous species by the reduction of the hypopharynx and the presence of 
setae on abdominal sternite I. The following description is compiled from the 
holotype female, two female paratypes and ten males and seven females from the 
type host. 

°. and (J. Setae of latero-ventral head fringe : $, 10-11 ; $, 8-1 1 ; seta 10 usually less than 
half length of 11 (range of ratio 10/11 : 0-33-0-50, mean (12) 0-40) ; gular setae : $, 11-18, mean 
(10) 15-7 ; o*, 16-18, mean (8) 16-7. Central marginal setae of metanotum : $, 5-6 each side ; 
<$, 4-5. Metasternal setae (Text-fig. 4) : $, 5-8 each side : o*> 5 - 7- Outer setae of first tibia : 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



383 



4-5. Setae of femoral brushes show rather a wide range : $, 17-28, mean (16) 20-7 ; <J 15-22, 
mean (16) 18-8. Female with abdominal sternites not markedly arched. In all available 
specimens the male genital sclerite is somewhat distorted but appears to be the same as that of 
ishizawai. 

Abdominal Chaetotaxy. Post-spiracular seta III, although not so long as that of ishizawai, is 
longer than in the thoracica group ; V and VI are similar in length to those of ishizawai. Tergo- 
central setae : 3 $, I, 9-12 ; II, 7-1 1 ; III, 8-10 ; IV, 6-7 ; V, 5-8 ; VI, 6-10 ; VII, 7-14 ; 
VIII, 4-6 ; the two inner posterior setae of IX are short. 4 <£, I. 6-8 ; II, 7-9 ; III, 8-10 ; 
IV, 8-10 ; V, 4-10 ; VI, 7-8 ; VII, 5-1 1 ; VIII, 4 ; lengths of posterior tergal setae as in 
ishizawai, except that the two inner posterior setae on IX are shorter, varying from a third to a 
half of those of ishizawai. Sternal setae : 3 $, I, 2-4, mean 3-1 ; setae of aster 5-6, mean (18 
asters) 5-5 ; II, 13-15 anterior, 16-17 marginal ; III, anterior lateral 1-5, marginal plus those of 
brushes 23-27 ; IV, anterior 6-15, marginal 25-30 ; V, 7-14, 25-32 ; VI, 6-1 1, 24-28 ; VII, 0-3, 
11-12 ; VIII-IX, 15-17 ; vulval setae : 13-21, one to five of the outer vulval setae may be stout 
and spine-like. Sternite I : 10 <$, 2-5, mean 3-7 ; setae in aster : 4-6, mean 4-75. Sternal 
setae : 1 <$, I, 4 ; II, 11 anterior, 15 marginal and 4 + 5 in aster ; III, 5 (o) -f 14 + 6 (2) ; 




Figs. 52-55. Terminal segments of male abdomen of Myrsidea species. 52. devastator, 
dorsal and ventral. 53. regius, dorsal, a, length of central tergocentral seta of VIII. 
54. indigenella, dorsal and ventral, b, dotted line is length of this seta on other side of 
body. 55. varia, dorsal. 



384 



T. CLAY 



IV, 14 (7) + 10 + 14 (7) J V, 14 (7) + 10+13 (6) ; VI, 11 (6) + 11 + 11 (6) ; VII, 4 (1) + 6 
+ 4 (2) ; VIII, 3 + 3 ; IX, 2 + 3 (other specimens range from 3-6 each side) ; internal anal 
setae 10, terminal setae 3. 

Material examined. Holotype female and two paratype females from Myio- 
phoneus caeruleus temminckii, Pakistan, Panjab, Kulu, 6.x. 1939, B.M. (N.H.). 
From the same host, 10 $, 7 $, Afghanistan, iv.1937 (R. Meinhertzhagen, nos. 9491, 
9749), B.M. (N.H.). Holotype female and allotype male of M. kuluensis from Ceryle 
lugubris guttulata, Pakistan, Panjab, Kulu, 6.x. 1939, B.M. (N.H.). 









Measurements 














? 
a. 






6* 

A 






r 
Length 


Breadth 


Range (8) 


Mean 


Length 


Breadth 


Range (8) Mean 


f 1 

Head-j 


0-36 


r°-43 


0-40-0-43 


0-42 


o-33 


fo-39 


0-37-0-40 0-38 


Prothorax 




(^0-62 
0-36 


0-58-0-62 


o-6o 




0-32 


0-53-0-59 0-55 


Metanotum 




0-51 








o-39 




Abdomen 
Total 


I -02 

1-82 


0-79 






0-92 
1 -64 


o-57 






Figs. 56-59. Terminal segments of male abdomen of Myrsidea species. 56. rohi, dorsal. 
57. simplex, dorsal. 58. montana, dorsal. 59. carrikeri, dorsal and ventral. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



385 



Myrsidea iliaci Eichler, 195 1 
Type host: Turdus iliacus Linn. 

Myrsidea iliaci Eichler, 1951. Zool. Anz., 146 : 52. Host : Turdus musicus. 

This species is quite unrecognizable from the description and there is no figure. 
Dr. Eichler informs me that the type is lost and as no specimens from the type host 
have been seen nothing further can be said about this name. 



Host List 



"} 



Turdinae arranged 

Host 

*Myiophoneus caeruleus temminckii 
*Zoothera gurneyi otomitra 
*Zoothera dauma 
*Catharus g. gracilirostris 
*Catharus fuscater mentalis 
*Catharus m. mexicanus 

Catharus minimus bicknelli 
*Catharus u. ustulatus 

* Catharus guttatus 

* Turdus a. abyssinicus 
Turdus bouloul 
Turdus merula 
Turdus chrysolaus 
Turdus obscurus 
Turdus ruficollis 

*Turdus viscivorus 
*Turdus iliacus 

* Turdus serranus 
Turdus maranonicus 
*Turdus rufiventris 

* Turdus ignobilis 
* Turdus fumigatus aquilonalis 

* Turdus fumigatus obsoletus 

* Turdus grayi casius 

* Turdus g. grayi 

* Turdus nudigenis 

* Turdus migratorius 



I. 



according to Mayr and Paynter, 1964 




♦Type host. 




Myrsidea Species 


Page No. 


M. sultanpurensis Ansari . 


• 382 


M. montana sp. n. . 


• 367 


M. ishizawai Uchida, 1926 


• 379 


M. rohi Ansari, 1956 


• 364 


M. simplex Ansari, 1956 


. 366 


M. destructor Ansari, 1956 


• 353 


M. incerta (Kellog, 1896). 


• 349 


M. pricei sp. n. 


• 35 1 


M. keniensis sp. n. . 


• 348 



M. thoracica (Giebel, 1874) 



NOTES 



34 2 



M. 


iliaci Eichler, 1951 








385 


M. 


devastator Ansari, 1956 








354 


M. 


indigenella Ansari, 1956 








356 


M. 


elegans Ansari, 1956 . 








376 


M. 


varia Ansari, 1956 








362 


M. 


abidae Ansari, 1956 . 








358 


M. 


regius Ansari, 1956 








360 


M. 


carrikeri (Eichler, 1943) 








37o 


M. 


antiqua Ansari, 1956 . 








37 2 


M. 


aitkeni sp. n. 








374 


M. 


emersoni sp. n. . 








346 



Types of Species Described by Ansari, 1956. 

The collection of types was sent to me by the U.S. National Museum in the con- 
dition it was received from Dr. Ansari. On receipt each slide was marked on the 
back with the label " U.S. Mus. Wash. " ; all these slides and any new slides with 
remounts from the original material have been marked on the back " Specimens seen 
by Ansari ". This was necessary as further material from the same host individuals 
is present in the Carriker collection. 



386 T. CLAY 

The slides had no specific names on them and apart from two, no holotype, allo- 
type or paratype designations, although these were designated in the original descrip- 
tions. Certain slides had a pencil tick and it has been presumed that this indicates 
the slide with the holotype and allotype specimens. The specimens could only be 
identified by comparing the host names and localities on the slide labels with those 
given in the original descriptions. The male on the slide with the pencil tick, from 
the type host of the species, has been labelled as holotype (all the holotypes designated 
were males) and the female as allotype. In those cases where there is more than 
one male on the slide with the pencil tick, one of these has been designated as lect"- 
type ; where there are two females these are both considered to be paratypes and the 
allotype designation ignored. Although in the original description measurements ot 
the holotypes are given, it was not found possible to relate these measurements to any 
particular specimen and therefore holotypes could not be recognized in that way. 
Female allotypes were designated but no mention made of the distinctive characters 
of the abdominal terga. 




Figs. 60-63. Terminal segments of male abdomen of Myrsidea species, dorsal. 60. antiqua. 
61. elegans. 62. ishizawai. 63. sultanpurensis. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



387 



In some specimens it was impossible to see the characters necessary for identifica- 
tion and these have been remounted. When additional slides have been used for this, 
they are labelled with photocopies of the original labels and a note has been made on 
the slide saying that the specimens have been remounted from the original type slide 
and the number of that slide given. All these species were published as new twice 
(1956 : 163-177 and 1956 : 61-62) ; in the second publication only a key to the 
species and the type hosts are given. As it has not been possible to find out the 
exact date of publication of either of these journals, only the first reference has been 
used ; this paper includes details of the type hosts, making it possible to identify the 
specimens, which it is not possible to do from the descriptions. 



2. Myrsidea fuscomarginata (Osborn, 1896) 

Type host : Unknown. 

Menopon fuscomarginatum Osborn, 1896. Bull. U.S. Bur. Ent. (n.s.), 5 : 245. Host : Turdus 
minor [Error]. 

Through the kindness of Dr. P. J. Darlington of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard University, it has been possible to examine the type specimens of 
this species. These are similar to authenticated material from species of Icteridae 
and are presumably stragglers from one of these birds. The species will be dealt 
with more fully in a subsequent part. 




Figs. 64-69. Male genital sclerites of Myrsidea species. 64. thoracica. 65. emersoni. 
66. incerta. 67. destructor, distorted. 68. devastator. 69. indigenella, distorted. 



388 



T. CLAY 

3. Genera Described by Zlotorzycka, 1964 



It is difficult to understand some of these genera, as the characters used for separa- 
tion may be incorrect or found in other species or variable within the group. For 
instance, a female paratype of Eichlerinopon celeripes = M. cornicis has a group 
of spine-like setae at each postero-lateral corner of sternite II although these are 
said to be absent (: 179), these are also present in M. anthorax. M. anaspila also 
placed in this " genus " has a long group of setae each end of sternite II. The two 
latter species do not have the modifications of the anterior tergites as described. The 
males of these three species all have a group of spine-like or elongated setae each side 
of sternite II not as given in the description. Further, as the males and females of E. 
celeripes, the type-species, belong to different species (see below) it is difficult to 
know what this " genus " represents. One of the characters separating Densidea 
is said to be that the spine-like setae in the aster of sternite II are all long in the 
female and in the male some are shorter. However, it can be seen in the measure- 
ments of these setae (see below) from a small number of males and females of rustica 
(the type-species of Densidea) that there is overlap in the lengths in the two sexes so 
that this is not even a specific character 





Figs. 70-75. Male genital sclerites of Myrsidea species. 70. abidae. 71 
C, lateral comb-like structure, distorted. 73. varia. 74. rohi. 



regius. 72. ishizawai. 
75. simplex. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



389 



1st (outer) spine . 

2nd .... 

3rd .... 

4th . 

5th (not always present) 



028-0-040 (7) 
038-0-060 (7) 
048-0-064 (7) 
054-0-068 (6) 
060-0-072 (4) 



0-020-0-040 (6) 
0-032-0-052 (7) 
0-048-0-064 (7) 
0-052-0-070 (7) 
0-056-0-078 (4) 



Confusion has also been caused by some of the specimens on which descriptions 
are based being obvious stragglers. For instance, figs. 5a-c said to represent species 
from Corvus corax, C.frugilegus and C.corone are almost certainly all Myrsidea cornicis 
from Corvus corone. The male holotype and the female paratype (photo 9) of 
Eichlerinopon celeripes belong to different species : the female has the hypopharynx 
reduced and this together with fig. 5b shows that the specimen is cornicis, this species 
is the only one from European Corvus in which the hypopharynx is reduced ; photo 9 
of the male shows the hypopharynx in its normal unmodified form. The male may 
belong to one of the already described species from the Corvidae but is not recognizable 
from the description; this is unfortunate as it is the holotype of the type species of 
Eichlerinopon. Paratypes of Neomyrsidella usitata Zlotorzycka are typical Myrsidea 
anathorax (Nitzsch) from the same host. It is unfortunate in the descriptions that no 
figures are given of the female anterior terga (except for one species) nor of the male 
genital sclerite. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I am greatly indebted to various persons and institutions for the loan of type and 
other material : to Dr. P. D. Hurd and Mr. Jerry A. Powell for assistance in examining 
some of the Kellogg types ; to Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke for the loan of material from the 
United States National Museum ; to Dr. T. H. G. Aitken, Mr. M. A. Carriker, Dr. 
K. C. Emerson, Professor G. J. Spencer and Dr. J. Zlotorzycka for the loan of 
specimens. The following abbreviations are used for the collections : B.M. (N.H.) — 
British Museum (Natural History) ; C.C. — Carriker collection ; E.C. — Emerson 
collection. I am indebted to Arthur Smith (A.S.) for his figures. 






77 vy 



Figs. 76-78. Male genital sclerites of Myrsidea species. 76. carrikeri. 77. antiqua. 

78. elegans. 



39o T. CLAY 

REFERENCES 

(Those papers listed in Keler, i960 are not in general included here). 

Ansari, A. R. M. 1956. A Contribution to our knowledge of Myrsidea (Mallophaga) occurring 
on Turdidea (sens. lat.). Pakist. J. Hlth 5 : 163-177. 

1956. Some new Myrsidea (Amblycera : Mallophaga) occurring on Turdidae, sens. lat. 

Proc. Vlllth Pakist. Sci. Conf. 3, Biol. : 61-62. 

Buckup, L. 1959. Der Kopf von Myrsidea comicis (de Geer). Zool. Jb. Anal. 77, 241-288. 
Carriker, M. A. 1963. Neotropical Mallophaga (Insecta) Miscellany, no. 13. Revta. Bras. biol. 

23 : 293-316. 
Clay, T. 1961. A new genus and species of Menoponidae (Mallophaga) from Apteryx. Ann. 

Mag. nat. Hist. (13) 3 (i960) : 571-576. 
1962. A key to the species of Actornithophilus Ferris with notes and description of new 

species. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. Entom. 11 : 189-244. 
1962. A new species of Anatoecus Cummings (Mallophaga) from Phoenicopterus ruber Linn. 

Ent. Ber., Amst. 22 : 220-226. 

1964. Geographical distribution of the Mallophaga (Insecta). Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 84 : 

14-16. 

Clay, T. & Hopkins, G. H. E. i960. The early literature on Mallophaga, pt. IV. Bull. 

Br. Mus. nat. Hist., Entom. 9 : 1-61. 
Hinton, H. E. 1940. A monographic revision of the Mexican water beetles of the family 

Elmidae. Novit. Zool. 42 : 217-396. 
Keler, S. von. i960. Bibliographie der Mallophagen. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berl. 36 : 146-403. 
Kim, K. G., Brown, B. W. & Cook, E. F. 1963. A quantitative taxonomic study of the 

Enderleinellus suturalis complex (Anoplura : Hoplopleuridae) . Syst. Zool. 12 : 134-148. 
Mayr, E. 1951. Speciation in birds. Proc. Xth. Intern. Ornith. Congr. Upsala : 91-131. 
Mayr, E. & Paynter, R. A. 1964. Check-list of Birds of the World, 10 : 13-177. Cambridge, 

Mass. 
Zlotorzycka, J. 1964. Mallophaga parasitizing Passeriformes and Pici. Acta parasit. pol. 

12 : 165-192. 



Tables I-VIII 
Key to species of Myrsidea : 

A. thoracica. J. regius 

B. emersoni. K. varia. 

C. keniensis. L. rohi 

D. incerta. M. simplex 

E. pricei. N. montana. 

F. destructor. O. carrikeri. 

G. devastator. P. antiqua. 
H. indigenella. Q. ehgans. 

I. abidae. R. ishizawai. 

S. sultanpurensis . 

R. range ; M. mean ; number of specimens in brackets. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



39 1 



Table I 



1. 


R. 




M 


II. 


R 




M 


III. 


R. 




M 


IV. 


R. 




M 


V. 


R. 




M 


VI. 


R. 




M 


VII. 


R. 




M 


VIII. 


R. 




M 





Tergocentral setae 












$ 










A- (5) 


C.(2) 


D. (9) 


E. (5) 


G. (7) 


0.(5) 


P-(3) 


9-1 1 


13-16 


9-12 


9-13 


35-40 


16-18 


12-14 


io-o 




10-7 


10-4 


36-7 


17-0 


130 


9-1 1 


9-1 1 


9-14 


10-13 


24-33 


16-18 


14-16 


9-5 




n-6 


12-2 


3»-7 


16-8 


14-7 


10-12 


11-12 


9-13 


II-I3 


23-27 


19-24 


15-19 


II -o 




10-7 


12-0 


24-3 


21 -6 


16-7 


11-15 


11-13 


8-1 1 


IO-I3 


20-27 


21-25 


14-19 


12-4 




9-8 


n-6 


23-1 


23-2 


17-0 


13-15 


12-15 


7-1 1 


8-1 1 


14-25 


22-27 


16-20 


13-6 




9-4 


9-0 


21 -6 


250 


18-0 


11-13 


11-14 


4-6 


4-6 


14-24 


19-25 


16-22 


12-0 




5-2 


5'3 


15-7 


23-0 


i8-3 


7-1 1 


7 


4 


4 


4-8 


15-20 


13-17 


9-0 










18-4 


15-7 


3-4 


4 


4 


A 


4-6 


10-12 


8-1 1 


3-8 










II -o 


93 



Table II 
Tergocentral setae 







A. (7) 


C. (2) 


E. (4) 


L- (3) 


N. (8) 


O. (6) 


p- (4) 


I. . 


R. 


6-8 


IO-II 


4-8 


7-10 


10-14 


12-15 


12-15 




M. 


7-3 




6-o 


8-3 


12 -o 


13-6 


13-2 


II. . 


R. 


7-10 


IO-II 


8-1 1 


7-10 


10-13 


14-18 


15-17 




M. 


8-7 




9-5 


8-5 


II -o 


16-0 


15-7 


III. 


R. 


8-1 1 


10-12 


8-1 1 


9-10 


10-14 


17-22 


15-17 




M. 


9-9 




9-7 


9-3 


12-0 


19-5 


l6'2 


IV. . 


R. 


9-12 


11-13 


10-13 


9-10 


IO-I3 


19-22 


17-20 




M. 


10-9 




11 -o 


9-5 


n-6 


21 -o 


17-7 


V. 


R. 


7-14 


12-13 


9-10 


7-9 


11-14 


19-24 


16-19 




M. 


11 -o 




9-6 


8-o 


I2-0 


21-3 


16-7 


VI. 


R. 


9-1 1 


11-12 


4-8 


7-8 


8-I4 


18-21 


15-17 




M. 


IO-O 




6-o 


7-7 


II -o 


20-0 


15-5 


VII. 


R. 


6-9 


8-9 


4 


4 


6-8 


I5-I8 


13-15 




M. 


7-3 




4 -o 


4-0 


7-0 


17-0 


14-0 


VIII. . 


R. 


4 


3-5 


4 


4 


4-7 


9-12 


7-9 




M. 


4-0 




4-0 


4-0 


5-4 


io-o 


8-o 



392 T. CLAY 











Table III 
















Marginal setae of sternites* 












A- (5) 


D. (14) 


I. (a) 


J- (5) + 


L. (2) 


M.( 3 ) 


0.(2) 


P- (3) 


III. 


. R. 


22-25 


17-18 


24-25 


21-22 


16-18 


13-15 


26 


21-23 




M. 


23-6 






21 -7 




14-0 




21-6 


IV. 


. R. 


24-26 


16-22 


23-24 


22-24 


17-18 


18-20 


26-28 


20-25 




M. 


25-2 






23-0 




19-0 




22-0 


V. 


. R. 


21-24 


19-21 


22-23 


23-24 


17 


16-19 


24-28 


21-22 




M. 


23-0 






23-4 




17-6 




21 -6 


VI. 


. R. 

M. 


20-23 
21-4 


17-22 


20-22 


19-22 
20-8 


18 


16-17 
16-6 


23-26 


20 


VII. 


. R. 


12-14 


8-14 


IO-II 


14-17 


15-17 


8-10 


15 


IO-II 




M. 


13-2 






15-2 




9-0 




10-3 


VIII. 


. R. 


10-12 


8-12 


II 


11-17 


11 


11-12 


12-17 • 


13-15 


-IX 






















M. 


io-8 






14-6 




n-3 




13-6 


Vu. 


R. 


11-13 


10-13 


13-15 


17-22 


11-14 


12-15 


12-16 • 


13-15 




M. 


12-0 






19-0 




13-3 


13-6 


14-0 



* Includes marginal setae of brushes ; -f includes Trinidad specimens ; 

• range and mean of 5 specimens ; Vu. marginal setae of vulva. 



Table IV 

Lateral anterior sternal setae* 

? 
A. (10) D. (28) I. (4) J. (10) L. (4) M. (6) O. (4) P. (6) 



III. 


. R. 


0-2 


0-2 


2-3 


4-7 


o-3 





2 


2-3 




M. 


0-7 






49 


i-5 





2-0 


2-7 


IV. 


. R. 


6-9 


2-6 


IO-II 


7-1 1 


2-3 


3-5 


5-7 


6-9 




M. 


7-8 






8-9 


2-5 


3-8 


6-o 


7-8 


V. 


. R. 


8-13 


4-8 


8-IO 


7-1 1 


2-5 


3-5 


9-10 


6-8 




M. 


IO-2 






9-1 


3-7 


4-2 


9-2 


7-2 


VI. 


. R. 


4-9 


2-6 


5-7 


4-10 


0-2 


2-5 


4-5 


4-6 




M. 


6-6 






7-3 


1 


2-7 


4-8 


5-3 


VII. 


. R. 


o-3 


O-I 


1-2 


o-3 





O-I 


1 


O-I 




M. 


1 • 1 






1 • 1 





o- 17 


1 -o 


0-83 



* Lateral brushes, not including marginal setae, each side of abdomen 
considered separately. 



III. 


. R. 




M. 


IV. 


. R. 




M. 


V. 


. R. 




M. 


VI. 


. R. 




M. 


VII. 


. R. 




M. 


ail. 


. R. 




M. 


IX. 


. R. 




M. 



REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 393 



Table V 

Marginal setae of sternites 

6* 

A. (7) I. (2) J. (3)* K. (3) L- (3) N. (8) O. (2) P. (4) Q. (3) 

16-24 2 3 _2 4 20-23 19-21 12-15 I 7 _2 3 2 4 _2 5 22-28 28-29 

19-7 .. .. .. .. 19-6 .. 24-5 

20-23 24-25 22 - 2 5 18-20 14-15 21-24 22-32 22-24 27-28 

21-3 . . . . . . . . 22 -o . . 23-0 

18-23 2 4 21-24 19-20 15-17 18-22 25 22-26 27-28 

20-7 . . . . . . . . 20-7 . . 23-7 

17-22 19-22 19-22 17-18 15-16 17-22 23 20-24 22-26 

19-6 . . . . . . . . 19-1 . . 22-0 

12-15 12-17 14-17 12-13 I 4 _I 5 I °- I 5 17-18 14 18-27 

13-3 .. .. .. .. 13-4 

5-8 7-8 8-10 5-6 4-7 5-12 11-14+ 9-1 1 13-16 

6-4 . . . . . . . . 7-6 12 -o 10-7 

6-8 10-12 8-1 1 8-9 8-9 6-9 8-1 1 + 8-10 12-10 

7-1 . . . . . . . . 7-9 9-0 9-0 



* Includes one Trinidad specimen, see also text. + 6 specimens. 



Table VI 

Lateral anterior sternal setae 

d* 

A. (14) I. (4) J. (6)* K. (6) L. (6) N.(i6) O. (4) P. (8) Q. (5) 

III. . R. 0-2 1-2 3-5 0-2 0-1 2-5 2-3 1-3 1-4 

M. 0-71 . . 4-0 . . . . 3-1 . . 1-7 

IV. . R. 3-7 6-9 7-10 4-5 1-4 3-8 5-9 4-8 5-8 

M. 4-8 .. 8-o .. .. 5-8 .. 5-9 

V. . R. 4-8 4-7 7-10 4-6 2-3 4-8 6-7 4-9 6-9 

M. 6-5 .. 8-5 .. .. 6-i .. 7-1 

VI. . R. 2-5 4-8 6-7 3-4 1-3 2-6 5-7 6-9 3-8 

M. 4-1 .. 6-5 .. .. 4-6 .. 6-7 

VII. . R. 0-1 1-2 1-2 0-1 o 0-3 1 1-2 0-6 

M. 0-5 .. 1-5 .. .. 0-4 .. i-i 

* As in Table V. 



394 



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m 


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11 — 


3T 




<-o 




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N 




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M 




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^ 


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JO 


N 


o 


N 


00 


ts 


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«<■ 


O 


o 


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o 


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o 


O 


o 


N 




CC 




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a 




H 

















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00 


o 
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w> 


o 


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cr 


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iO 


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o 


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«"s «s 



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REVISION OF MYRSIDEA 



395 





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PLATE I 

Figs. 1-7. Myrsidea spp. 1, thoracica (Giebel). Male genitalia, g, genital sclerite ; 2, 
latifrons (Carriker). Male genital sclerite ; 3, picae (Linn.). Male genital sclerite ; 4, 
antiqua Ansari. Spermatheca ; 5, thoracica (Giebel). Sclerotized end of spermathecal 
tube ; 6, thoracica (Giebel). Metasternal plate and view of flattened mesothorax ; 
b, mesonotum ; c, mesosternum, d, metasternal plate ; 7, montana sp. n. Male genital 
sclerite. All phase contrast. 



Bull. B.M. (N.H.) Entom. 17, 8 



PLATE 1 




PLATE 2 

Figs. 1-7. Female heads of M yrsidea spp. 1, ishizaw ai Uchida ; 2, sultanpurensis Ansari ; 
3, carrikeri (Eichler) (B.M. Neg. 34252) ; 4, abidae Ansari (B.M. Neg. 34249) ; 5, incerta 
(Kellogg) (B.M. Neg. 34245) ; 6, rohi Ansari (B.M. Neg. 34253) ; 7, varia Ansari (B.M. 
Neg. 34 2 43)- 



Bull. B.M. (N.H.) Entom. 17, 8 



PLATE 2 





f v 



> 



c 




■PW 







A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 

TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



i. Masner, L. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. £5. 

2. Nixon, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 ; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. £6. 

3. Watson, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera) . Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. £4 4s. 

4. Sands, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965. £3 5s- 

5. Ahmad, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156; 
475 Text figures. November, 1965. £2 15s. 

6. Okada, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae & Drosophilidae . 
In press. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED, BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



2 i JAN 



A REVISION OF THE BRITISH ^ikl 

ALEYRODIDAE 
(HEMIPTERA : HOMOPTERA) 



L. A. MOUND 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 9 

LONDON : 1966 



^ 
^ 



(HEMIPTERA : HOMOPTERA) 



BY 



L. A. MOUND 



A 



Dept. of Entomology, British Museum (Nat. Hist.) 



Pp. 397-428 ; 29 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 9 

LONDON 11966 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL history), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. ly, No. 9 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1966 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 4 January, 1966 Price Fourteen Shillings 



A REVISION OF THE BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 
(HEMIPTERA : HOMOPTERA) 



By L. A. MOUND 



CONTENTS 
Introduction ....... 

List of species recorded from Britain 
Preparation of material for microscopical study 
Key to genera ....... 

Systematic List of genera of host plants . 
References ....... 

Index to genera and species .... 



Page 
399 
401 
402 
402 
424 
425 
4 2 7 



SYNOPSIS 
At present it is rarely possible to recognize species of whitefly when the only instar available for 
study is the adult. The generic classification is based on the morphology of the pupal cases, 
and species can be accurately defined on this instar if allowance is made for the occurrence of 
host-correlated variation in certain structures. Fifteen species are known in this country from 
their pupal cases, and these are figured and redescribed, and a key for their determination has 
been constructed. The record of a further species is not accepted as it is based only upon 
observations on adults. Three new synonymies and one new combination are given. 

INTRODUCTION 

The insects belonging to the family Aleyrodidae have been neglected to a remarkable 
extent by British entomologists. Nineteen species are listed in the 1964 edition of 
Kloet & Hincks, but in the following revision more than half of those entries have 
to be delected or altered in some way. Fifteen species placed in twelve genera are 
here considered to be validly recorded from this country, and there is one further 
species of which the record is regarded as doubtful. 

The taxonomy of the Aleyrodidae is unusual in that species are more readily 
defined on characters of the " pupal case ", the exuvium of the fourth instar larva, 
than on the winged adults. It is barely possible to recognize even the British species 
of adult whitefly, and moreover it is not possible at present to associate the adults 
into genera. The basis of the generic classification was laid by Quaintance & Baker 
(1913 and 1914) using the pupal cases, and in view of the fact that this is the stage 
most frequently collected, most authors have adopted this system. Host plant 
records based on pupal cases are clearly of greater biological significance than 
records based on adults, which may alight fortuitously upon almost any plant. The 
difficulties encountered with the present classification are probably the result of 
more work on the group having been carried out in temperate regions, whereas most 
species occur in the tropics. 

In recent years the accuracy with which species can be defined has been greatly 
increased. Russell (1948) has demonstrated that there are numerous characters 
to be observed on the pupal cases, although accurate observation of small pores and 
setae less than 3/t in length necessitates the use of an oil-immersion objective as well 
as very careful preparation of the specimens. In the following pages, references to 



ENTOM. 17, 9 



19 



400 L. A. MOUND 

recent descriptions or descriptive details are given of all the species recorded from 
Britain, since several of these have never been described adequately. Earlier 
workers failed to define the species to which they were referring, and it was common 
practice to apply as specific epithet to a whitefly, the name of the host plant on 
which it was found, without attempting to recognize the species morphologically. 
Thus Trehan (1940) refers to a whitefly from Corylus avellana as A . avellanae Signoret, 
despite the fact that Signoret described his species as having spotted wings and 
Trehan's specimens had immaculate wings. In the same paper, Trehan refers to a 
species from Carpinus as A . carpini Koch, although the description of the latter is so 
vague that the name cannot be applied with accuracy to any species. For similar 
reasons, the records of aceris Geoffroy and vaccinii Kunow from the North of England 
(Harrison, 1920) are not accepted here. Records are only acceptable if they are 
based on a microscopical examination of the pupal case and, where possible, com- 
parison should be made with " type specimens " or other accurately determined 
material. Unless stated otherwise, material used in the following studies is deposited 
in the British Museum (Natural History). 

One of the most interesting, and for the taxonomist, most disconcerting, aspects 
of the Aleyrodidae is the remarkable range of variation in appearance of the pupal 
cases of certain species. Moreover, this variation is to a large extent related to the 
type of leaf surface upon which the insect has developed. On a hairy leaf, pupal 
cases are usually small, with a deeply crenulate, often indented, margin and elongate 
dorsal setae. The same species on a smooth leaf may have a large pupal case with 
a smooth border and few or no elongate dorsal setae (Russell, 1948 on Trialeurodes; 
Mound, 1963 on Bemisia). The present author has recently examined a specimen of 
Bemisia tabaci from a grass leaf. This pupal case was very elongate, similar in shape to 
certain other grass living species, e.g. Aleurocybotus, and quite different in shape from 
typical B. tabaci on one of its many dicotyledonous hosts. This type of variation is very 
confusing and has given rise to numerous synonyms in certain species (Russell, 1958). 

An interesting ecological problem is the remarkable persistence of individual 
populations of whitefly. Thus T. ericae has been known at Camberley, Surrey, on 
Erica tetralix for over thirty-five years. The populations of S. phillyreae and P. 
azaleae at Wisley must be of similar long standing, each on the same group of shrubs, 
throughout that period. The same appears to be true of the Ivy Whitefly, S. 
immaculata, for which the present author has frequently searched. Although this 
insect is quite widespread and the number of individuals at any one site may be 
large, populations are only rarely encountered. The existence of such long lived 
populations could be of considerable interest to the ecologist who wishes to study the 
interaction of predators and parasites with climate upon an insect population 
(Mound, 1965a). 

The three species marked in the following list as having been found only in green- 
houses in this country may not survive for long, as a result of improvements in 
chemical control of insects. However, the Greenhouse Whitefly T. vaporariorum 
is still all too common and is the most important pest in this family in Europe. 
A . jelinekii, D. chittendeni and P. azaleae may occasionally develop sufficiently large 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 401 

populations to be regarded as minor pests, whereas in tropical countries whitefly are 
important on a number of crops, e.g. Citrus (Aleurocanthus woglumi, Dialeurodes 
citri, Aleurothrixus flocossus) , sugar cane (Aleurolobus barodensis, Neomaskellia bergii), 
coconut and cashew (Aleurodicus cocois). On cotton, tobacco and cassava, Bemisia 
tabaci is a pest both in its own right (Mound, 1965c) and as a virus vector (Tarr, 
1951 ; Beck & Chant, 1958). 

The list of host plants (page 424) was arranged systematically under families at the 
suggestion of Dr. V. F. Eastop, for whose frequent advice the author is very grateful. 
This systematic arrangement of plants draws attention to the different types of 
host association which can be found amongst the Aleyrodidae. Two species are 
almost certainly monophagous, S. immaculata on Hedera, and T. ericae on Erica. 
At the other extreme are A. fragariae, polyphagous on many herbs and under 
shrubs in Europe, and B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum, which have been found in 
various parts of the world on numerous plants, both monocotyledons and dicoty- 
ledons. Some whitefly have a host range which is basically limited to plants of 
known botanical affinity, such as P. quercus on Corylaceae and Fagaceae. But in 
other species the host range is not associated with botanical relationship, e.g. A. 
jelinekii on Viburnum and Arbutus. These two plants belong to widely different 
families, but it may be noted that they both have hard evergreen leaves. A similar 
relationship exists between the host plants of A. proletella, but in this case the 
leaves are soft and smooth. A. fragariae, it should be noted, has been found on 
both smooth and hairy leaves. 

The author is pleased to acknowledge the help and advice of Mr. F. Laing, by 
whom the whitefly collection at the BM (NH) was developed and arranged. 

LIST OF SPECIES RECORDED FROM BRITAIN 

Aleyrodes proletella (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Aleyrodes fragariae Walker, 1852 
?? Aleurochiton complanatus (Baerensprung, 1849) 
t Aleuropteridis filicicola (Newstead, 1911) 

Aleurotrachelus jelinekii (von Frauenfeld, 1867) 
f Aleurotulus nephrohpidis (Quaintance, 1900) 

Asterobemisia avellanae (Signoret, 1868) 
* Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) 

Dialeurodes chittendeni Laing, 1928 
•f Filicaleyrodes williamsi (Trehan, 1938) 

Pealius azaleae (Baker & Moles, 1920) 

Pealius quercus (Signoret, 1868) 

Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday, 1834) 

Siphoninus immaculata (Heeger, 1855) 

Tetralicia ericae Harrison, 1917 

Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856) 

? ? Doubtful record, apparently refers only to adults. 

* Status of species doubtful. 

f Only in glasshouses in this country. 



4Q2 L. A. MOUND 

PREPARATION OF MATERIAL FOR MICROSCOPICAL STUDY 

The best mounts are obtained from pupal cases from which adults have emerged. 
It should be noted that the presence of a parasite often results in morphological 
changes in a whitefly pupal case and such specimens are best avoided. Pupal cases 
are picked from leaves with needles, placed in 10% sodium hydroxide, and heated 
gently for up to ten minutes depending on the age and size of the specimens. At 
the end of this period, cold glacial acetic acid is poured into the hydroxide causing the 
pupal cases to float and usually removing the cuticular wax. It is essential that 
this wax be removed before staining, and prolonged treatment with hydroxide 
should be avoided or much of the cuticular detail will be lost. Wash the specimens 
in glacial acetic acid and then stain with acid fuchsin for up to ten minutes. Black 
pupal cases need not be stained but should be bleached in Diaphanol or chlorine 
vapour. The stained material may be dehydrated in a mixture of equal parts of 
glacial acetic acid and cellosolve, then cleared in carbol-xylol, and finally xylol before 
mounting in Canada balsam. It is best to mount some specimens dorsal side and 
others ventral side up, although with certain species the dorsum can be removed 
from the ventral surface and the two mounted side by side. 

Key to Genera 

i Median length of abdominal segment seven less than half that of segment six (Text- 
figs. 7 and 12) ........... 2 

- Median length of abdominal segment seven more than half that of segment six, these 

two segments often about equal in length (Text-figs. 1 and 9) . . . . 7 

2 Expanded lingula tip at least twice as long as broad, elongate spatulate or conical 

in shape, vasiform orifice elongate triangular; abdominal segments four to eight 

each with one pair of subdorsal setae ........ 3 

- Expanded lingula tip distinctly knobbed, never twice as long as broad ... 4 

3 Caudal furrow present; transverse moulting suture extends laterally 

BEMISIA (p. 413) 

- Caudal furrow not developed; transverse suture extends laterally then curves to 

anterior meeting in mid-line of cephalic region . . ASTEROBEMISIA (p. 411) 

4 Submarginal papillae present ; marginal crenulations weak and irregular ; lingula tip 

with three paired lateral, and one distal, lobes ...... 5 

- Submarginal papillae absent; marginal crenulations well developed and regular . 6 

5 Submarginal papillae conical ; tracheal pore areas not well defined 

TRIALEURODES (p. 422) 

- Submarginal papillae broad and shallow; tracheal pore areas well defined 

FILICALEYRODES (p. 416) 

6 Lingula tip small, D-shaped, with two basal lobes; floor of vasiform orifice with 

many ridges PE ALIUS (p. 418) 

- Lingula tip large, circular, extending beyond hind margin of orifice (in poor pre- 

parations, apparently D-shaped and included within orifice) ALEUROTULUS (p. 410) 

7 Pupal case with black cuticle .......... 8 

- Cuticle of pupal case white, colourless, or light brown ...... 9 

8 Dorsal disc recurved ventrally, without dorsal wax . . TETR ALICIA (p. 420) 

- Dorsal disc not recurved ventrally, keeled in mid-line, dorsum with much wax 

"ALEUROTRACHELUS" (p. 410) 

9 Dorsum with numerous tubes, each about 100 /* long . . SIPHONINUS (p. 419) 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 



403 



- Dorsum never with tubes, with or without long setae . . . . . . 10 

10 Dorsal disc recurved ventrally around margin, looking like a submarginal fold or 

suture ALEUROPTERIDIS (p. 408) 

— Dorsal disc not recurved ventrally ......... 11 

11 Operculum almost covers lingula; small paired setae close to caudal furrow just 

behind orifice; dorsal disc with numerous small tubercles "DIALEURODES" (p. 414) 

— Operculum not covering lingula tip; without setae close to furrow behind orifice . 12 

12 Vasiform orifice subcordate; lingula tip expanded, spatulate; pupal case pale 

ALEYRODES (p. 403) 
■ — Vasiform orifice widely open at posterior; lingula tip scarcely expanded; pupal 

case light brown with darker markings .... ALEUROCHITON (p. 407) 

Family ALEYRODIDAE Westwood, 1840 
Subfamily ALEYRODINAE 

All the species recorded from this country belong to one subfamily. The species 
of the other subfamily, the Aleurodicinae Qu. & B., 1913, are mainly described from 
South America. 

ALEYRODES Latreille, 1796 

Type-species, Phalaena (Tinea) proletella Linnaeus, 1758. 

This, the first whiten 1 y genus to be named, was defined by Latreille and placed as 
the sole genus in a new, but unnamed, family in 1796 (p. 93). No species were 
included at this date but the publication is valid, as in 1801-2 (p. 264) Latreille 
redefined the genus and added " Exemples, Tinea proletella Lin. (Et quelques 
pucerons) ". It should be noted that he had first indicated the hemipterous nature 
of proletella in 1795 (p. 304). 

Linnaeus first published the name proletella under Phalaena (Tinea) in 1758, 
Systema Naturae, ed. 10 : 537, no. 261, but his description " alis albidis punctis 
duobus fuscis, lingua inflexa " was followed by a " dagger mark " f- This mark is 
interpreted by Steam (1957 : 162) as indicating either that Linnaeus had not seen 
the species or that there was some doubt about it. In the Twelfth Edition, the same 
entry is given, but under number 379. However in the revision by Gmelin (1790 : 
2594), the Thirteenth Edition, the entry is followed by the words " an hujus 
familiae? ". It seems likely that Linnaeus never observed the species himself, 
particularly as neither first nor second edition of Fauna Suecica (1746 and 1761) 
contain any reference to it. 

The identity of the insect species referred to by Linnaeus under the name proletella 
is clarified from a study of the rest of the entry which follows his description quoted 
above, " Vallisn. nat. 1. p. 372. t. 379 ; Reaum. ins. 2. t. 25 ; Habitat in Brassica, 
Chelidonio ; an etiam in Quercu ? Parit quotannis ad 200000 soboles ; dum 12 
progenies ponant 12 ova singulae." Reaumur (1736 : 302-317, plate 25) gives a 
good account of the life history of the insect on " L'eclaire " (Greater Celandine, 
Chelidonium major) and also gives reasons for considering this as the same species as 
that found on cabbage. Seventeen figures are included and the structure of the 



404 L. A. MOUND 

rostrum is contrasted with the coiled mouth-parts of other " phalenes ". The author 
goes so far as to suggest that this insect might be placed in a new class of moths on 
account of this character as well as the waxy nature of the powder covering the 
wings. The reference to Vallisneri (1733 : 372-378), which is also given by Reaumur, 
is to a long letter from Cestoni giving an account of the behaviour of the cabbage 
whitefly. The emergence of the winged adult from the sessile larva is described, and 
this article goes on to state that the insect is not only found on cabbage, but also on 
oak, various grasses, and other plants both " comestibili e non comestibili ". From 
this it is almost certain that Cestoni was concerned with more than one species. 
However, as Linnaeus gives only Brassica and Chelidonium as definite hosts for his 
species, this is an indication that proletella refers to the common European Cabbage 
Whitefly, as discussed and figured by Reaumur from Chelidonium. 

Only two valid species of the genus Aleyrodes are recorded from the British Isles, 
and the pupal cases of these may be separated by the use of the following key : 

Vasiform orifice smoothly rounded at posterior, lateral margins without tooth-like 
ridges; abdomen without median tubercles but with transverse rows of minute 
microtrichia ; caudal setae usually extend little beyond body margin; three pairs 
of major dorsal setae equal in length to caudal setae . A. proletella (p. 404) 

Vasiform orifice sharply transverse at posterior, with terminal triangular lobe, 
lateral margins with tooth-like ridges; abdomen usually with median tubercles; 
caudal setae extend well beyond body margin usually; often more than three 
pairs of major dorsal setae, up to six pairs, equal in length to caudal setae 

A.fragariae (p. 406) 

Aleyrodes proletella (Linnaeus) 
(Text-figs. 1-3) 

Phalaena (Tinea) proletella Linnaeus, 1758. 

Phalaena culiciformis Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785 : 306. 

Aleyrodes proletella (L.) Latreille, 1 801-2. 

Aleyrodes chelidonii Latreille, 1807. 

Aleyrodes brassicae Walker, 1852. 

The specific epithets culiciformis and chelidonii were both proposed as new names 
for the whitefly of Chelidonium major. A. brassicae was stated by Walker in his 
description to be " possibly a variety of " the Chelidonium Whitefly, and Haupt 
(1935) and Trehan (1940) have both indicated that brassicae is a synonym of proletella. 

A . proletella is common throughout England and occasionally is a pest on cabbages 
and Brussels sprouts. It occurs throughout the year and it is not unusual to find 
adults in January moving freely on leaves bearing snow and frost. The geographical 
distribution of the species has yet to be discovered but the present author has 
examined material from Nairobi, Kenya, on Sonchus, from an unknown host at 
Bahia, Brazil, and from Vicia and Cichorium at Alexandria, U.A.R. 

Pupal case. Usually on lower surface of leaves, White, occasionally with faint pigmentation 
laterally on cephalo-thorax, sometimes yellowish particularly when parasitized. Living fourth 
instar often yellow/green due to body contents, or apparently black when containing parasite 
pupal case. Rarely with marginal wax. Length 1*3— !•$ mm. Breadth o'8-o'9 mm. 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 



4°5 




Figs. i-6. i. Aleyrodes proletella, dorsal and ventral surfaces. 2. A. proletella, posterior 
margin. 3. A. proletella, vasiform orifice. 4. Aleyrodes fragariae, dorsal surface. 5. A. 
fragariae, vasiform orifice. 6. Aleurochiton complanatus, vasiform orifice. 

ENTOM. 17, 9 I9§ 



406 L. A. MOUND 

Margin. Smoothly crenulate, 8-10 crenulations in 50 11. Weak ridges, about 30 /x long, run 
medially from crenulations. If margin is not quite flat, these ridges appear like stout crenula- 
tions. Anterior and posterior marginal setae present, 10-15 /j. long. Caudal setae submarginal 
in origin, about 15 ft long, arising 10 11 within margin. Tracheal pore areas not differentiated. 

Dorsal surface. Three pairs of major setae, 10-15 f 1 l° n g> on cephalic region, and first and 
eighth abdominal segments. Eighth abdominal setae lateral to anterior margin of operculum, 
about 15 fi. from orifice. Fourteen pairs of minor dorsal setae, 3 11 in length or shorter, about 
25 (i from margin. These setae arranged as follows ; cephalic region four pairs, prothorax one 
pair, mesothorax two pairs, metathorax one pair, first abdominal segment one pair, abdominal 
segments four to eight each with one pair. These setae most obvious on posterior abdominal 
segments, often concealed by rolling of margin or submarginal ridges. Transverse moulting 
suture short, reaches external margin of legs, barely turns to anterior, pupal case often torn in 
this region. Thoracico-abdominal suture visible medially just posterior to transverse moulting 
suture. Abdominal rhachis weakly defined, with transverse rows of finest microtrichia. 
Abdominal sutures extend to subdorsum, sutures one to seven with paired submedian depres- 
sions. First and second abdominal sutures bend to anterior. Segments one to six, and eight 
subequal in length, seven shorter, about three-quarters of six in mid-line. Abdomen with four 
paired rows of pores; submedian, posterior to submedian depressions ; latero-median, near 
lateral extremities of segmental sutures ; subdorsal ; and submarginal, close to minor setae. 
Latero-median and subdorsal pores absent on segment two. Each pore is accompanied by a 
circular area which fails to stain as deeply as the surrounding cuticle. These structures (pseudo- 
pores) lie close to the pores on the rhachis, but in the submarginal row the pseudopores are much 
closer to the margin than the pores. Pores and pseudopores irregular in number in submarginal 
row. Vasiform orifice slightly wider than long, length 65 11, breadth 75 11 approximately. 
Lateral margins not toothed, internal surface lightly sculptured, posterior margin entire. 
Operculum transversely rectangular, occupies less than half of orifice, about 30 11 long. Lingula 
exposed but included within orifice, lingula tip usually as broad as long, sometimes rather longer 
than broad, paired terminal setae extend beyond orifice margin. Caudal ridges very weakly 
defined. 

Ventral surface. Meso- and metathoracic legs each with a minute (2 11) seta basally. One 
pair of small setae just anterior to rostrum, 5 11 long and about 5 11 apart. Ventral abdominal 
setae antero-medial of posterior spiracles, 15 11 long and about 50 fi apart. Anterior abdominal 
spiracles larger than posterior spiracles, tracheal folds not differentiated. Antennae extend to 
base of first leg. 

Host plants : Brassica spp., Chelidonium major, Sonchus sp., Viciafaba, Cichorium 
sp. 



Aleyrodes fragariae Walker, 1852 
(Text-figs. 4-5) 

Aleyrodes lonicerae Walker, 1852, syn. n. 
Aleurodes spiraeae Douglas, 1894, syn. n. 

Zahradnick (1963), as well as several other authors, gives A. fragariae as a synonym 
of A. lonicerae. However A. fragariae appears as the third species of Aleyrodes in 
Walker's List of Homoptera, and A . lonicerae as the fourth. The descriptive details 
of A . fragariae are given in the list in the definition of the second species, A. brassicae. 
Thus fragariae must be regarded as the first available name. A. spiraeae was 
described by Douglas from several adults and a single pupal case on the leaves of 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 407 

Meadow-Sweet {Filipendula Ulmaria). This pupal case has now been stained and 
mounted in Canada balsam at the British Museum (Natural History) and is recog- 
nizable as a parasitized specimen of A . fragariae. 

The Strawberry Whitefly is polyphagous, and is common throughout Britain. 
Adults and larvae may be found all through the year, but the species seems to be 
particularly common in years with a hot dry summer. The variation in number of 
the long dorsal setae of the pupal case is referred to by Trehan (1940). 

Pupal case. Very similar to proletella, sometimes with a more distinct waxy fringe on hairy 
leaves. 

Margin. As in proletella but caudal setae more than 80 n long. 

Dorsal surface. Major setae very variable in number and size, rarely small, usually 50 n 
to 100 n long. Paired major setae on cephalic region, and first and eighth abdominal segments ; 
also frequently developed in subdorsal region on meso- and metathorax, and fourth abdominal 
segment, i.e. six pairs of major dorsal setae. Submarginal setae as in proletella. Rhachis quite 
well defined, with rounded median tubercles. Abdominal segments subequal in length, segment 
seven not so distinctly shorter than six and eight as in proletella. Vasiform orifice as long as, or 
longer than wide, length 75 /i, breadth 70 fi approximately. Lateral margins with tooth-like 
ridges, inner surface lightly sculptured, posterior margin transverse with an additional posterior 
triangular lobe. Operculum and lingula as in proletella. Caudal ridges moderately developed. 

Ventral surface. As in proletella except caudal tracheal fold indicated by minute raised dots. 

Host plants. Fragaria vesca, Geum arvense, Rubus fruticosus , Filipendula Ulmaria 
(Rosaceae) ; Lonicera periclymenum, Symphoricarpos racemosus (Caprifoliaceae) ; 
Nepeta glechoma, Teucrium scorodoniutn (Labiatae) ; Melampyrum pratense (Scrophu- 
lariaceae) ; Thalictrum babingtonii (Ranunculaceae) ; Hypericum andraesemum 
(Hypericaceae) ; Campanula trachelium (Campanulacae) ; Cardamine amara (Cruci- 
ferae) ; Chamaenerion angustifolium (Onagraceae) ; Aegopodium podagrica (Umbel- 
liferae) . 



ALEUROCHITON Tullgren, 1907 

Type-species, Chermes aceris ovatus Geoffrey, 1762, a synonym of Aleyrodes 
complanatus (Baerensprung, 1849), after Schumacher, 1918. 

The trinomial Chermes aceris ovatus as used originally by Geoffroy in 1762 has to 
be rejected according to the Rules of International Zoological Nomenclature. The 
binomial Chermes aceris used by Geoffroy in 1785 must also be rejected as a homonym 
of Chermes aceris Linnaeus, 1758. According to Schumacher (1918) the next avail- 
able name for this insect is Lecanium complanatum Baerensprung, 1849. There are 
two species belonging to this genus in Central Europe, A. complanatus and A. 
acerina Haupt, on Acer piatanoides and campestre respectively. A related species 
N eoaleurochiton pseitdopiatani Visnya is found in Central Europe on Acer pseudo- 
piatanus. 



408 L. A. MOUND 

Aleurochiton complanatus (Baerensprung) 
(Text-fig. 6) 

Chermes aceris ovatus Geoff roy, 1762. 

Cherntes aceris Geoffroy, 1785 nee Linnaeus, 1758. 

Lecanium complanatum Baerensprung, 1849. 

Aleyrodes acerum Kirkaldy, 1907. 

Aleurochiton aceris (Geoffroy) Tullgren, 1907. 

Aleurochiton complanatus (Baerensprung) Schumacher, 1918. 

This species was recorded from the North of England by Harrison (1920), apparently 
as a result of observing adult whiteny on the leaves of Acer pseudopiatanus. No 
reference was made to the presence of pupal cases, and in view of the large size and 
striking appearance of the immature instars with their white dorsal wax, it can only 
be assumed that Harrison did not observe any. In view of the fact that certain 
species of adult whitefly will settle on almost any plant when they are sufficiently 
numerous, it seems better at the moment to consider the presence of A . complanatus 
in this country as unproven. 



ALEUROPTERIDIS Mound, 1961 

Type-species, Aleuropteridis douglasi Mound, 1961, a synonym of Aleurodes 
filicicola Newstead, 1911, after Mound, 19656. 

This genus was defined for four new species, all of which had been found on ferns. 
The dorsal disc is reflexed ventrally around the margin, as in Tetralicia and Aleuro- 
pleurocelus, but less deeply and more evenly than in those two genera. 



Aleuropteridis filicicola (Newstead) 
(Text-fig. n) 

Aleyrodes filicicola Newstead, 191 1. 

Aleuropteridis douglasi Mound, 1961. 

Aleuropteridis filicicola (Newstead) Mound, 19656 : 135. 

Described originally from Tanganyika, this species was redescribed under the name 
douglasi from material collected by J. W. Douglas on ferns in Kew Gardens. The 
leaves of the ferns were deposited in the British Museum (Natural History). This 
is the species referred to by Trehan (1938) as " Aleyrodes filicium " when distinguish- 
ing a new species Aleuroplatus kewensis — Aleurotulus nephrolepidis. 

Pupal case. Pale with median longitudinal brown band. Margin with vertical wax palisade. 
Elongate ovate, narrowed to posterior. Length o'8 mm. Breadth 0*4 mm. Small paired 
setae on cephalic, metathoracic and eighth abdominal segments. Caudal setae longer than 
orifice. True margin reflexed ventrally, apparent margin with nine pairs of small setae. 
Tracheal pore areas defined by about three enlarged teeth. Operculum three-quarters fills 
subrectangular orifice, concealing lingula. 

Host plants. Pteris togoensis, Cyclosorus dentatus, Oleandra articulata. 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 



409 




Figs. 7-11. 7. Aleurotulus filicium, dorsal and ventral surfaces. 8. A. filicium, vasiform 
orifice. 9. Aleurotrachelus jelinekii, dorsal surface. 10. A. jelinekii, vasiform orifice and 
hind margin, n. Aleuropteridis filicicola, dorsal surface and detail of thoracic tracheal pore. 



4io L. A. MOUND 

ALEUROTRACHELUS Quaintance & Baker, 1914 

Type-species, Aleyrodes tracheifer Quaintance, 1900. 

The species referred to below is not congeneric with A. tracheifer, but as this is 
true of a number of species at present included in that genus, it seems best to leave 
it until such time as a generic revision can be attempted. 

Aleurotrachelus jelinekii (von Frauenfeld) 
(Text-figs. 9-10) 

Aleurodes jelinekii von Frauenfeld, 1867. 

Aleyrodes {Frauenfeldiella) jelinekii (Frauen.) Gomez Menor, 1943. 

Aleurotrachelus jelinekii (Frauen.) Fowler, 1954. 

Although apparently an introduced species, this insect is widespread in Southern 
England, and occasionally so abundant as to be a pest on its host plant, the orna- 
mental shrub Viburnum tinus. As an account of the species has been published 
recently (Mound, 1962) a full description is not included here. 

Pupal case. Black, with dorsal rolls of flocculent white wax, and white waxy marginal fringe. 
Length i*i mm. Breadth o-8 mm. Oval, barely constricted at thoracic tracheal pores, dorsum 
elevated in mid-line. Paired stout setae, apparently secretory, on cephalic region, meso- and 
metathorax, and eighth abdominal segment. Cephalothorax with a longitudinal ridge on each 
side in subdorsum. Vasiform orifice elongate rectangular, filled by operculum, which conceals 
lingula. 

Host plants. Viburnum tinus, Arbutus unedo. 

ALEUROTULUS Quaintance & Baker, 1914 

Type-species, Aleurodes nephrolepidis Quaintance, 1900. 

This is a very poorly known genus, in which are included, apart from the type- 
species, four species known only from their original descriptions. 

Aleurotulus nephrolepidis (Quaintance, 1900) 
(Text-figs. 7 and 8) 

Aleurodes filicium Douglas, 1891a nee Goeldi, 1886. 
Aleuroplatus kewensis Trehan, 1938. syn. n. 

In 1886 Goeldi described a whitefly, A . filicium, from ferns in Brazil. The descrip- 
tion of this insect includes the statement (in italics) that there are five pairs of very 
long setae on the ventral surface (Bauchseite) for attachment to the substrate 
(zum Anhaften auf der Unterlage.) A. nephrolepidis differs from the description of 
A. filicium in having five pairs of setae on the dorsal surface, a fairly common condi- 
tion in the Aleyrodidae. The arrangement of setae described by Goeldi is so remark- 
able that one is tempted to conclude that he had made an extraordinary mistake. 
In view of this, the best course of action is to regard filicium as a nomen dubium. 
The species of Aleurotulus on ferns in England is A. nephrolepidis, and the present 
author, after examining the type specimens of A . nephrolepidis, by the courtesy of the 
United States National Museum, and A. kewensis, at the British Museum (Natural 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 411 

History) considers them to be the same species. In view of the fact that this whitefly 
has been recorded from both America and Europe on ferns in greenhouses, the following 
record is of considerable interest : Madagascar, on Oleandra articulata, in Buckton 
Collection at British Museum (Natural History), date uncertain, but before 191 1. 

Pupal case. White, elliptical in shape, with small marginal fringe of pale wax. Slightly 
elevated in mid-line. Length o - 8-i*o mm. Breadth o , 5-o*65 mm. 

Margin. Distinctly crenulate, about 12 crenulations in 100 /*. Tracheal pore areas indicated 
by slight expansion of four or five crenulations. Anterior and posterior marginal setae present. 

Dorsal surface. Up to five pairs of long setae, including caudal setae. Caudal setae always 
long, about 125 /x, submarginal in origin, 40 n within margin. Major dorsal setae short (5 //), 
or long (up to 200 ft), on cephalic region, meso- and metathorax, and eighth abdominal segment. 
Eighth abdominal setae arise just anterior to orifice. Six pairs of minute submarginal setae 
(3 /x), three pairs in cephalic region, one pair on prothorax, one on metathorax, and one on first 
abdominal segment. Meso-metathoracic suture well developed. Transverse moulting suture 
reaches outer border of leg. Abdominal sutures weakly defined into subdorsum, seventh 
abdominal segment less than half length of six. Subdorsal region smooth or lightly sculptured. 
Dorsal pores in four paired rows on abdomen ; submedian, posterior to submedian depressions ; 
latero-median, near lateral extremities of abdominal sutures ; subdorsal ; and submarginal. 
Also an unpaired median row of segmental pores on rhachis. Vasiform orifice slightly longer 
than broad, 65 fi x 50 /n, elevated slightly causing rounded posterior margin to appear thickened. 
Anterior rim distinct, 10 /j. long. Lingula tip large, circular, with stout terminal setae, extending 
well beyond posterior margin of orifice. Lingula frequently retracts into orifice during mount- 
ing, tip then appears D-shaped. Operculum narrowed posteriorly, fills more than half of orifice. 

Ventral surface. Anterior abdominal spiracle well developed. Thoracic tracheal folds barely, 
indicated, caudal fold with numerous minute microtrichia. Ventral abdominal setae 20 fi long, 
45 n apart at base. Meso- and metathoracic legs each with one basal seta. Antenna not 
reaching base of first leg. 

ASTEROBEMIS1A Trehan, 1940 

Type-species, Aleurodes carpini of Trehan nee Koch, 1857, a synonym of Aleyrodes 
avellanae Signoret, 1868, after Zahradnik, 1961. 

The description of A . carpini Koch is an entirely inadequate account of an adult 
whitefly, and cannot be referred to any known species with accuracy. However the 
species that Trehan used when describing Asterobemisia can definitely be recognized 
as A. avellanae, because Signoret's collection of pupal cases still exists and has been 
examined by Zahradnik (1961). Asterobemisia is therefore regarded as a valid genus 
with avellanae Signoret as the type-species. 

Asterobemisia avellanae (Signoret) 
(Text-figs. 12-13) 

Aleurodes avellanae Signoret, 1868. 

Aleurodes ribium Douglas, 1888. [Syn. Ossiannilsson, 1955] 

Aleurodes rubicola Douglas, 18916. [Syn. Trehan, 1940] 

? Aleurodes vaccinii Kiinow, 1880. [Syn. Zahradnik, 1963] 

Asterochiton avellanae (Sign.) Harrison, 1920. 

Asterobemisia carpini Trehan, 1940 nee Koch, 1857. [Syn. Zahradnik, 1961] 

Asterobemisia avellanae (Sign.) Zahradnik, 1961. 



4 12 



L. A. MOUND 




Figs. 12-15. I2 - Asterobemisia avellanae, dorsal and ventral surfaces. 13. A. avellanae, 
vasiform orifice. 14. Bemisia tabaci, vasiform orifice. 15. B. tabaci, dorsal surface. 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 413 

Both of the nominal species, ribium and rubicola, described by Douglas, are repre- 
sented in the collection at the British Museum (Natural History) by the original 
author's material. Lectotypes are here designated from this material although both 
forms are identical with A. avellanae. A. ribium Douglas, lectotype pupal case, 
collected 23rd October, 1887, no locality given. A. rubicola Douglas, lectotype 
pupal case, collected 15th June, 1891, Bramble leaves, Blackheath Pits, 1244. 

A. avellanae is apparently widespread in England, from Northumberland to the 
South Coast. A description has been published recently by Zahradnik (1961). 

Pupal case. White, with little wax. Length i-o-i*3 mm. Breadth 0*9-1 - o mm. Broadly 
oval, slightly emarginate at thoracic and posterior tracheal pores. Margin sometimes deeply 
indented due to proximity of leaf hairs during development. Caudal setae short, little longer 
than anterior and posterior marginal setae. Dorsal setae small to minute (5-15 n), on cephalic 
region, and first and eighth abdominal segments, also subdorsally on abdominal segments four 
to eight. Transverse moulting suture bends to anterior and meets in mid-line. Seventh 
abdominal segment short, less than half length of sixth segment. Median area usually divided 
from subdorsum by row of tubercles. Vasiform orifice triangular, lingula spatulate, exposed, 
included. No caudal furrow, caudal ridges meet just behind orifice forming a triangular area. 
Thoracic tracheal folds not strongly marked, posterior fold indicated by rows of raised dots. 

Host plants. Corylus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Rubus spp. 

BEMISIA Quaintance & Baker, 1914 

Type-species, Aleurodes inconspicua Quaintance, 1900, a synonym of Aleurodes 
tabaci Gennadius, 1889, after Russell, 1958. 

Species included in this genus have an elongate triangular vasiform orifice, usually 
with an exposed triangular lingula tip. There is a series of subdorsal setae which 
are often overlooked when small, but are occasionally long and stout. 

Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) 
(Text-figs. 14-15) 

This species is remarkable for the extraordinary amount of variation which occurs 
in the pupal case. As a result, numerous synonyms exist (Russell, 1958), and several 
probably await detection. Thus B. minima and B. miniscula, described by Danzig 
(1964) from Russia, appear from their descriptions to fall within the known limits of 
variation of B. tabaci, and have yet to be shown to differ from this widespread poly- 
phagous species. The variation in tabaci is related to the nature of the host plant 
leaf on which a pupal case develops. On hairy leaves, pupal cases are often small 
with long dorsal setae, whilst on glabrous leaves they are large with very small 
setae, and this variation has been demonstrated experimentally (Mound, 1963). 
Variants of this type have previously been regarded as host specific species, but host 
correlated variation is not uncommon throughout the Aleyrodidae (Mound, 19656). 

B. tabaci has only been found once in England, and the record has not been 
published hitherto. The species was collected by Dr. A. M. Massee on Veronica sp. 
at East Mailing, Kent, in July 1943. As it was found in the middle of a wood over 



414 L- A. MOUND 

quite a restricted area, Dr. Massee (in litt.) considered that it was unlikely to have 
been introduced from glasshouses. The species is widespread throughout the 
tropics and subtropics, and it is frequently a pest (Mound, 1965a and c). It is 
extremely polyphagous, and it would be very interesting to know if it can over- 
winter in this country. As a discussion of the variation of the pupal case was 
published recently (Mound, 1963), the species is only figured here without further 
descriptive details. 

DIALEURODES Cockerell, 1902 

Type-species, Aleurodes citri Ashmead, 1885. 

When the species, which is discussed below, was described, Laing (1928) pointed out 
that " Though the species is not typically a Dialeurodes, it may conveniently rest 
in that genus until the classification of the family is better understood." 

Dialeurodes chittendeni Laing, 1928 
(Text-fig. 18) 
Aleuroclava chittendeni (Laing) Takahashi, 1938. 

The Rhododendron Whiteny was collected originally in this country near Ascot, 
where in 1928 it caused considerable damage to its host plant. It does not seem to 
be very common now, even in its type locality where rhododendrons are abundant. 
The species was referred to the genus Aleuroclava by Takahashi (1938), but it is not 
related to the four species at present included in that genus, none of which, it may be 
noted, are very closely related to each other. The generic affinities of D. chittendeni 
appear to lie with certain Indo-Malaysian species described in, but not belonging in, 
the genus Trialeurodes , e.g. T. bicolor Singh, and T. malayensis Corbett. The 
following redescription is based on the holotype and paratypes in the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

Pupal case. White, with little wax, broadly oval, slightly emarginate at posterior. Length 
1-25 mm. Breadth 0-9 mm. 

Margin. Finely crenulate, about 20 crenulations in 100 fi. Paired anterior and posterior 
marginal setae present, 10-30 /u long. Caudal setae on small papillae close to caudal furrow, 
15-30 M- 

Dorsal surface. Paired dorsal setae present as follows ; cephalic region (15-30 n long) ; 
first abdominal segment, often absent (15-20 n long) ; eighth abdominal segment, and posterior 
to vasiform orifice (10-15 <" l° n g)- Submarginal setae (5-15 n) developed as follows ; cephalic 
region, four pairs ; pro thorax, one pair ; mesothorax, two pairs ; metathorax, one pair ; abdom- 
inal segments one, and four to eight each with one pair, i.e. fourteen pairs. Dorsal surface 
with numerous small tubercles. Transverse moulting suture extends to subdorsum, ends 
posterior to its mid-point. Abdominal segments subequal in length in mid-line. Vasiform 
orifice subcircular, wider than long, 40 fi x 55 n, not cleft at posterior but with several anasto- 
mosing lines. Operculum narrowed at posterior, lingula tip barely exposed. Caudal furrow 
well defined by numerous small tubercles, caudal ridges not large. 

Ventral surface. Anterior abdominal spiracles well developed, tracheal folds poorly defined. 
Ventral abdominal setae 35 n long, 50 ju apart. Meso- and metathoracic legs each with one 
small basal seta, 3 // long. Small paired setae anterior to rostrum, 8 ft long. 

Host plants. Rhododendron spp. 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 



4i5 




Figs. 16-18. 16. Filicaleyrodes williamsi, dorsal and ventral surfaces. 17. F. williamsi, 
vasiform orifice. 18. Dialeurodes chittendeni, vasiform orifice and caudal furrow. 



416 L. A. MOUND 

FILICALEYRODES Takahashi, 1962 

Type-species, F. bosseri Takahashi, 1962. 

This genus was distinguished by Takahashi from Trialeurodes by the presence of 
tracheal pores, a sclerotized ring around the vasiform orifice, the truncated sub- 
marginal papillae, and the well developed caudal ridges. In addition to syntypes 
of bosseri, the present author has examined two further species belonging to this 
group, T. williamsi Trehan, and a new undescribed species from Tanganyika taken 
on ferns. From a study of this material, it is clear that Filicaleyrodes is very close 
to Trialeurodes, with which it may prove eventually to be synonymous. The ring 
around the orifice found in bosseri is not so well developed in the other two species 
referred to above, but all three species differ from Trialeurodes in their well developed 
tracheal pores, and in having submarginal papillae three times as broad as long. 

Filicaleyrodes williamsi (Trehan) comb. n. 
(Text-figs. 16-17) 
Trialeurodes williamsi Trehan, 1938. 

According to Trehan, F. williamsi was first noticed by C. B. Williams in 1914 on 
ferns at the Royal Horticultural Society Gardens, Wisley, although the type series 
came from Kew Gardens in 1937. It is here removed from the genus Trialeurodes on 
account of the well developed tracheal pores and the broad shallow submarginal 
papillae. The following redescription is based on the holotype and three paratypes 
in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Pupal case. White or lightly shaded with brown. Elliptical, slightly emarginate at posterior. 
Margin with waxy palisade, also curved wax bands arising from submarginal papillae. Length 
o-8 mm. Breadth 0*45 mm. 

Margin. Smooth or smoothly crenulate, 20 crenulations in 100 11. Anterior marginal setae 
5 ft long, posterior marginal setae 13 n long. Caudal setae submarginal in position, 8 it long. 
Tracheal pore regions slightly emarginate, with four or five expanded crenulations. 

Dorsal surface. Three pairs of small setae (8 11), on cephalic region, first abdominal segment, 
and eighth abdominal segment lateral to base of operculum. Two paired rows of segmental 
pores, on rhachis and on subdorsum. Abdominal segment one with two pairs of pores near 
rhachis. Submargin with about thirty pairs of broad, shallow papillae (12-20 n x 5-8 n), with 
a pore mesad of each papilla. Transverse moulting suture not reaching margin, ends posterior 
to its mid -point. Second abdominal suture bends sharply to anterior, seventh abdominal 
segment almost occluded in mid-line due to anterior extension of segment eight. Subdorsal 
region without papillae, submedian depressions not very evident. Vasiform orifice with 
expanded anterior rim 10 /j, long, lateral margins comparatively thick with about six internal 
teeth. Posterior border of orifice transverse, notched internally. Internal measurements, 
47 n long, 42 n wide. Operculum more than half fills orifice exposing half of lingula tip. 
Lingula tip expanded with a single distal and three paired lateral lobes, terminal paired setae 
fine, barely extend beyond posterior border of orifice. Caudal furrow well developed, about 15 n 
wide at anterior, tapering to 6 n at posterior, slightly longer than internal length of orifice (50 11). 

Ventral surface. Anterior abdominal spiracles not apparent, posterior spiracles larger than 
thoracic. Ventral abdominal setae 10 11 long, 35 fx apart. One large (8 /i), and two or more 
small (3 fi) setae on a band of thickened cuticle around base of both legs on meso and metathorax. 

Host plants (after Trehan, 1938). Oleandra africana, Nephrodium confluens, 
Diplazium proliferum, Dryopteris flaccida, Anemia sp. 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 



417 







25 




24 



Figs. 19-25. 19. Siphoninus immaculata, dorsal surface. 20. S. immaculata, vasiform orifice. 
21. S. immaculata, tips of dorsal tubes. 22. S. phillyreae, vasiform orifice. 23. S. phillyreae, 
tips of dorsal tubes. 24. Pealius azaleae, vasiform orifice. 25. P. quercus, vasiform orifice. 



418 L. A. MOUND 

PEALIUS Quaintance & Baker, 1914 
Type-species, Aleyrodes maskelli Bemis, 1904. 

The species included in this genus can be recognized from the dissected internal 
surface of the vasiform orifice, the exposed D-shaped tip of the lingula, the presence 
of a series of small or minute submarginal setae, and the reduction in length of 
abdominal segment seven. Two species are to be found in England, and they may be 
separated according to the following key. 

Setae on cephalic subdorsum not reaching halfway to body margin ; lingula tip wider 
than long; floor of vasiform orifice with postero-median area lacking sculpture 

P. quercus (p. 418) 

Cephalic setae longer, often extend beyond body margin ; lingula tip at least as long 

as wide; orifice floor much dissected by ridges ... P. azaleae (p. 418) 

Pealius azaleae (Baker & Moles) 

(Text-fig. 24) 

Aleyrodes azaleae Baker & Moles, 1920. 

Pealius azaleae (Baker & Moles) Takahashi, 1954. 

The Azalea Whitefly is represented in the British Museum (Natural History) 
collection from Edinburgh ; Ringwood, Hampshire, and Wisley, Surrey. At the 
latter site there has been a continuous population in existence out of doors for over 
thirty years, and in view of its success there, it is surprising that the species has not 
established itself elsewhere. 

Pupal case. White, with a little wax round margin, elongate elliptical. Length o - 75-o"9 mm. 
Breadth o - 45-o # 55 mm. Tracheal pore areas defined by several slightly thickened marginal 
crenulations. Anterior and posterior marginal setae present. Dorsum with three pairs of 
major setae, on cephalic region, and first and eighth abdominal segments, variable in length, 
5 ft to 200 ft. Minor setae on abdominal segments four to eight, close to margin, 4 ft long. 
Similar setae on cephalo-thoracic submargin, but due to minute size {2 ft), these are very diffi- 
cult to count, apparently five pairs. Transverse moulting suture not reaching margin, second 
abdominal suture almost as long bending to anterior. Seventh abdominal segment less than 
half length of segment six. Vasiform orifice elongate cordate, internal surface much dissected, 
operculum rectangular, D-shaped lingula tip exposed. 

Host plant. Rhododendron mucronatum, R. simsii. 

Pealius quercus (Signoret) 

(Text-fig. 25) 

Aleurodes quercus Signoret, 1868. 

Pealius quercus (Signoret) Trehan, 1940. 

Aleyrodes avellanae, Trehan, 1940 nee Signoret, 1868. 

Trehan (1940) followed Douglas (1894) in considering a whitefly found on Corylus 
avellana, the adults of which were yellow with immaculate wings, as A. avellanae 
Signoret. However, Signoret states that the adults of avellanae have a black spot 
on the wing and the whole thorax blackish. From this it is evident that two species 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 419 

were being confused under one name. Fortunately Zahradnik has examined 
Signoret's type material (see under Aster obemisia) and established that Trehan was 
not correct in considering avellanae as a synonym of quercus. 

P. quercus is widespread and locally abundant in England, and C. B. Williams 
(1964) has studied a population in Perthshire. The species apparently overwinters 
in the form of pupal cases on dead leaves lying on the ground, since adults are 
usually only to be seen during the early part of the summer. 

Pupal case. White, with a vertical wax fringe. Broadly oval, slightly constricted at thoracic 
tracheal pore areas. Length o - 8o-o*95 mm. Breadth o^-o^o mm. Thoracic pore areas 
well denned by series of broad marginal crenulations. Anterior and posterior marginal setae 
present. Major dorsal setae very small, also caudal setae, less than 10 /* long. Submarginal 
setae 3 /x long, on abdominal segments four to eight, one pair only observed on cephalic sub- 
margin. Transverse moulting suture and second abdominal suture bend to anterior, not 
reaching margin. Submedian depressions not so well developed as in azaleae. Subdorsum 
with segmental papillae, often indistinct. Seventh abdominal segment less than half length of 
segment six. Anal apparatus much as in azaleae but lingula tip broader than long, orifice floor 
with median area lacking sculpture. 

Host plants. Quercus spp., Corylus avellana, Ostrya virginiana. (Carpinus, 
Fagus, Rubus — Zahradnik, 1963.) 

SIPHONINUS Silvestri, 1915 

Type-species, Siphoninus finitimus Silvestri, 1915. 

This genus is characterized by the numerous short dorsal tubes, each with an 
open tip, which are found on the pupal case as well as the younger larvae. The adults 
are apparently distinctive in lacking a paronychium between the tarsal claws. Two 
species are recorded from Britain, and these may be separated according to the 
following key. 

Dorsal tubes bifurcate at tip; submarginal setae minute, not reaching margin; sculp- 
ture of vasiform orifice floor with one large terminal areola S. immaculata (p. 420) 

Dorsal tubes not bifurcate at tip; submarginal setae extend beyond margin; vasi- 
form orifice floor divided into several large subterminal areolae S. phillyreae (p. 419) 

Siphoninus phillyreae Halliday, 1834 
(Text-figs. 22-23) 

The Phillyrea Whitefly is apparently widespread in Southern England, having 
been reported from Dorset, Surrey and Cambridge. Halliday described it from 
Dublin. It is found each year on Hawthorn around the British Museum (Natural 
History). Populations seem to persist in any given locality over long periods of time. 

Pupal case. White, with median longitudinal brown stripe. Marginal wax palisade present, 
also some flocculent dorsal wax. Oval in shape, broadest across first abdominal segment. 
Length o-S-i^o mm. Breadth o - 55-o*70 mm. 

Margin. Smooth, crenulations developed only at tracheal pore areas. Posterior marginal 
setae about 30 fi long, anterior marginal setae very close to mid-line, about 5 n long. 



420 L. A. MOUND 

Dorsal surface. Three pairs of major dorsal setae, 40 fx long, on cephalic region, and first and 
eighth abdominal segments. Eighth abdominal setae arise anterior to vasiform orifice. Minor 
dorsal setae, 20-40 ft long, in submargin of abdominal segments one, and four to eight, one pair 
on each segment ; also on metathorax, one pair ; mesothorax, two pairs ; prothorax, one pair ; 
cephalic region, four pairs. Dorsal tubes about 100 n long, variable in total number 55 to 75, 
in three paired rows ; submarginally about 14 pairs, subdorsally about 14 pairs, medially about 
five pairs with a single tube on second abdominal segment. Apex of these tubes cup-shaped, 
not distinctly bifid. Transverse moulting suture almost reaches margin, second abdominal 
suture bends to anterior. Seventh abdominal segment two-thirds as long as segment six. 
Vasiform orifice rounded posteriorly, little longer than broad, 52 /j, x 48 /i, posterior half of 
internal surface with two or more large areolae. Operculum occupies less than half of orifice, 
lingula tip little expanded, reaching to middle of orifice, without long terminal setae. Caudal 
furrow not developed, caudal setae submarginal in origin. 

Ventral surface. Tracheal folds not developed, posterior abdominal spiracles larger than 
anterior pair. Ventral abdominal setae 25 p. long, 50 ji apart. Meso- and metathoracic legs 
each with one seta at base, 3 fi long. Antennae reach to first spiracle. 

Host plants. Phillyrea latifolia, Crataegus oxyacantha, Pyrus communis. 



Siphoninus immaculata Heeger, 1855 
(Text-figs. 19-21) 

This species is apparently quite specific to Ivy (Hedera helix), on which it is 
widespread but infrequent throughout Southern England. 

Pupal case. As in phillyreae except as follows ; without dorsal wax, minor dorsal setae very 
small, 3 n, not reaching margin. Dorsal tubes clearly bifid at apex. Vasiform orifice longer 
than broad, 75 /i x 65 n, with one large areola distally, operculum occupies half of orifice, 
lingula tip expanded with two long setae extending beyond margin of orifice. 



TETRALICIA Harrison, 1917 

Type-species, T. ericae Harrison, 1917. 

Tetralicia was based originally upon a description of adult whitefly collected on 
Erica tetralix at Waldiidge Fell, Durham. The first definition of the genus is to be 
found in a key to the genera of Aleyrodidae by Baker & Moles (1923). The most 
important character is the way in which the dorsal surface of the pupal case is 
deflexed ventrally to meet the reduced ventral surface. In view of the close simi- 
larity between this genus and Aleuropleurocelus Drews & Sampson, 1956, the following 
details are given which may be of generic importance. 

Pupal case. Elongate ovate. Dorsal surface larger than ventral, reflexed ventrally, true 
margin ventral in position, smoothly crenulate with pores. Anterior and posterior marginal 
setae present, rather long, about as long as caudal setae. Transverse moulting suture reaches 
apparent margin. Cephalic and eighth abdominal setae' small or minute, first abdominal 
segment apparently lacks setae. Rhachis with median tubercles. Vasiform orifice subcordate, 
inner lateral margins ridged, operculum fills orifice, concealing lingula. Anterior abdominal 
spiracles smaller than posterior. Meso- and metathoracic legs each with one basal seta. 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 



42 1 




Figs. 26-29. 26. Tetralicia ericas, dorsal and ventral surfaces. 27. T. ericae, vasiform orifice. 
28. Trialeurodes vaporariorum, vasiform orifice. 29. T. vaporariorum, dorsal surface. 



422 L. A. MOUND 

Tetralicia ericae Harrison, 1917 
(Text-figs. 26-27) 

In the original description of this species the larva was referred to as "transparent 
whitish ", but Trehan has pointed out that this was probably based on a newly 
moulted specimen. The following redescription is based on black pupal cases, 
subsequently bleached, which were determined as belonging to this species by the 
original author in 1929, and deposited at the British Museum (Natural History) by 
E. E. Green. T. ericae has been found throughout England from Northumberland to 
the South Coast, but although locally common it is not frequent. 

Pupal case. Black, margin with fringe of white wax. Elongate oval to elliptical, orientated 
along length of leaf, often concealed by curled leaf margins. Length 0*95-1 -05 mm. Breadth 
o*50-o*55 mm. 

Margin. Deflexed ventrally except at caudal extremity, smooth, with well developed wax 
pores. Anterior and posterior marginal setae present, about 40 n long. Caudal extremity 
rather protruding, bearing caudal setae, about 40 n long. Tracheal pore areas not developed. 

Dorsal surface. Setae apparently absent from first abdominal segment. Paired setae on 
cephalic region, and eighth abdominal segment anterior to orifice, 5 /i long. Longitudinal 
moulting suture reaches true margin, transverse moulting suture reaches apparent margin. 
Cephalic and pro thoracic sutures poorly developed. First abdominal suture approaches 
transverse moulting suture, second suture bends to anterior in subdorsum. Remaining 
abdominal sutures not visible on subdorsum. Rhachis with well developed median tubercles 
on segments two to six. Segment seven three-fifths, segment six four-fifths of segment eight. 
Pores in four paired rows, on rhachis, subdorsally near rhachis, subdorsally near apparent 
margin, submarginally on ventral reflexed part of dorsal surface. Vasiform orifice broadly 
subcordate, margin broad, internal surface ridged, giving appearance of teeth laterally, internal 
measurements 52 n x 52 fi. Operculum fills orifice, posterior border rectangular, conceals 
lingula (cf. Trehan, 1940, and Drews & Sampson, 1956, in which the figure is of a specimen 
damaged with caustic potash during bleaching, under which treatment the operculum often 
collapses laterally). Caudal ridges and furrow not developed. 

Ventral surface. Anterior abdominal spiracles smaller than posterior. Ventral abdominal 
setae long, 40 /i, about 65 fi apart at base. Meso- and metathoracic legs each with one fine seta. 
5 n long, on small tubercle. One pair of small setae, 3 /x long, anterior to rostrum. Antennae 
reach base of prothoracic legs. Ventral adhesive organ heavily sclerotized. 

Host plant. Erica species. 



TRIALEURODES Cockerell, 1902 

Type-species, Aleurodes pergandei Quaintance, 1900. 

As a result of the work of Russell (1948) on the North American species, the range 
of variation and the characters which should be studied in this group are well under- 
stood. Within any one species, the range of development of the submarginal and 
subdorsal papillae, which in life bear long wax filaments, is very great, and this 
variation is associated with the degree of hairiness of the host plant leaf. The 
appearance of the vasiform orifice and the trilobed lingula is quite distinctive of this 
genus and the related Filicaleyrodes. 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 423 

Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) 
(Text-figs. 28-29) 

Aleurodes vaporariorum Westwood, 1856. 

Asterochiton vaporariorum (Westwood) Quaintance & Baker, 1914. 
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) Russell, 1948. 
Trialeurodes sonchi (Kotinsky, 1907) [Syn. Russell, 1948]. 

Although the Greenhouse Whitefly was first described from this country, it was 
certainly introduced from some warmer climate. It can be found out of doors during 
the summer, but in winter it is probably restricted to glasshouses. The range of 
hosts is very large (Russell, 1963) and consequently so is the range of morphological 
variation (Hussey & Gurney, 1957). 

In view of the detailed description given by Russell (1948), only the more impor- 
tant characters are given below. This redescription is based in part on a series of 
specimens loaned to the author from Westwood's Economic Collection at the Hope 
Department, Oxford, by courtesy of Professor Varley. The two leaves bearing 
pupal cases which are pinned in that collection, do not appear to belong to any of the 
plant species which Westwood named in his original description of the Greenhouse 
Whitefly. In view of this it has been decided not to designate a lectotype from this 
material. The specimens, however, are of considerable importance as they were 
collected before the introduction of the so-called American Race, the females of 
which produce males parthenogenetically, whereas the British Race produced only 
females (Schrader, 1926). 

Pupal case. White, broadly oval, with vertical wax palisade, and numerous marginal wax 
filaments. Wax filaments sometimes lie horizontally, sometimes stand almost erect. Very 
lightly sclerotized, margin weakly crenulate. Tracheal pore areas usually indicated. Anterior 
and posterior marginal setae present, caudal setae submarginal in origin. Marginal papillae 
highly variable ; on specimens from smooth leaf, papillae almost equal in size ; on specimens 
from hairy leaf, several papillae frequently enlarged, such pupal cases also have several pairs 
of dorsal papillae. Submarginal pores closer to margin than submarginal papillae. Small 
dorsal setae on cephalic region, and first and eighth abdominal segments, the latter occasionally 
longer than the orifice. Seventh abdominal segment short but still visible in mid-line. Vasiform 
orifice subcordate, without anterior rim, notched at posterior. Operculum cordate, covering 
only proximal pair of lingula lobes. Meso- and metathoracic leg bases slightly sclerotized, each 
bearing one or more small setae. Anterior abdominal spiracles present. 



424 



L. A. MOUND 



Systematic List of Host Plant Genera of British Whitefly 

(excluding Greenhouse species) 



Families of 
Host Plants 

Ranunculaceae 

Papaveraceae 

Cruciferae 

guttiferae 

Leguminosae 

rosaceae 

Pomoidea 



Rosoidea 

Onagraceae 

Araliaceae 

Umbelliferae 

Corylaceae 
Fagaceae 

Ericaceae 

Oleaceae 
scrophulariaceae 

Labiatae 

Campanulaceae 

Caprifoliaceae 
compositae 



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Genera 

Thalictrum 

Chelidonium 

Brassica 

Cardamine 

Hypericum 

Vicia 

{Crataegus 
Pyrus 

Fragaria 
Geum 
Rubus 
Filipendula 

Chamaenerion 

Hedera 

Aegopodium 

{Carpinus 
Corylus 
Ostrya 

{Fagus 
Quercus 

C Arbutus 

< Erica 

[^ Rhododendron 

Phillyrea 

{Melampyrum 
Veronica 

{Nepeta 
Teucrium 

Campanula 

C Lonicera 

< Symphoricarpos 
(^ Viburnum 

{Sonchus 
Cichorium 



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^ 






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a 


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BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 425 

REFERENCES 

(* not seen by author) 

♦Ashmead, W. H. 1885. Florida Dispatch, ns. 11. (ex Quaintance & Baker, 1917). 
Baerensprung, F. 1849. Beobachtungen iiber einige einheimische Arten aus dcr Familie 

der Coccinen. Ztg. Zool. 1 : 165-170. 
Baker, A. C. & Moles, M. L. 1920. A new species of Aleyrodidae found on azalea (Horn.). 

Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 22 : 81-83. 
1923. The Aleyrodidae of South America with descriptions of four new Chilean species. 

Revta chil. Hist. nat. 25 : 609-656. 
Beck, B. D. A. & Chant, S. R. 1958. A preliminary investigation on the effect of mosaic 

virus on Manihot utilissima Pohl. in Nigeria. Trop. Agric. Trin. 35 : 59-64. 
Bemis, F. E. 1904. The Aleyrodids or mealy-winged flies of California, with reference to 

other American species. Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 27 : 471-537. 
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1902. Classification of Aleyrodidae. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 

54 : 279-283. 
Danzig, E. M. 1964. Contribution of the knowledge of the White-flies (Homoptera, Aleyro- 
didae) of the Caucasus. [In Russian] Ent. Obozr. 43 : 633-646. 
Douglas, J. W. 1888. Description of a new species of Aleurodes. Entomologist' s mon. Mag. 

24 : 265-267. 
1891a. On a Brazilian species of Aleurodes found in England. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 

27 : 44. 

1891&. A new species of Aleurodes. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 27 : 200, 322-323. 

1894. A new species of Aleurodes. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 30 : 73-74. 

Drews, E. A. & Sampson, W. W. 1956. Tetralicia and a new related genus, Aleuropleurocelus 

(Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 49 : 280-283. 
Fowler, V. W. 1954. Notes on some pests observed in the course of advisory work at Wisley, 

during 1953. // R. hort. Soc. 89 : 405. 
Frauenfeld, G. R. von. 1867. Ueber Aleurodes und Thrips, vorziiglich in Warmhause. 

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 17:793-801. 
Gennadius, P. 1889. Disease of tobacco plantations in the Trikonia. The Aleurodid of 

Tobacco. [In Greek.] Ellenike Georgia 5 : 1-3. 
Geoffroy, E. L. 1762. Histoire abregee des Insectes qui se trouvent aux environs de Paris. 

Paris. 

1785. In Fourcroy, A. L. Eniomologia Parisiensis. Paris. 

Goeldi, E. 1886. Beitrage zur Kentniss der kleinen und kleinsten Gliederthierwelt Brasiliens. 

Mitt, schweiz. ent. Ges. 7 : 231-255. 
Gomez-Menor, J. 1943. Contribucion al conocimiento de los Aleyrodidos de Espana 

(Hemiptera, Homoptera). Eos, Madr. 19 : 173-209. 
Haliday, A. H. 1835. Aleyrodes phillyreae. Entom. Mag. 2 : 1 19-120. 
Harrison, J. W. H. 1917. A new species and genus of Aleyrodidae from Durham. Vasculum 

3 : 60-62. 

1920. New and rare British Aleurodidae. Entomologist 53 : 255-257. 

Haupt, H. 1935. Aleurodina, in Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas. Hemiptera 4 : 253-260. Leipzig. 
Heeger, E. 1855. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Insecten. Naturgeschichte der 

Aleurodes immaculata Steph. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. math. nat. 18 : 33-36. 
Hussey, N. W. & Gurney, B. 1957- Trialeurodes sonchi Kotinsky, a synonym of Trialeurodes 

vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera, Homoptera). Entomologist' s mon. Mag. 93 : 254. 
Kloet, G. S. & Hinks, W. D. 1964. A check list of British Insects. Pt. 1 (revised) Handbk 

I dent. Br. Insects 11. 
Koch, C. L. 1857. Die Pflanzenlause Aphiden. 324-328. Niirnberg. 
Kotinsky, J. 1907. Aleyrodidae of Hawaii and Fiji with descriptions of new species. Bull. 

Bd Commnrs Agric. For. Hawaii Div. Ent. 2 : 93-102. 



426 L. A. MOUND 

Kunow, G. 1880. Zwei neue Schildlause. Ent. Nachr. 6 : 46. 

Laing, F. 1928. Description of a new whitefly pest of Rhododendrons. Entomologist's mon. 

Mag. 64 : 228-230. 
Latreille, P. A. 1795. Magasin Encycl. 4 : 304-310. 

1796. Precis des characteres generiques des Insectes, disposes dans un ordre naturel. Paris. 

1 80 1 -2. Histoire naturelle des Crustaces et des Insectes. Paris. 

— — ■ 1807. Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum. Paris. 

Mound, L. A. 1961. A new genus and four new species of whitefly from ferns (Homoptera, 

Aleyrodidae) . Revue Zool. Bot. afr. 44 : 127-132. 
1962. Aleurotrachelus jelinekii (Frauen.) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae), in Southern England. 

Entomologist's mon. Mag. 97 : 196-197. 
— — ■ 1963. Host correlated variation in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). 

Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 38 : 171-180. 
1965a. Effect of leaf hair on cotton whitefly populations in the Sudan Gezira. Emp. Cott. 

Grow. Rev. 42 : 33-40. 
19656. An introduction to the Aleyrodidae of Western Africa. Bull. Br. Mus. {nat. Hist.), 

Ent. 17 (3) : 1 13-160. 
1965c. The effect of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on cotton in the Sudan Gezira. Emp. Cott. 

Grow. Rev. 42 : 290-294. 
Newstead, R. 191 1. On a collection of Coccidae and Aleurodidae, chiefly African, in the 

collection of the Berlin Zoological Museum. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berl. 5 : 155-174. 
Ossiannilsson, F. 1955- Till kannedomen om de svensta mjollossen (Hemiptera, Homoptera, 

Aleyrodina). Opusc. ent. 20 : 192-199. 
Quaintance, A. L. 1900. Contributions toward a monograph of the American Aleyrodidae. 

Tech. Ser. Bur. Ent. U.S. 8 : 1-48. 
Quaintance, A. L. & Baker, A. C. 1913 & 1914. Classification of the Aleyrodidae. Tech. Ser. 

Bur. Ent. U.S. 27 (I) : 1-93 ; 27 (II) : 95-114. 
Reaumur, R. A. F. 1736. Memoires pour servir a V histoire des Insectes. Paris. 
Russell, L. M. 1948. The North American species of Whiteflies of the genus Trialeurodes. 

Misc. Pubis U.S. Dep. Agric. 635 : 85 pp. 
1958. Synonyms of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). Bull. 

Brooklyn ent. Soc. 52 : 122-123. 
1963. Hosts and distributions of five species of Trialeurodes (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). 

Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 56 : 149-153. 
Schrader, F. 1926. Notes on the English and American races of the Greenhouse whitefly 

(Trialeurodes vaporariorum) . Ann. appl. Biol. 13 : 189-196. 
Schumacher, F. 1918. Mottenlause. Verzeichnis der Aleyrodiden Europas. Dt. ent. Z. 

1918 : 404-406. 
Silvestri, F. 1915. Contributo alia conoscenza degli insetti dell'olivo dell'Eritrea e dell' 

Africa meridionale. Boll. Lab. Zool. gen. agr. R. Scuola Agric. Portici. 9 : 245-249. 
Stearn, W. T. 1957. Introduction to fascimile edition of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum, 

J 753- Vol. I. Royal Society, London. 
Takahashi, R. 1938. Notes on Aleyrodidae of Japan (Homoptera). Kontyu 12 : 70-74. 
1954. Key to the Tribes and Genera of Aleyrodidae of Japan, with descriptions of three 

new genera and one new species. Insecla Matsum. 18 : 47-53. 
1962. Two new genera and species of Aleyrodidae from Madagascar (Homoptera). 

Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 31 : 100-102. 
Tarr, S. A. J. 195 1. Leaf curl disease of cotton. Commonw. Mycol. Inst. London. 55 pp. 
Trehan, K. N. 1938. Two new species of Aleyrodidae found in greenhouses in Britain 

(Hemiptera). Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 7 : 182-189. 
1940. Studies on the British Whitefly (Homoptera). Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 90 : 575- 

616. 
Tullgren, A. 1907. Uber einige Arten der Familie Aleurodidae. Ark. Zool. 3 (26) : 1-18. 



BRITISH ALEYRODIDAE 



427 



Vallisneri, A. 1733. Opere fisico mediche continenti un gran nuraero di trattati, &c. 1. 

Venezia. 
Walker, F. 1852. List of the specimens of Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British 

Museum. Part 4 : 1091-1093. London. 
Westwood, J. 1840. Introduction to the modern Classification of Insects. London. 
— — 1856. The Aleyrodes of the Greenhouse. Gdnrs' Chron. 1856 : 852. 
Williams, C. B. 1964. Patterns in the balance of nature. 324 pp. Academic Press, London 

and New York. 
Zahradnik, J. 1961. La redescription d' Aster obemisia avellanae (Signoret, 1868) (Homoptera, 

Aleyrodinea) . Sb. ent. Odd. ndr. Mus. Praze 34 (593) : 433-438. 
1963. Aleyrodina, In Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas. 4. iod. 19 pp. Leipzig. 



acerina, 407 
aceris, 400, 407-8 
aceris ovatus, 407-8 
acerum, 408 
Aleurocanthus, 401 
Aleurochiton, 403, 407-8 
Aleuroclava, 414 
Aleurocybotus, 400 
Aleurodicus, 401 
Aleurolobus, 401 
Aleuroplatus, 408, 410 
Aleuropleurocelus, 420 
Aleuropteridis, 403, 408 
Aleurothrixus, 401 
Aleurotrachelus, 402, 410 
Aleurotulus, 402, 410 
Aleyrodes, 403 
Asterobemisia, 402, 411 
Asterochiton, 411, 423 
avellanae, 400-1, 41 1-3, 418 
azaleae, 400-1, 418 

barodensis, 401 
Bemisia, 400, 402, 4 13-4 
bergii, 401 
bicolor, 414 
bosseri, 416 
brassicae, 404 

carpini, 400, 411 
chelidonii, 404 
Chermes, 407-8 
chittendeni, 400-1, 414 
citri, 401, 414 
cocois, 401 

complanatus, 401, 407-8 
culiciformis, 404 



INDEX TO GENERA AND SPECIES 
Synonyms in italics 

Dialeurodes, 401, 403, 414 
douglasi, 408 



encae, 400-1, 420, 422 

Filicaleyrodes, 402, 416 
filicicola, 401, 408 
filicum, 408, 410 
finitimus, 419 
flocossus, 401 
fragariae, 401, 404, 406 
Frauenfeldiella, 410. 

immaculata, 400-1, 419, 420 
inconspicua, 413 

jelinekii, 400-1, 410 

kewensis, 408, 410 

lonicerae, 406 

malayensis, 414 
maskelli, 418 
minima, 413 
miniscula, 413 

Neoaleurochiton, 407 
Neomaskellia, 401 
nephrolepidis, 408, 410 

Pealius, 402, 418 
pergandei, 422 
Phalaena, 403-4 
phillyreae, 400-1, 419 
proletella, 401, 403-4 
pseudoplatani, 407 



428 

quercus, 401, 418 



ribium, 411, 413 
rubicola, 411, 413 



Siphoninus, 402, 419 
sonchi, 423 
spiraeae, 406 



L. A. MOUND 



tabaci, 400-1, 413 
Tetralicia, 402, 420 
Tinea, 403 
tracheifer, 410 
Trialeurodes, 400, 402, 422 

vaccinii, 400, 411 
vaporariorum, 400-1, 423 

williamsi, 401, 416 
woglumi, 401 




A LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS 

TO THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF THE BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



i. Masner, L. The types of Proctotrapoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. 
Pp. 143. February, 1965. £5. 

2. Nixon, G. E. J. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae). Pp. 284 ; 348 Text-figures. August, 1965. £6. 

3. Watson, A. A revision of the Ethiopian Drepanidae (Lepidoptera). Pp. 177 ; 
18 plates, 270 Text-figures. August, 1965. £4 4s. 

4. Sands, W. A. A revision of the Termite Subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, 
Termitidae) from the Ethiopian Region. Pp. 172 ; 500 Text-figures. October, 

1965- £3 5s. 

5. Ahmad, I. The Leptocorisinae (Heteroptera : Alydidae) of the World. Pp. 156; 
475 Text figures. November, 1965. £2 15s. 

6. Okada, T. Diptera from Nepal. Cryptochaetidae, Diastatidae&Drosophilidae. 
In press. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY ADLARD & SON LIMITED, BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



t 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 






cS* 



CONOPIDAE FROM NEPAL AND THE 
ORIENTAL REGION 

S. CAMRAS 

HELEOMYZIDAE 
J. C. DEEMING 

PIPUNCULIDAE (DORILAIDAE) 

D. ELMO HARDY 

A NEW SPECIES OF RHINOPHORIDAE 

B. HERTING 

NEW SPECIES OF PLATYPEZA AND CALLOMYIA 

(PLATYPEZIDAE) 

E. L. KESSEL 

AND 

SARCOPHAGIDAE 

B. B. ROHDENDORF 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 10 

LONDON: 1966 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL [ i16Marm 



CONOPIDAE FROM NEPAL AND THE ORIENTAL REGION 

By S. CAMRAS , J. 

4407, N. Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, 30, UU^iois 

HELEOMYZIDAE 
By J. C. DEEMING 

British Museum (Natural History) 

PIPUNCULIDAE (DORILAIDAE) 

By D. ELMO HARDY 
Department of Entomology, University of Hawaii 

A NEW SPECIES OF RHINOPHORIDAE 

By B. HERTING 

Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Delemont, Switzerland 

NEW SPECIES OF PLATYPEZA AND CALLOMYIA 
(PLATYPEZIDAE) 

By E. L. KESSEL 

University of San Francisco 



SARCOPHAGIDAE 

By B. B. ROHDENDORF 

Academy of Sciences, U.S.S.R., Moscow 



Pp. 429-464; 29 Text figures 

BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 17 No. 10 

LONDON: 1966 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(natural HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

In 1965 a separate supplementary series of longer 
papers was instituted, numbered serially for each 
Department. 

This paper is Vol. 17, No. 10 of the Entomological 
series. The abbreviated titles of periodicals cited 
follow those of the World List of Scientific Periodicals. 



Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) 1966 



TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Issued 15 March, 1966 Price Fifteen Shillings 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



CONOPIDAE FROM NEPAL AND THE ORIENTAL REGION 

By S. CAMRAS 

SYNOPSIS 

Seventeen specimens from Nepal were received, representing six species, only one of which 
was previously known from Nepal. Two of the six species are new. Five additional Oriental 
records are presented, including a new species of Microbrachyceraea. A key is given for the 
genera related to Microbrachyceraea. 

This report is based on specimens collected by the British Museum East Nepal 
Expedition of 1961-62. In addition other specimens in the British Museum (Natural 
History) and the Bishop Museum are recorded. These were received through the 
courtesy of R. L. Coe and J. L. Gressitt. 

A. RECORDS FROM NEPAL 

Conops claripennis Brunetti 

Brunetti, 1923 : 345 

E. Nepal : Aran Valley ; Tumlingtar plateau, c. 2,000 ft, yellow blooms of 
cultivated composite {Guizotia abyssinica Cassini), 5 <$, 1 $, 8-25 . xii . 196 1 (R. L. Coe), 
B.M. (Nat. Hist.). 

United Provinces: Kotdwara, 1 $, 10.vi.24 (T. Jermyn), B.M. (Nat. Hist.). 

These specimens are relatively large (9-5-10-5 mm.) and dark, and have a small 
area of blackish in the centre of the front. Otherwise known only from the type 
series from Quetta and Deesa. 

Physocephala sinensis Krober 

Krober, 1934 : x 5- 

E. Nepal : Taplejung Distr. ; Sangu, c. 6,200 ft, yellow blooms of cultivated 
composite (Guizotia abyssinica Cassini), 1 $, 2 $, 16-29. x.1961, mixed vegetation by 
stream in gully, 1 $, xi. 1961-1.1962. Arun Valley; Tumlingtar plateau, yellow 
blooms of cultivated composite (Guizotia abyssinica Cassini), 1^,1$, 10-16. xii. 1961 
(R. L. Coe), B.M. (Nat. Hist.). 

These specimens average too large and too dark to be referred to calopa, tenella, 
or limbipennis. In a previous paper (Camras, i960 : 124) the frequent absence of 
the black on the apex of the wing was noted. At that time I was not aware that 
the main difference from pusilla is the absence of the wing pattern in the basal cells 
in sinensis. 

This widely distributed species is here recorded for the first time outside of China. 

Bull. Brit. Mus. (nat. Hist.), Ent. 17 (10) 1966. 

ENTOM. 17, IO 20§ 



432 S. CAMRAS 

Physocephala coei sp. n. 

6*. Length 7 mm. Front black. Vertex dark yellow, black anteriorly. Facial grooves 
and cheeks yellow. Black mark in middle of facial keel and grooves. Occiput black, posterior 
orbit white pollinose. Antenna mainly black, apex of second segment and most of third segment 
rufous. First segment three times as long as wide. Second segment three times length of 
first. Third segment half as long as second. Arista and process of its proximal segment 
relatively short. Proboscis entirely black, twice length of head. 

Thorax entirely black, slight brownish tinge on humerus. Yellow pollinose on upper meta- 
thorax and upper margin of postnotum. Faintly white pollinose medial to the humerus and 
forming an indistinct pleural stripe. Coxae mainly black, partly white pollinose. Legs rufous, 
partly black on anterior femora. Posterior femur mainly black. Posterior tibia yellow on 
basal 3/5, black apically. Tarsi yellowish on proximal segments, black on apical segments. 
Claws black, pulvilli yellow. Wings greyish hyaline, brownish black pattern from costa to 
third vein, ending abruptly apically a little beyond the second vein. First posterior cell with 
pattern in most of basal half. Margin posterior to the vena spuria partly hyaline. Calypters 
white. Halteres yellow, dark brown at base of stem. 

Abdomen black. Rufous narrowly at junction of first and second segments, and second and 
third segments. Yellow pollinose posterior margin on third, fourth, and fifth segments, narrower 
on dorsum. Sixth segment mainly yellow pollinose, rufous apically. Genitalia mainly black. 

$. Length 7 mm. Similar to the male. Front reddish black to dark rufous and less distinctly 
separated from the face. Spot on keel and facial grooves brownish and much smaller. Black 
on legs more extensive, so that posterior femur and posterior tarsus are almost entirely black. 

Abdomen darker without rufous at junction of first and second segments. No pollinose 
margin on fifth segment. Apical segments white pollinose. Theca and genitalia entirely black. 
Theca relatively short and thick, as long as wide. 

Holotype <$. E. Nepal : Arun Valley ; Tumlingtar plateau, c. 2,000 ft, yellow 
blooms of cultivated composite (Guizotia abyssinica Cassini), 10-16 . xii . 1961 (R. L. 
Coe), B.M. (Nat. Hist.). Allotype $. Same data except 8-25. xii. 1961. 

This species differs from all the related species except annulifera by having the 
humerus brownish black. From annulifera it differs by having the antenna and 
abdomen mainly black and lacking the black triangular mark on a reddish yellow 
front. 

Physocephala rufifrons Camras 

Camras, i960 : 121. 

Nepal : Jiri, 2,000 m., 1 £, 17. v. 1962 (G. Ebert and H. Falkner), B.M. (Nat. Hist.) 
This specimen agrees fairly well with the description of the unique type female 

from Szechwan, but has the face as well as the front dark rufous, leaving only the 

facial grooves yellow. 

Physocephala bicolorata Brunetti 
Brunetti, 1925 : 79. 

Nepal : Jiri, 2,000 m., 1 $, 15 .v. 1962 (G. Ebert and H. Falkner), B.M. (Nat. Hist.). 

Thecophora nepalensis sp. n. 

§. Length 4 mm. Black, and white pollinose. Yellow on face, cheeks, basal half of femora, 
narrow junction of femora and tibiae, and pulvilli. Front rufous on apical margin, and adjacent 
to the ocelli. Antenna partly rufous at junction of second and third segments. First segment 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 433 

slightly longer than wide. Third segment a little longer than second segment. Apical half of 
distal segment of proboscis dark yellow. Lower half of occiput blackish yellow. 

Wings greyish hyaline. Veins dark brown to black. Practically no yellow at the base of 
wing. Calypters and halteres yellowish white. Abdomen with indistinct distal white pollinose 
margins on sides of second and third segments, becoming extremely narrow on sides of fourth 
segment. Theca relatively long and spoon-shaped. Basal 2/3 distinctly yellow. Apical third 
and sides with distinct black margin corresponding to the black serrated area on the posterior 
surface. 

Holotype $. E. Nepal : Taplejung Distr., above Sangu, c. 9,200 ft, damp ever- 
green oak forest, 2-26.xi.1961 (R. L. Coe), B.M. (Nat. Hist.). 

This species is similar to atra, but differs by the distinctive theca which is larger 
and yellow on the basal two-thirds, sharply separated from the black margin. The 
almost complete absence of yellow at the base of the wing is apparently also an 
important specific character. 



B. OTHER ORIENTAL RECORDS 

Microbrachyceraea intermedia sp. n. 

$. Length 8 mm. Mainly black. Yellow on front, face, cheeks, basal half of antenna, 
basal half of tibiae, calypters, halteres, and narrow apical margin of second abdominal segment. 
Ocellar tubercle and mark above base of antennae shining black. Facial grooves, cheeks, and 
orbits white pollinose. Antenna partly rufous on second segment, black on apex and arista. 
Second antennal segment a little shorter than third. Third segment nearly as wide as long. 
Arista three-segmented, no process on the second segment. Proboscis as long as head. 

Femora dark rufous at apex and base and on trochanters. Second abdominal segment rufous, 
darker dorsally at base. Wings brownish hyaline, with brown pattern between first and third 
veins, becoming paler in the posterior half of the submarginal cell. 

Abdomen with white pollinose areas on sides of apex of second and third segments. Narrow 
dark yellow apical margins on fifth segment and dorsum of sixth segment. Apex of abdomen and 
theca brownish black. Theca triangular with thick bulging posterior serrated area. 

Holotype $. N. W. Thailand: Chiangmai, Fang, 500 m., 12-19. iv. 1958 
(T. C. Maa), Bishop Mus. 

M. pendleburyi differs from this species in addition to being smaller (5 mm.), by 
having some black on the front, brownish black second abdominal segment, and no 
brown pattern in the wing. 

This species is somewhat intermediate between Microbrachyceraea pendleburyi 
and Neobrachyceraea obscuripennis , but the genera may be separated as follows : 

1 Ocelli present. Front above, twice width of eye . . . BRACHYCERAEA 

- Ocelli absent. Front much less than twice width of eye ..... 2 

2 Second segment of arista with distinct lateral process (projection). Second antennal 

segment longer than third. Ocellar tubercle more or less depressed. Large 
species (10-18 mm.) NEOBRACHYCERAEA 

- Second segment of arista without process. Second antennal segment slightly shorter 

than third, which is relatively wide. Ocellar tubercle not depressed. Small 
species (5-8 mm.) MICROBRACHYCERAEA 



434 s - CAMRAS 

Conops vesicularis Linne 

Conops Pornatus Big. ; Brunetti, 1927 : 306. 

Malaya : Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, 1 $, ex coll. Dept. Agric, B.M. (Nat. Hist.). 

This represents a marked extension of range, as this common European species 
is otherwise known in Asia only from Siberia and Korea. I hope it is not an 
erroneously labelled specimen. 

Physoconops microvalvus Krober 
Krober, 1930 : 71. 

Malaya : Matang, 1 <$, June, 1900, B.M. (Nat. Hist.). 

Previously known only from Java ; but Conops celebensis may be the same. 
At one time (Camras, i960 : 117) I referred this species to the genus Siniconops, 
but I am not sure that this is correct, and am leaving it here for the present. 

Physocephala fumosa Camras 

Camras, 1957b : 115. 

Java : Buitenzorg, 1 ex. (abd. missing) (F. Muir), Bishop Mus. 

S. Moluccas : Amboina, 4 <£, 4 $, ii.oi (F. Muir), Bishop Mus. 

Previously known only from the type male from Ambon [= Amboina]. 

All of these specimens have the scutellum rufous or brown, and the postnotum is 
partly brown in some specimens. The female theca is somewhat prominent and is 
similar to that of bipartita. 

Zodiomyia sumbaensis Camras 

Camras, 1957a : 163. 

N.E. India: Narendranagar, 3,000 ft, 1 $, 7.XL1944 (T. Jermyn), B.M. (Nat. 
Hist.). 

This is a remarkable extension of range. The species (and genus) was previously 
known only from the unique female type from Sumba Island, Lesser Sunda Islands. 

REFERENCES 
Brunetti, E. 1923. Fauna of British India. Diptera, 3. Conopidae : 340-383. 
1925. Some notes on Indian Syrphidae, Conopidae, and Oestridae. Rec. Indian Mus. 

27 : 75-79. 
1927. Notes on Malayan Diptera, with descriptions of new species. /. fed. Malay St. Mus. 

13 (4) : 281-309. 
Camras, S. 1957a. On some Conopidae (Dipt.) from Flores and Sumba. Verh. naturf. Ges. 

Basel 68 : 160-164. 

I957&- O n some Conopidae from the East Indies (Diptera). Treubia 24: 107-117. 

i960. Flies of the family Conopidae from Eastern Asia. Proc. U.S. natn. Mus. 112 : 

107-131. 
Krober, O. 1930. Die Dipterenausbeute der Sunda— Expedition Rensch. Beitrag II : 

Therevidae und Conopidae. Zool. Anz. 89 : 65-73. 
1934- Schwedisch-chinesische wiss. Exp. nordwestl. Prov. Chinas, 1927-30. 14. 

Diptera. 6. Tabaniden, Thereviden, Conopiden. Ark. Zool. 26a (8) : 18 pp., 13 figs. 
1940. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Conopiden. VI. V. Die Conopiden der orientalischen 

Fauna. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (11) 5:203-245. 



DIPTERA FROM NEPAL 



HELEOMYZIDAE 
By J. C. DEEMING 

SYNOPSIS 

One species of Heleomyzidae was taken on J. Tyson's Expedition to West Nepal in 1953. 
This species, Suillia nigripes Czerny, hitherto little known and recorded only from China, is 
here redescribed and recorded from Sikkim and Nepal. No Heleomyzidae were taken during 
the British Museum Expedition to East Nepal in 1961-62. A new species from Darjeeling is 
described here for convenience and related species are discussed. 

Suillia nigripes Czerny 
(Text-figs. 1-4) 
Suillia nigripes Czerny, 1932 : 28. 

This species was described from a single <$ in poor condition collected at Sze-Tschuan, 
Ta-tsein-lu, China, at the extreme eastern margin of the Himalayas. As Czerny's 
type was in such poor condition as to render a complete description impossible, 
the species is redescribed from both sexes from material in the British Museum 
(Natural History) from Nepal and Sikkim. This is the only species of Suillia R.-D. 
known to me that has spurs on both fore and hind basitarsi in the male. 

6*. A rusty brown, heavily dusted species, with hyaline wings clouded on cros